Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 154
Filter
1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(4)2024 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580377

ABSTRACT

Three months after the first shipment of RTS,S1/AS01 vaccines, Cameroon started, on 22 January 2024, to roll out malaria vaccines in 42 districts among the most at risk for malaria. Cameroon adopted and implemented the World Health Organization (WHO) malaria vaccine readiness assessment tool to monitor the implementation of preintroduction activities at the district and national levels. One week before the start of the vaccine rollout, overall readiness was estimated at 89% at a national level with two out of the five components of readiness assessment surpassing 95% of performance (vaccine, cold chain and logistics and training) and three components between 80% and 95% (planning, monitoring and supervision, and advocacy, social mobilisation and communication). 'Vaccine, cold chain and logistics' was the component with the highest number of districts recording below 80% readiness. The South-West and North-West, two regions with a high level of insecurity, were the regions with the highest number of districts that recorded a readiness performance below 80% in the five components. To monitor progress in vaccine rollout daily, Cameroon piloted a system for capturing immunisation data by vaccination session coupled with an interactive dashboard using the R Shiny platform. In addition to displaying data on vaccine uptake, this dashboard allows the generation of the monthly immunisation report for all antigens, ensuring linkage to the regular immunisation data system based on the end-of-month reporting through District Health Information Software 2. Such a hybrid system complies with the malaria vaccine rollout principle of full integration into routine immunisation coupled with strengthened management of operations.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines , Malaria , Humans , Cameroon , Malaria/prevention & control , Vaccination , Immunization
3.
Malar J ; 23(1): 105, 2024 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a significant global health burden affecting millions of people, children under 5 years and pregnant women being most vulnerable. In 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed the introduction of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine as Phase IV implementation evaluation in three countries: Malawi, Kenya and Ghana. Acceptability and factors influencing vaccination coverage in implementing areas is relatively unknown. In Malawi, only 60% of children were fully immunized with malaria vaccine in Nsanje district in 2021, which is below 80% WHO target. This study aimed at exploring factors influencing uptake of malaria vaccine and identify approaches to increase vaccination. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study conducted in April-May, 2023, 410 mothers/caregivers with children aged 24-36 months were selected by stratified random sampling and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Vaccination data was collected from health passports, for those without health passports, data was collected using recall history. Regression analyses were used to test association between independent variables and full uptake of malaria vaccine. RESULTS: Uptake of malaria vaccine was 90.5% for dose 1, but reduced to 87.6%, 69.5% and 41.2% for dose 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Children of caregivers with secondary or upper education and those who attended antenatal clinic four times or more had increased odds of full uptake of malaria vaccine [OR: 2.43, 95%CI 1.08-6.51 and OR: 1.89, 95%CI 1.18-3.02], respectively. Children who ever suffered side-effects following immunization and those who travelled long distances to reach the vaccination centre had reduced odds of full uptake of malaria vaccine [OR: 0.35, 95%CI 0.06-0.25 and OR: 0.30, 95%CI 0.03-0.39] respectively. Only 17% (n = 65) of mothers/caregivers knew the correct schedule for vaccination and 38.5% (n = 158) knew the correct number of doses a child was to receive. CONCLUSION: Only RTS,S dose 1 and 2 uptake met WHO coverage targets. Mothers/caregivers had low level of information regarding malaria vaccine, especially on numbers of doses to be received and dosing schedule. The primary modifiable factor influencing vaccine uptake was mother/caregiver knowledge about the vaccine. Thus, to increase the uptake Nsanje District Health Directorate should strengthen communities' education about malaria vaccine. Programmes to strengthen mother/caregiver knowledge should be included in scale-up of the vaccine in Malawi and across sub-Saharan Africa.

4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 12(4): e672-e684, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malaria accounts for over half a million child deaths annually. WHO recommends RTS,S/AS01 to prevent malaria in children living in moderate-to-high malaria transmission regions. We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study to investigate the contextual and dynamic factors shaping vaccine delivery and uptake during a pilot introduction in western Kenya. METHODS: The study was conducted between Oct 3, 2019, and Mar 24, 2022. We conducted participant and non-participant observations and in-depth interviews with health-care providers, health managers, and national policymakers at three timepoints using an iterative approach and observations of practices and processes of malaria vaccine delivery. Transcripts were coded by content analysis using the consolidated framework for implementation research, to which emerging themes were added deductively and categorised into challenges and opportunities. FINDINGS: We conducted 112 in-depth interviews with 60 participants (25 health-care providers, 27 managers, and eight policy makers). Health-care providers highlighted limitations in RTS,S/AS01 integration into routine immunisation services due to the concurrent pilot evaluation and temporary adaptations for health reporting. Initial challenges related to the complexity of the four-dose schedule (up to 24-months); however, self-efficacy increased over time as the health-care providers gained experience in vaccine delivery. Low uptake of the fourth dose remained a challenge. Health managers cited insufficient trained immunisation staff and inadequate funding for supervision. Confidence in the vaccine increased among all participant groups owing to reductions in malaria frequency and severity. INTERPRETATION: Integration of RTS,S/AS01 into immunisation services in western Kenya presented substantial operational challenges most of which were overcome in the first 2 years, providing important lessons for other countries. Programme expansion is feasible with intensive staff training and retention, enhanced supervision, and defaulter-tracing to ensure uptake of all doses. FUNDING: PATH via World Health Organization; Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; The Global Fund; and Unitaid.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Child , Humans , Infant , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Kenya , Longitudinal Studies , Malaria/prevention & control , Vaccination
6.
Malar J ; 23(1): 16, 2024 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216923

ABSTRACT

Malaria affects millions of lives annually, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Despite being largely preventable, 2021 witnessed 247 million infections and over 600,000 deaths across 85 countries. In the ongoing battle against malaria, a promising development has emerged with the endorsement by the World Health Organization (WHO) of the R21/Matrix-M™ Malaria Vaccine. Developed through a collaboration between the University of Oxford and Novavax, this vaccine has demonstrated remarkable efficacy, reaching 77% effectiveness in Phase 2 clinical trials. It is designed to be low-dose, cost-effective, and accessible, with approval for use in children under three years old. This perspective paper critically examines the R21/Matrix-M malaria vaccine, its development, potential impact on global malaria eradication efforts, and the challenges and opportunities it presents.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines , Malaria , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Malaria Vaccines/therapeutic use , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/drug therapy
8.
Science ; 382(6666): 16-17, 2023 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37797033

ABSTRACT

New shots could make malaria protection more plentiful, saving tens of thousands of lives.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Falciparum , Humans , Malaria Vaccines/therapeutic use , World Health Organization , Child , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara
10.
Lancet ; 402(10410): 1316, 2023 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37839415
11.
Malar J ; 22(1): 287, 2023 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37759277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization approved the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine for wider rollout, and Kenya participated in a phased pilot implementation from 2019 to understand its impact under routine conditions. Vaccine delivery requires coverage measures at national and sub-national levels to evaluate progress over time. This study aimed to estimate the coverage of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine during the first 36 months of the Kenyan pilot implementation. METHODS: Monthly dose-specific immunization data for 23 sub-counties were obtained from routine health information systems at the facility level for 2019-2022. Coverage of each RTS,S/AS01 dose was determined using reported doses as a numerator and service-based (Penta 1 and Measles) or population (projected infant populations from WorldPop) as denominators. Descriptive statistics of vaccine delivery, dropout rates and coverage estimates were computed across the 36-month implementation period. RESULTS: Over 36 months, 818,648 RTSS/AS01 doses were administered. Facilities managed by the Ministry of Health and faith-based organizations accounted for over 88% of all vaccines delivered. Overall, service-based malaria vaccine coverage was 96%, 87%, 78%, and 39% for doses 1-4 respectively. Using a population-derived denominator for age-eligible children, vaccine coverage was 78%, 68%, 57%, and 24% for doses 1-4, respectively. Of the children that received measles dose 1 vaccines delivered at 9 months (coverage: 95%), 82% received RTSS/AS01 dose 3, only 66% of children who received measles dose 2 at 18 months (coverage: 59%) also received dose 4. CONCLUSION: The implementation programme successfully maintained high levels of coverage for the first three doses of RTSS/AS01 among children defined as EPI service users up to 9 months of age but had much lower coverage within the community with up to 1 in 5 children not receiving the vaccine. Consistent with vaccines delivered over the age of 1 year, coverage of the fourth malaria dose was low. Vaccine uptake, service access and dropout rates for malaria vaccines require constant monitoring and intervention to ensure maximum protection is conferred.


Subject(s)
Health Information Systems , Malaria Vaccines , Measles , Child , Infant , Humans , Kenya , Biological Transport
12.
Malar J ; 22(1): 242, 2023 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37612716

ABSTRACT

A workshop on implementation strategies for the introduction of the RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S) malaria vaccine in countries with areas of highly seasonal transmission, was held as a hybrid meeting in Dakar, Senegal, and online, 23-25 January 2023. Delegates from Expanded Programmes on Immunization (EPI) and National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) from 13 African countries, and representatives from key stakeholders participated. RTS,S is the first malaria vaccine to be recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The recommendation followed pilot implementation of the vaccine in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi, which showed that introduction of the vaccine was highly effective at scale, and was associated with a 30% reduction in hospital admissions with severe malaria in age groups eligible to have received the vaccine and no evidence of the safety signals that had been observed in the phase 3 trial. Clinical trials in Mali and Burkina Faso, showed that in children receiving Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC), providing the vaccine just prior to high transmission seasons, matching the period of highest efficacy to the peak transmission season, resulted in substantial reduction in the incidence of clinical malaria and of severe malaria. While SMC has been successfully scaled-up despite the challenges of delivery, there is no established platform for seasonal vaccine delivery and no real-world experience. The objectives of this workshop were, therefore, to share experiences from countries that have introduced the RTS,S vaccine in routine child vaccination programmes, with SMC-implementing countries as they consider malaria vaccine introduction, and to explore implementation strategies in countries with seasonal transmission and where EPI coverage may be low especially in the second year of life. Practical implementation challenges, lessons learned for vaccine introduction, and research questions, towards facilitating the introduction of the RTS,S (and other malaria vaccines) in countries with seasonal malaria transmission were discussed.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines , Child , Humans , Burkina Faso , Seasons , Senegal , Vaccination
13.
Med Trop Sante Int ; 3(2)2023 06 30.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37525687

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against malaria is an old dream that reemerged in 2015 with the European Medicines Agency's favourable opinion on a first antimalarial vaccine, RTS,S/ AS01. Six years later, the World Health Organization (WHO) is advising a wide deployment of this vaccine in sub-Saharan Africa and in regions with high and moderate transmission where Plasmodium falciparum circulates. This follows favourable results from the pilot programme in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi involving over 800,000 children since 2019. This article addresses the objectives and main vaccine candidates targeting the different stages of parasite development, highlighting the progress and limitations of these different approaches. The RTS,S saga has been a milestone in vaccine development, with a first-generation vaccine recommended by the WHO for use in children over 5 months of age in sub-Saharan Africa and other areas of moderate to high transmission of P. falciparum malaria, in combination with other prevention measures. Research efforts continue to better understand the correlates of protection. With advances in vaccine platforms, new multi-antigen, multi-stage, and even multi-species approaches might emerge and brighten the horizon for malaria control.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Child , Humans , Malaria Vaccines/therapeutic use , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods , Kenya/epidemiology
14.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 11(6): e899, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37382251

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In malaria-stricken regions, malaria continues to be one of the primary causes of mortality for children. The number of malaria-related fatalities has drastically decreased because of artemisinin-based pharmacological regimens. METHODS: Two independent researchers did a comprehensive literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar from its inception to September 2022. RESULTS: After evaluating RTS, S/AS01 for its safety, effectiveness, and feasibility, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) issued a favorable conclusion. It was suggested that the RTS, S malaria vaccine be used extensively by the World Health Organization on October 6, 2021. The successful pilot program testing the malaria vaccine in Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi served as the basis for this proposal. CONCLUSION: Several challenges need to be addressed to ensure the success of vaccination programs. From the acceptability perspective, issues such as inadequate community engagement, concerns about side effects, and issues with the delivery and quality of healthcare services can affect the acceptance of the vaccine. From the feasibility standpoint, factors such as lack of transportation or long distances to healthcare facilities and the perception of completion of the vaccination calendar can affect the feasibility of the vaccine. Lastly, the availability of the vaccine is also a major concern as it may not be readily available to meet the demands.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Malaria Vaccines , Child , Humans , Malaria Vaccines/therapeutic use , Feasibility Studies , Ghana , Kenya
15.
Trop Med Health ; 51(1): 29, 2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37198702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world has made great strides towards beating malaria, although about half of the world population is still exposed to the risk of contracting malaria. Developing an effective malaria vaccine was a huge challenge for medical science. In 2021 the World Health Organization (WHO) approved the first malaria vaccine, RTS,S/AS01 vaccine (Mosquirix™), for widespread use. This review highlights the history of development, and the different approaches and types of malaria vaccines, and the literature to date. It covers the developmental stages of RTS,S/AS01 and recommends steps for its deployment. The review explores other potential vaccine candidates and their status, and suggests options for their further development. It also recommends future roles for vaccines in eradicating malaria. Questions remain on how RTS,S vaccine will work in widespread use and how it can best be utilized to benefit vulnerable communities. CONCLUSION: Malaria vaccines have been in development for almost 60 years. The RTS,S/AS01 vaccine has now been approved, but cannot be a stand-alone solution. Development should continue on promising candidates such as R21, PfSPZ and P. vivax vaccines. Multi-component vaccines may be a useful addition to other malaria control techniques in achieving eradication of malaria.

16.
Immunogenetics ; 75(3): 207-214, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37084013

ABSTRACT

In modern medicine, vaccination is one of the most effective public health strategies to prevent infectious diseases. Indisputably, vaccines have saved millions of lives by reducing the burden of many serious infections such as polio, tuberculosis, measles, pneumonia, and tetanus. Despite the recent recommendation by the World Health Organization (WHO) to roll out RTS,S/AS01, this malaria vaccine still faces major challenges of variability in its efficacy partly due to high genetic variation in humans and malaria parasites. Immune responses to malaria vary between individuals and populations. Human genetic variation in immune system genes is the probable cause for this heterogeneity. In this review, we will focus on human genetic factors that determine variable responses to vaccination and how variation in immune system genes affect the immunogenicity and efficacy of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Humans , Infant , Africa , Genetic Variation
17.
Vaccine ; 41(20): 3215-3223, 2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37080831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has recommended a 4-dose schedule of the RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S) vaccine for children in regions of moderate to high P. falciparum transmission. Faced with limited supply and finite resources, global funders and domestic malaria control programs will need to examine the relative cost-effectiveness of RTS,S and identify target areas for vaccine implementation relative to scale-up of existing interventions. METHODS: Using an individual-based mathematical model of P. falciparum, we modelled the cost-effectiveness of RTS,S across a range of settings in sub-Saharan Africa, incorporating various rainfall patterns, insecticide-treated net (ITN) use, treatment coverage, and parasite prevalence bands. We compare age-based and seasonal RTS,S administration to increasing ITN usage, switching to next generation ITNs in settings experiencing insecticide-resistance, and introduction of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in areas of seasonal transmission. RESULTS: For RTS,S to be the most cost-effective intervention option considered, the maximum cost per dose was less than $9.30 USD in 90.9% of scenarios. Nearly all (89.8%) values at or above $9.30 USD per dose were in settings with 60% established bed net use and / or with established SMC, and 76.3% were in the highest PfPR2-10 band modelled (40%). Addition of RTS,S to strategies involving 60% ITN use, increased ITN usage or a switch to PBO nets, and SMC, if eligible, still led to significant marginal case reductions, with a median of 2,653 (IQR: 1,741 to 3,966) cases averted per 100,000 people annually, and 82,270 (IQR: 54,034 to 123,105) cases averted per 100,000 fully vaccinated children (receiving at least three doses). CONCLUSIONS: Use of RTS,S results in reductions in malaria cases and deaths even when layered upon existing interventions. When comparing relative cost-effectiveness, scale up of ITNs, introduction of SMC, and switching to new technology nets should be prioritized in eligible settings.


Subject(s)
Insecticides , Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Child , Humans , Infant , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Chemoprevention
18.
Vaccine ; 41(8): 1503-1512, 2023 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Malaria contributes to an enormous global burden of disease and mortality, especially in children. Approximately one in every four global cases and deaths from malaria occurs in Nigeria. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of community hesitancy to the malaria vaccine, including the reasons for the hesitancy, following the approval of the RTS,S malaria vaccine by the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODS: This was a nationwide cross-sectional online survey of Nigerian adults conducted from 20th October to 30th November 2021. Participants who replied 'no' or 'maybe' to a question assessing their willingness to accept the RTS,S malaria vaccine were considered "hesitant". We fit a multivariate logistic regression model to report the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for the factors associated with vaccine hesitancy. FINDINGS: Among 3377 total respondents (1961 [57.86 %] males; mean age [SD]: 30[9.1]), 1010 (29.91 %) were hesitant. Receiving information about the RTS,S malaria vaccine initially from healthcare workers (vs. the internet) (aOR:0.55; 95 % CI:0.35-0.87) was significantly associated with lower odds of hesitancy. Conversely, earning a high income of over NGN100, 000 (vs. < NGN 30,000) per month (aOR: 2.10, 95 % CI: 1.36-3.24), belonging to other religious groups (vs. Islam) (aOR:3.25, 95 % CI:1.18-8.98), and having a family size of more than ten (vs. < 5) (aOR:1.84; 95 % CI:1.08-3.13) were significantly associated with a higher odds of hesitancy. The main reasons for vaccine hesitancy included fear of vaccine adverse effects (34.95 %), availability of other malaria preventive measures (33.96 %) and not seeing the positive effect of the vaccine in others first (32.97 %). CONCLUSION: The findings of this survey provide a valuable blueprint for the development of targeted interventions to facilitate caregiver acceptance of the RTS,S vaccine.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines , Malaria , Adult , Male , Humans , Child , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Caregivers , Nigeria/epidemiology , Prevalence , Vaccination Hesitancy , Malaria/prevention & control , Vaccination
19.
Pathogens ; 12(2)2023 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36839519

ABSTRACT

Malaria is a parasitic infection that is a great public health concern and is responsible for high mortality rates worldwide. Different strategies have been employed to improve disease control, demonstrating the ineffectiveness of controlling vectors, and parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs requires the development of an effective preventive vaccine. There are countless challenges to the development of such a vaccine directly related to the parasite's complex life cycle. After more than four decades of basic research and clinical trials, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum (RTS, S) malaria vaccine for widespread use among children living in malaria-endemic areas. However, there is a consensus that major improvements are needed to develop a vaccine with a greater epidemiological impact in endemic areas. This review discusses novel strategies for malaria vaccine design taking the target stages within the parasite cycle into account. The design of the multi-component vaccine shows considerable potential, especially as it involves transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) that eliminate the parasite's replication towards sporozoite stage parasites during a blood meal of female anopheline mosquitoes. Significant improvements have been made but additional efforts to achieve an efficient vaccine are required to improve control measures. Different strategies have been employed, thus demonstrating the ineffectiveness in controlling vectors, and parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs requires the development of a preventive vaccine. Despite having a vaccine in an advanced stage of development, such as the RTS, S malaria vaccine, the search for an effective vaccine against malaria is far from over. This review discusses novel strategies for malaria vaccine design taking into account the target stages within the parasite's life cycle.

20.
Med Sci Monit ; 29: e939357, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587274

ABSTRACT

There is hope that 2023 could bring regulatory approval, licensing, and implementation programs for safe and effective adjuvanted vaccines to prevent malaria. Clinical trials involving the two leading adjuvanted malaria vaccines directed to the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) are ongoing. These vaccines are RTS,S/ASO1 (Mosquirix®) and R21/Matrix-M™ (R21/MM). This year, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated its strategy to eradicate malaria by 2030. The hope is that major advances in global health security from effective malarial vaccines could reduce morbidity and save the lives of millions of people living in malaria-endemic countries to achieve the goals recommended by the WHO. This Editorial aims to give an update on recent findings from key clinical trials on the safety and efficacy of RTS,S/ASO1 and R21/MM malaria vaccines and to provide an insight into the importance of key ongoing clinical trials that will report in early 2023.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Humans , Malaria Vaccines/therapeutic use , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria/prevention & control , Protozoan Proteins , World Health Organization
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...