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Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166285, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624499


During pregnancy, a series of physiological changes are determined at the molecular, cellular and macroscopic level that make the mother and fetus more susceptible to certain viral and bacterial infections, especially the infections in this and the companion review. Particular situations increase susceptibility to infection in neonates. The enhanced susceptibility to certain infections increases the risk of developing particular diseases that can progress to become morbidly severe. For example, during the current pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, epidemiological studies have established that pregnant women with COVID-19 disease are more likely to be hospitalized. However, the risk for intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation is not increased compared with nonpregnant women. Although much remains unknown with this particular infection, the elevated risk of progression during pregnancy towards more severe manifestations of COVID-19 disease is not associated with an increased risk of death. In addition, the epidemiological data available in neonates suggest that their risk of acquiring COVID-19 is low compared with infants (<12 months of age). However, they might be at higher risk for progression to severe COVID-19 disease compared with older children. The data on clinical presentation and disease severity among neonates are limited and based on case reports and small case series. It is well documented the importance of the Zika virus infection as the main cause of several congenital anomalies and birth defects such as microcephaly, and also adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mycoplasma infections also increase adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review will focus on the molecular, pathophysiological and biophysical characteristics of the mother/placental-fetal/neonatal interactions and the possible mechanisms of these pathogens (SARS-CoV-2, ZIKV, and Mycoplasmas) for promoting disease at this level.

COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/transmission , Mycoplasma Infections/etiology , Mycoplasma Infections/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus Infection/etiology , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Biomarkers , Breast Feeding/adverse effects , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Mycoplasma , Placenta/immunology , Placenta/metabolism , Placenta/microbiology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Zika Virus
Acta Med Port ; 34(7-8): 507-516, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851815


INTRODUCTION: Due to growing evidence suggesting COVID-19 may have a benign course in the newborn, a number of guidelines supporting rooming-in and breastfeeding were developed. The main aim of the study was to assess the safety of this approach, through the risk of developing severe neonatal infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observational study from April 2020 to February 2021 on the approach and neonatal follow-up of infants born to mothers with COVID-19 at the time of delivery in a hospital with advanced neonatal care, where rooming in and breastfeeding were promoted whenever possible. We collected data during hospital admission and over the phone during the neonatal period. RESULTS: We included 77 infants born to mothers with COVID-19 (3.8% of newborns born during the time of study), median gestational age 39 weeks + 5 days and median birth weight 3270 g; 9% were born premature (versus 12% born premature among newborns born during the time of study). Rooming-in took place in all of them although 4% were briefly admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit; 88% were discharged home up to day three, 97% were breastfed at the time of discharge and 90% were still breastfed by the end of the neonatal period. We completed neonatal follow-up of 63 newborns, eight of them developed COVID-associated symptoms, three with need of medical evaluation; 40% had no medical assessment after being discharged. Out of 77, 5% of infants were infected with SARS-CoV-2 (total of four, one mild, three asymptomatic), with no significant differences during hospital stay or follow-up. DISCUSSION: Neonatal infection was uncommon and mild, and there was no increase in prematurity. Rooming-in and breastfeeding were safe and should be promoted whenever clinically possible. Follow-up care after hospital discharge needs improvement. CONCLUSION: Infants born to mothers with COVID-19 were safely roomed in with their mothers and exclusively breastfed.

PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965269


Dietary adequacy and diversity during the lactation period are necessary to ensure good health and nutrition among women and children. Behavioral interventions pertaining to health and nutrition counselling during pregnancy and lactation are critical for awareness about dietary diversity. The issue assumes salience for marginalized communities because of the Covid-19 pandemic and associated economic and societal disruptions. This paper assesses the dietary patterns among 400 lactating mothers in the tribal-dominated district of Palghar in Maharashtra, India in 2020. The study is based on primary data regarding consumption of 10 food groups among women across 10 food groups based on 24-hour recall period. The primary outcome variable was binary information regarding Minimum Dietary Diversity defined as consumption from at least 5 food groups. Econometric analysis based on multilevel models and item-response theory is applied to identify food groups that were most difficult to be received by mothers during the early and late lactation period. We find that the daily diet of lactating mothers in Palghar primarily consists of grains, white roots, tubers, and pulses. In contrast, the intake of dairy, eggs, and non-vegetarian food items is much lower. Only Half of the lactating women (56.5 percent; 95% CI: 37.4; 73.8) have a minimum diversified diet (MDD). The prevalence of lactating women with MDD was higher among households with higher income (73.1 percent; 95% CI: 45.2; 89.9) than those in lower income group (50.7 percent; 95% CI: 42.3; 58.9). Lactating Women (in early phase) who received health and nutrition counseling services are more likely (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 0.90; 6.26) to consume a diversified diet. Food groups such as fruits, meat, poultry, fish, nuts, and seeds were among the rare food items in daily diet. The dietary pattern lacking in fruits, nuts, and heme (iron) sources indicates more significant risks of micronutrient deficiencies. The findings call for improving dietary diversity among lactating mothers, particularly from the marginalized communities, and are driven by low consumption of dairy products or various fruits and vegetables. Among the different food items, the consumption of micronutrient-rich seeds and nuts is most difficult to be accessed by lactating mothers. Also, diet-centric counseling and informing lactating mothers of its benefits are necessary to increase dietary diversity for improving maternal and child nutrition.

Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/methods , Lactation/physiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dairy Products , Female , Fruit , Humans , Income , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Vegetables , Young Adult
Gac Sanit ; 35 Suppl 2: S524-S529, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929891


OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 has spread beyond the world and makes a new challenge in the breastfeeding issue. There is some disagreement among breastfeeding management in confirmed COVID-19 patients China consensus but no evidence shows the transmission via breastfeeding. This paper aims to know the risk of transmission through breastfeeding in COVID-19 patients and antibodies in breast milk. METHOD: We conducted a literature review of publicly available information to summarize knowledge about risk transmission through breastfeeding and antibody in mother confirmed COVID-19. RESULT: A maternal woman was positive for COVID-19 in throat swabs show negative SARS-CoV-2 in breast milk. No evidence suggests the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to baby via vertical route or breast milk. IgG and IgA were detected in breast milk and potentially against SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: Mother with COVID-19 can continuing direct breastfeeding with appropriate hygiene precautions (using a mask and wash hand) and should remain separate (home isolation precautions) from other family members including the infant, except for breastfeeding.

COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 260, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930273


BACKGROUND: Because breastfeeding offers short- and long- term health benefits to mothers and children, breastfeeding promotion and support is a public health priority. Evidence shows that SARS-CoV-2 is not likely to be transmitted via breastmilk. Moreover, antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are thought to be contained in breastmilk of mothers with history of COVID-19 infection or vaccination. WHO recommends direct breastfeeding as the preferred infant feeding option during the COVID-19 pandemic, even among women with COVID-19; but conflicting practices have been adopted, which could widen existing inequities in breastfeeding. This study aims to describe how information about breastfeeding was communicated in Mexican media during the pandemic and assess Mexican adults' beliefs regarding breastfeeding among mothers infected with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective content analysis of media coverage on breastfeeding in Mexico between March 1 and September 24, 2020, excluding advertisements. For the content analysis, we performed both a sentiment analysis and an analysis based on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) for breastfeeding promotion. Additionally, we conducted a descriptive analysis of nationally representative data on adults' beliefs about breastfeeding from the July 2020 round of the ENCOVID-19 survey in Mexico and stratified the results by gender, age, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: A total of 1014 publications on breastfeeding were identified on the internet and television and in newspapers and magazines. Most information was published during World Breastfeeding Week, celebrated in August. The sentiment analysis showed that 57.2% of all information was classified as positive. The SWOT analysis indicated that most information focused on current actions, messages, policies, or programs that enable breastfeeding (i.e., strengths) or those not currently in place but that may enable breastfeeding (i.e., opportunities) for breastfeeding promotion. However, ENCOVID-19 survey results showed that 67.3% of adults living in households with children under 3 years of age believe that mothers with COVID-19 should not breastfeed, and 19.8% do not know whether these mothers should breastfeed. These beliefs showed differences both by gender and by socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: While the Mexican government endorsed the recommendation on breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic, communication was sporadic, inconstant and unequal across types of media. There was a widespread notion that mothers with COVID-19 should not breastfeed and due to differences on beliefs by socioeconomic status, health inequities could be exacerbated by increasing the risk of poorer breastfeeding practices and preventing vulnerable groups from reaping the short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Breast Feeding , Child , Child, Preschool , Communication , Female , Humans , Infant , Mexico , Mothers , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Multimedia | Multimedia Resources | ID: multimedia-9332


Diante da necessidade de aumentar as taxas de aleitamento materno no Brasil e ampliar a discussão sobre os benefícios dessa prática para a saúde da mulher, da criança e da família - e os ganhos sociais e econômicos para o país - o Ministério da Saúde promove, anualmente, entre os dias 1º a 7 de agosto, a Semana Mundial da Amamentação (SMAM).

Breast Feeding , COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Maternal and Child Health , Diet, Healthy , Masks , Hand Hygiene
Question and answer in Portuguese | SOF - Formative Second Opinion | ID: sof-44418


Sempre que possível manter a amamentação da mãe suspeita ou com diagnóstico de COVID- 19 se a mulher estiver em bom estado geral e se quiser amamentar. É importante respeitar o estado de saúde e o sentimento da mãe. No caso da mesma não estar bem podemos propor extrair/retirar o seu leite e oferecer ao seu filho em copinho, xícara ou colher. Em caso da opção pela extração/retirada do leite, devem ser observadas as orientações disponíveis na “Cartilha para a mulher trabalhadora que amamenta”, documento produzido pelo Ministério da Saúde e seguir rigorosamente as recomendações para limpeza das bombas de extração de leite após cada uso.

Quanto aos cuidados higiênicos sugere se algumas recomendações, como:

• Usar máscara facial (cobrindo completamente nariz e boca) durante as mamadas e evitar falar ou tossir durante a amamentação;

• A máscara deve ser imediatamente trocada em caso de tosse ou espirro ou a cada nova mamada;

• Lavar com frequência as mãos com água e sabão por pelo menos 20 segundos, antes de tocar o bebê ou antes de retirar o leite materno (extração manual ou na bomba extratora). Se não for possível, higienize as mãos com álcool em gel 70%;

• Se for preciso cozinhar, use máscara de proteção, cobrindo boca e nariz todo o tempo.

Deve se orientar e estimular a rede de apoio para a mãe com Covid continuar a amamentação. As evidências são predominantemente de apoio a amamentação. O que se preconiza é que a mãe necessita lavar as mãos antes e após o aleitamento e usar mascara durante a amamentação.

Breast Feeding , COVID-19
Int Breastfeed J ; 16(1): 83, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663389


BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that children who had been breastfed remain better protected against various infections, and notably respiratory tract infections, well beyond infancy. Since the role of breastfeeding to explain why children are less affected by COVID-19 has not been studied until now, the aim of this study was to determine whether any history of breastfeeding reduces the incidence rate of COVID-19 in children. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of an observational study on clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric COVID-19 in Majorca. A total of 691 children were recruited during the 5 months of August-December 2020. Eligible participants were children under 14 who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric emergency services. The independent explanatory variable was any breastfeeding. Bivariate analyses were conducted through the Chi-square test, the Fisher's Exact test or the Student's T test. All children had the same demographic, epidemiological and clinical data collected through a study team member interview and via the participants medical records. RESULTS: Within the sample of children who visited emergency services with symptoms of potential COVID-19, we found higher prevalence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results among those who were exclusively formula fed compared with those who were ever breastfed (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.45, 3.51; P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that ever breastfeeding reduces the risk of COVID-19 among children, as documented for other infections.

Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 37(6): 547-556, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634003


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breastfeeding provides passive immunity while the neonatal immune system matures, and may also protect against chronic immune-mediated conditions long after weaning. This review summarizes current knowledge and new discoveries about human milk and mucosal immunity. RECENT FINDINGS: New data suggest that certain microbes in maternal milk may seed and shape the infant gut microbiota, which play a key role in regulating gut barrier integrity and training the developing immune system. Human milk oligosaccharides, best known for their prebiotic functions, have now been shown to directly modulate gene expression in mast and goblet cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiologic data show a reduced risk of peanut sensitization among infants breastfed by peanut-consuming mothers, suggesting a role for milk-borne food antigens in tolerance development. Cross-fostering experiments in mice suggest the soluble Toll-like receptor 2, found in human milk, may be critical in this process. Finally, interest in human milk antibodies surged during the pandemic with the identification of neutralizing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies in maternal milk following both natural infection and vaccination. SUMMARY: Human milk provides critical immune protection and stimulation to breastfed infants. Understanding the underlying mechanisms could identify new therapeutic targets and strategies for disease prevention across the lifespan.

COVID-19 , Milk, Human , Animals , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , Immunity, Mucosal , Infant , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 118-129, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669283


INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding has a protective effect against acute respiratory and diarrheal infections. There are psychological and social effects due to physical isolation in the population in the mother-child group. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on infant mortality due to a decrease in the prevalence of breastfeeding during 2020 due to the physical isolation against the SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the population attributable risk approach taking into account the prevalence of breastfeeding and its potential decrease associated with the measures of physical isolation and the relative risk (RR) of the association between exclusive breastfeeding and the occurrence of acute infection consequences in the growth (weight for height) of children under the age of five through a mathematical modeling program. RESULTS: We found an increase of 11.39% in the number of cases of growth arrest in the age group of 6 to 11 months with a 50% decrease in breastfeeding prevalence, as well as an increase in the number of diarrhea cases in children between 1 and 5 months of age from 5% (5.67%) on, and an increased number of deaths in children under 5 years (9.04%) with a 50% decrease in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: A lower prevalence of breastfeeding has an impact on infant morbidity and mortality in the short and medium-term. As a public health policy, current maternal and childcare strategies must be kept in order to reduce risks in the pediatric population.

Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Child Mortality , Child, Preschool , Colombia/epidemiology , Diarrhea, Infantile/epidemiology , Female , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Models, Theoretical , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 80(10 Suppl 2): 25-29, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704065


Increasing exclusive breastfeeding rates is an established public health strategy to reduce chronic disease and protect infants from illness. The role of breastfeeding in addressing health disparities takes on new significance as the COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted some communities in Hawai'i, and those with chronic conditions face increased risk of hospitalization and death. However, there are myriad policy, systemic, and environmental barriers that make it difficult for parents to breastfeed, some of which have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This editorial discusses the importance of breastfeeding in reducing chronic disease, reviews the status of breastfeeding in Hawai'i, explores the challenges parents face in breastfeeding their infants, especially in the time of COVID-19, and presents opportunities for improved access to lactation care to reduce health disparities.

Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Female , Hawaii/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682652


Breastfeeding is the best form of feeding for premature infants. However, mothers with premature delivery are frequently reported to be depressed, and this has been especially the case during the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to measure the level of breastfeeding attitude and its association with postpartum depression among mothers with premature infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 248 mothers with a premature infant were observed in this cross-sectional study from the chosen NICUs of government hospitals in Selangor, Malaysia. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score (IIFAS) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, along with sociodemographic questionnaires, were used to obtain information on the mothers' attitudes towards breastfeeding and the risk of postpartum depression. A higher percentage of mothers had a positive attitude towards breastfeeding (64.9%), with a mean IIFAS score of 66.30 ± 6.92. Meanwhile, about 27% of mothers with premature infants were reported to have high risk of depressive symptoms. Mothers with a high risk of depression were less likely to have a positive attitude towards breastfeeding (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.199, 0.675) as compared to mothers with a low risk of depression (p < 0.01). We found that there is an association between the risk of depression and the attitude towards breastfeeding. Early identification of maternal mental health problems should be addressed to ensure the willingness of mothers to continue breastfeeding.

COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Breast Feeding , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Mothers , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6222, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711825


The importance of breastmilk in postnatal life lies in the strong association between breastfeeding and the reduction in the risk of infection and infection-related infant mortality. However, data regarding the induction and dynamics of breastmilk antibodies following administration of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is scarce, as pregnant and lactating women were not included in the initial vaccine clinical trials. Here, we investigate the dynamics of the vaccine-specific antibody response in breastmilk and serum in a prospective cohort of ten lactating women who received two doses of the mRNA vaccine. We show that the antibody response is rapid and highly synchronized between breastmilk and serum, reaching stabilization 14 days after the second dose. The response in breastmilk includes both IgG and IgA with neutralization capacity.

Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , RNA, Messenger/blood , Adult , Animals , Antibody Formation/genetics , Antibody Formation/physiology , Female , Humans , Milk/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696430


Despite the volume of publications dedicated to unraveling the biological characteristics and clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, available data on pregnant patients are limited. In the current review of literature, we present an overview on the developmental course, complications, and adverse effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed in PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central databases up to June 2021. This article collectively presents what has been so far reported on the identified critical aspects, namely complications during pregnancy, delivery challenges, neonatal health care, potential routes of viral transmission, including vertical transmission or breastfeeding, along with the risks involved in the vaccination strategy during pregnancy. Despite the fact that we are still largely navigating uncharted territory, the observed publication explosion in the field is unprecedented. The overwhelming need for data is undoubtable, and this serves as the driver for the plethora of publications witnessed. Nonetheless, the quality of data sourced is variable. In the midst of the frenzy for reporting on SARS-CoV-2 data, monitoring this informational overload is where we should head to next, considering that poor quality research may in fact hamper our attempts to prevail against this unparalleled pandemic outbreak.

COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Breast Feeding , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
Breastfeed Med ; 16(10): 765, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582271
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003744, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582438


BACKGROUND: In South Africa, breastfeeding promotion is a national health priority. Regular perinatal home visits by community health workers (CHWs) have helped promote exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in underresourced settings. Innovative, digital approaches including mobile video content have also shown promise, especially as access to mobile technology increases among CHWs. We measured the effects of an animated, mobile video series, the Philani MObile Video Intervention for Exclusive breastfeeding (MOVIE), delivered by a cadre of CHWs ("mentor mothers"). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a stratified, cluster-randomized controlled trial from November 2018 to March 2020 in Khayelitsha, South Africa. The trial was conducted in collaboration with the Philani Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Trust, a nongovernmental community health organization. We quantified the effect of the MOVIE intervention on EBF at 1 and 5 months (primary outcomes), and on other infant feeding practices and maternal knowledge (secondary outcomes). We randomized 1,502 pregnant women in 84 clusters 1:1 to 2 study arms. Participants' median age was 26 years, 36.9% had completed secondary school, and 18.3% were employed. Mentor mothers in the video intervention arm provided standard-of-care counseling plus the MOVIE intervention; mentor mothers in the control arm provided standard of care only. Within the causal impact evaluation, we nested a mixed-methods performance evaluation measuring mentor mothers' time use and eliciting their subjective experiences through in-depth interviews. At both points of follow-up, we observed no statistically significant differences between the video intervention and the control arm with regard to EBF rates and other infant feeding practices [EBF in the last 24 hours at 1 month: RR 0.93 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.01, P = 0.091); EBF in the last 24 hours at 5 months: RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.04, P = 0.152)]. We observed a small, but significant improvement in maternal knowledge at the 1-month follow-up, but not at the 5-month follow-up. The interpretation of the results from this causal impact evaluation changes when we consider the results of the nested mixed-methods performance evaluation. The mean time spent per home visit was similar across study arms, but the intervention group spent approximately 40% of their visit time viewing videos. The absence of difference in effects on primary and secondary endpoints implies that, for the same time investment, the video intervention was as effective as face-to-face counseling with a mentor mother. The videos were also highly valued by mentor mothers and participants. Study limitations include a high loss to follow-up at 5 months after premature termination of the trial due to the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in mentor mother service demarcations. CONCLUSIONS: This trial measured the effect of a video-based, mobile health (mHealth) intervention, delivered by CHWs during home visits in an underresourced setting. The videos replaced about two-fifths of CHWs' direct engagement time with participants in the intervention arm. The similar outcomes in the 2 study arms thus suggest that the videos were as effective as face-to-face counselling, when CHWs used them to replace a portion of that counselling. Where CHWs are scarce, mHealth video interventions could be a feasible and practical solution, supporting the delivery and scaling of community health promotion services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study and its outcomes were registered at (#NCT03688217) on September 27, 2018.

Audiovisual Aids , Breast Feeding , Community Health Services/methods , Community Health Workers , Counseling , Health Promotion/methods , House Calls , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Maternal-Child Health Services , Mentors , Mothers , Motion Pictures , Organizations , Pandemics , Pregnancy , South Africa , Videotape Recording
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30009, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546015


Information on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnancy and breastfeeding experiences, as well as on perinatal mental health in Switzerland is limited. In Switzerland, there are few national studies and little information. Using an anonymous online survey accessible after the first wave of the outbreak in Switzerland, we have investigated how this pandemic affected pregnant and breastfeeding women. Among women who completed the survey, 69.0% (1050/1518) indicated the first wave of the pandemic affected their personal habits, 61.0% (689/1131) were affected in their work and 40.0% (632/1573) reported impaired relations with healthcare services (different denominators correspond to the number of participants who answered the question). 36.8% (110/299) of women reported an impact of the pandemic on their current pregnancy experience or breastfeeding experience (8.2%, 46/555). Overall, 11.6% (170/1467) of participants who completed the validated screening tests for mental health symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7, Perceived Stress Scale) presented a score compatible with symptoms of major depression, severe anxiety or high perceived stress, which is higher than in the pre-pandemic period according to literature. Risk factors independently associated with impaired mental health were being hospitalized, having symptoms of COVID-19, living with a person with COVID-19 symptoms, having comorbidities, having experienced reduced healthcare services, having restricted usual activities and being a housewife. Protective factors independently associated were a high level of education and living with a partner. Our findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic might have significantly affected the well-being and mental health of pregnant and breastfeeding women, directly in the case of exposure, and indirectly as a result of the potential modifications in their life habits and in healthcare facilities.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , Breast Feeding , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Switzerland/epidemiology
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578848


COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). One major problem faced is whether breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus is safe. The objective of this work is to study the impact that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can have on breastfeeding, and whether the virus or antibodies can be transmitted from mother to child through milk. We carried out a systematic review of studies focusing on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus. The bibliographic search was done through Medline (Pubmed), MedlinePlus and Google Scholar. From 292 records, the title and summary of each were examined according to the criteria, and whether they meet the selection criteria was also analysed. A total of 30 articles are included, of which 26 deal with the study of RNA virus in breastmilk and its involvement in breastfeeding and four on the study of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in milk. Most studies have been conducted in China. Breastfeeding by mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 is highly recommended for infants, if the health of the mother and the infant allow for it. Direct breastfeeding and maintaining appropriate protective measures should be encouraged. Should the mother's health condition not permit direct breastfeeding, infants should be fed with pumped breastmilk or donor milk.

Breast Feeding/adverse effects , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Milk, Human/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 632, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535094


BACKGROUND: Immunological protection via breastfeeding is well known. The immunological profile of human milk changes during lactation. No clinical trials have been conducted in lactating women with the newest mRNA vaccines against SARS- CoV-2. A Few studies have shown the presence of antibodies in breastmilk after vaccination. The aim of this work is to study possible antibodies transfer via breastmilk and also the immunological characteristics of lactating women compared to non-lactating women, after using the BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccine. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study with a convenience homogenous sample of 24 healthcare workers (14 lactating and 10 non-lactating women) enrolled at the time of COVID-19 vaccination. Clinical data was registered in a questionnaire. Titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG, IgA and IgM were quantified in post vaccination blood and human milk. Antibody quantification was performed by an in-house ELISA to SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike protein. RESULTS: All women showed immunity after vaccination with positive antibodies for IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies. The dominant serum antibody response was IgG. Modest levels of antibodies in breastmilk of lactating mothers were observed in this study, especially IgG in 42.9%. There was a moderate association between higher titers of IgG and a longer duration of breastfeeding (R= 0.55, p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of antibody transfer in human milk after COVID-19 vaccination is scarce. The presence of antibodies in human milk is reported, but immunization through breastfeeding is still to be established.

Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lactation/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Prospective Studies