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1.
Sante Publique ; 35(4): 417-422, 2023 12 11.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38078636

ABSTRACT

In 2020, food shortages occurred at the beginning of the confinement period that was supposed to curb the COVID-19 pandemic. In French Guiana, where a major part of the population lives under the poverty line, health workers voiced major concerns. Alongside massive food aid distributions, a first transversal study was carried out in August 2020 targeting poor neighborhoods in Cayenne. The results were particularly worrying. More than 80% of households had been suffering from hunger during that month, with a median decrease of 46% in revenue. Two other investigations followed in February and then in August of 2021. With the relaxing of the health measures, the situation improved in the Cayenne region, but two out of three were still affected, showing signs of quantitative deficiencies and insufficient food diversity. The situation seemed particularly grave for children. In light of this situation, we propose to create an observatory of food insecurity in Guiana, while maintaining this topic as a health priority. In addition, the fight against food insecurity cannot be limited to multi-sectorial material and strategic aide. It must be thought about in a more global manner, including health and social questions, territorial management policies, access to land and water, access to rights and social inclusion. Targeted actions helping the most exposed and vulnerable people is also an important stake, independent of the administrative situation and residency rights of the concerned people.


En 2020, des pénuries alimentaires sont survenues dès l'entrée en vigueur du confinement destiné à contrôler la pandémie de COVID-19. En Guyane Française, où une forte proportion de la population vivait déjà sous le seuil de pauvreté, des alertes préoccupantes ont émané d'acteurs de santé. En parallèle du déploiement d'une aide alimentaire massive, une première enquête transversale a été menée en août 2020, ciblant les quartiers précaires des environs de Cayenne. Les résultats étaient particulièrement inquiétants : plus de 80 % des ménages avaient souffert de la faim dans le mois, avec une baisse médiane de revenus de 46 %. Deux autres enquêtes ont suivi, en février, puis en août 2021. Avec l'allègement des mesures sanitaires, la situation s'était sensiblement améliorée dans la région de Cayenne, mais deux ménages sur trois restaient impactés, avec des carences quantitatives et une diversité alimentaire insuffisante. La situation semblait particulièrement critique parmi les enfants. Au vu de cette situation, nous proposons de créer un observatoire de l'insécurité alimentaire en Guyane, tout en maintenant ce sujet en tête des priorités sanitaires. En outre, la lutte contre l'insécurité alimentaire ne peut se limiter à l'aide matérielle : la stratégie, multisectorielle, doit être pensée en globalité, intégrant les problématiques sanitaires et sociales, les enjeux de l'aménagement du territoire, de l'accès à la terre et à l'eau, de l'accès aux droits et à l'insertion sociale. Un ciblage juste des actions vers les publics les plus exposés et vulnérables est également un enjeu important, indépendamment de la situation administrative et du droit au séjour des personnes concernées.

2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 16866, 2023 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37803142

ABSTRACT

Preventing vector-borne diseases (VBDs) mainly relies on effective vector control tools and strategies, which in turn depend on population acceptance and adherence. Inspired by the abundant recent literature on SARS-COV-2, we investigate the relationship between risk perception and preventive behaviour for selected VBDs and the extent to which risk perception is determined by social norms. We use cross-sectional data collected from 497 individuals in four regions of Guyana in 2017. We use a conditional mixed process estimator with multilevel coefficients, estimated through a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework, applying a simultaneous equation structure. We find robust results on malaria: risk perception was significantly influenced by the risk perception of the reference group across different definitions of the reference group, hinting at the existence of social norms. Risk perception significantly increased the likelihood of passive behaviour by 4.48%. Less clear-cut results were found for dengue. This study applies quantitative social science methods to public health issues in the context of VBDs. Our findings point to the relevance of tailoring communications on health risks for VBDs to groups defined at the intersection of socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Such tailored strategies are expected to align risk perception among reference groups and boost preventive behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vector Borne Diseases , Humans , Guyana/epidemiology , Social Norms , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vector Borne Diseases/prevention & control , Perception
3.
Malar J ; 22(1): 237, 2023 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37587474

ABSTRACT

Scaling-up an experimental intervention is always a challenge. On the border between French Guiana, Brazil and Suriname, an interventional study demonstrated the effectiveness of distributing self-diagnosis and self-treatment kits (Malakits) to control malaria in mobile and hard-to-reach populations. Its integration into the Suriname's National Malaria Elimination Plan after a 2-year experiment faced numerous challenges, including human resources to cope with the additional workload of coordinators and to maintain the motivation of community health workers. The economic recession in Suriname, the Covid pandemic, and logistical issues also hampered the scale-up. Finally, thanks to the commitment of stakeholders in Suriname and French Guiana, the integration of Malakit distribution into the Surinamese national programme was proved possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , French Guiana , Suriname , Research , Brazil
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(7)2023 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37515080

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: French Guiana is a French territory bordering Brazil and Suriname where the COVID-19 pandemic has severely strained the French Guianese health system. The people working on illegal gold mining sites in French Guiana, also known as garimpeiros, are mainly of Brazilian origin. Their health conditions are precarious, they live under the radar of the surveillance system and therefore, assessment of their health is quite challenging.. The objective of this study was to describe their knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding COVID-19 and vaccination against this infection. METHODS: We conducted an international multicenter cross-sectional survey between 1 March 2022 and 30 April 2022 in French Guiana and Suriname, using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Eighty persons were included, 95.0% of whom were Brazilian. Most had good general knowledge of COVID-19. Antibiotic prophylaxis had been practiced by 10.0% of participants. Forty-three people thought they had been infected with COVID-19 (53.8%). Self-medication was frequent, often with antibiotics (32.6%, mostlychloroquine, ivermectin or azithromycin) and most had not consulted a physician for symptoms of COVID-19. A majority (62.5%) had received at least one dose of vaccine. Those who were ever tested for COVID-19 were the most likely to be vaccinated (PR = 1.98, p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Garimpeiros have a good level of knowledge about COVID-19 but the high consumption of antibiotics raises concerns about the selection of resistant bacteria. The vaccination rate was higher than that of the Guianese population. The most vaccinated individuals were those who had already taken a COVID test suggesting that these individuals had more exposure to the disease, were more health conscious, or had easier access to health centers.

5.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 8(4)2023 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37104345

ABSTRACT

There are great variations between population subgroups, notably in poorer countries, leading to substantial inconsistencies with those predicted by the classical epidemiologic transition theory. In this context, using public data, we aimed to determine how the singular case of French Guiana fit and transitioned in the epidemiologic transition framework. The data show a gradual decline in infant mortality to values above 8 per 1000 live births. Premature mortality rates were greater but declined more rapidly in French Guiana than in mainland France until 2017 when they reascended in a context of political turmoil followed by the COVID-19 pandemic and strong reluctance to get vaccinated. Although infections were a more frequent cause of death in French Guiana, there is a marked decline and circulatory and metabolic causes are major causes of premature death. Fertility rates remain high (>3 live births per woman), and the age structure of the population is still pyramid-shaped. The singularities of French Guiana (rich country, universal health system, widespread poverty) explain why its transition does not fit neatly within the usual stages of transition. Beyond gradual improvements in secular trends, the data also suggest that political turmoil and fake news may have detrimentally affected mortality in French Guiana and reversed improving trends.

6.
Vaccine X ; 13: 100271, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36819215

ABSTRACT

Objectives: French Guiana, the least-vaccinated French territory, also has the lowest COVID-19 vaccination coverage in Latin America. We aimed to estimate how many deaths, hospitalizations and costs the vaccines had and could have avoided. Methods: We calculated the Number Needed to Vaccinate to prevent one death per year, 1 standard hospitalization, 1 Intensive Care Unit admission given the mean incidence numbers of the past 6 months, and divided the number of persons vaccinated to estimate how many deaths and hospitalizations had been avoided in French Guiana at that time. Results: The crude number needed to vaccinate to prevent one death per year, the crude number needed to vaccinate to prevent one hospitalization per 6 months were computed Based on our observed incidence and ICU admission rate, the crude number needed to vaccinate to prevent one ICU admission per 6 months.After 6 months with an incidence exceeding 400 per million inhabitants, and 148 observed deaths, we estimate that vaccination avoided 46 deaths (IC95%=43.5-48.7). If the number of vaccinated persons had reached the same proportion as mainland France, 141 deaths per year could have been prevented (IC95%=131.9-147.6).With 2085 hospitalization and 370 ICU admissions during the same period, we estimate that the current albeit low vaccination rate avoided 300 hospital (IC95%=280-313) and 77 (IC95%=72-81) ICU admissions. With the same vaccination rates as mainland France, we estimate that 900 hospitalizations and 231 ICU admissions would have been avoided.Similarly, there would have been 139 ICU admission (instead of 370). Conclusions: In sparsely populated French Guiana these numbers are quite substantial and framing the vaccine benefits and wasted opportunities using such concrete numbers may help convincing undecided persons to get vaccinated.

7.
Food Nutr Bull ; 44(1): 3-11, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36824041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In French Guiana, restrictions to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 were put in place between March 2020 and March 2022. In vulnerable urban neighborhoods, during this period, requests for food assistance increased and fear of hunger overtook fear of being affected by COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this survey was to describe food security during the COVID-19 pandemic in French Guiana and to study the relationship between the socioeconomic conditions of the study households and household hunger. METHODS: A multicenter survey was therefore conducted in mobile clinics and fixed structures providing care to at-risk urban populations. In a face-to-face interview, a community health worker asked participants questions about the sociodemographic and economic profile of the household, and about household food security (food consumption score, coping strategies in the face of food shortages, and household hunger index). Two hundred seventy-seven households were recruited in February 2021. RESULTS: According to the household hunger scale, 42.6% of households experienced moderate hunger and 23.8% of households experienced severe hunger in the month preceding the survey. Lack of residence permit, lack of social support, water insecurity, small housing, and lack of access to an urban garden were determinants related to the risk of household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity has affected a large majority of the households in this survey, and the immediate consequences for children's health were already apparent. These results draw attention to a neglected health problem in a socioeconomically vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hunger , Child , Humans , French Guiana/epidemiology , Pandemics , Food Supply , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1059137, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36761125

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The border between the State of Amapa, Brazil, and French Guiana is mostly primary forest. In the Oyapock basin, socioeconomic circumstances have fueled sex work, gold mining and the circulation of sexually transmitted infections. Given the lack of comprehensive data on this border area, we describe the different sexually transmitted infections along the Brazil/French Guiana border and the testing and care activity. Methods: We conducted a review of the available scientific and technical literature on sexually transmitted infections in this complex border area. Temporal trends were graphed and for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) we estimated incidence using the European Center for prevention and Disease Control modeling tool. Results: Until 2019, 26 of the 46 HIV-infected patients followed and treated in Saint Georges de l'Oyapock were residing on the Brazilian side in Oiapoque. Virological suppression was only achieved for 75% of treated patients; but dropped to 62% during the COVID-19 epidemic. In 2019, cooperation efforts allowed HIV care in Oiapoque, resulting in the transfer of Brazilian patients previously followed on the French side and a substantial increase in the number of patients followed in Oiapoque. The average yearly HIV serological testing activity at the health center in Saint Georges was 16 tests per 100 inhabitants per year; in Camopi it was 12.2 per 100 inhabitants. Modeling estimated the number of persons living with HIV around 170 persons, corresponding to a prevalence of 0.54% and about 40 undiagnosed infections. The model also suggested that there were about 12 new infections per year in Saint Georges and Oiapoque, representing an HIV incidence rate of 3.8 cases per 10,000 per year. HPV prevalence in Saint Georges ranges between 25 and 30% and between 35 and 40% in Camopi. Testing activity for other sexually transmitted infections markedly increased in the past 5 years; the introduction of PCR for chlamydiasis and gonorrhea also had a substantial impact on the number of diagnoses. Conclusions: The ongoing cooperation between multiple partners on both sides of the border has led to remarkable progress in primary prevention, in testing efforts, in treatment and retention on both sides of the border. In a region with intense health professional turnover, nurturing cooperation and providing accurate assessments of the burden of sexually transmitted infections is essential to tackle a problem that is shared on both sides of the border.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , French Guiana/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control
9.
Investig. enferm ; 25: 1-16, 20230000. a.5 Tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1517425

ABSTRACT

Objective: Exploring nursing students' perceptions and experiences of online learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic with a mixed method. Methods: A mixed method was used and obtained ethical approval from IRB. Quantitatively 419 nursing students' perceptions were assessed using a valid and reliable Likert scale of 37 items with a Google Forms survey. Qualitatively 5 focus group discussions (6 to 8 students each) of 60 to 90 minutes from 5 respective Nursing Schools were conducted via zoom and recorded. Codes were generated using MAXQDA analytics Pro 2022 version 22.2.1. Results: 276 (65.87 %) students agreed self-discipline is necessary for online learning. 267 (63.72 %) students strongly agree that online classes reduce travel expenses. Gender had no influence on perception. Younger students showed more positive perception than older students. Senior BSN students showed positive perception compared to RN students, and associations are statistically significant at <0.001. Thematic analysis led to the following themes. Some preferred online learning due to its "flexibility" "convenience" and "access to recorded sessions". Others preferred face to face: online learning is "good for theory only", but for practical sessions face to face interactions is necessary, "sense of isolation", "no student interaction", "less student- faculty interaction". Barriers identified were "internet connectivity issues", "electricity issues" and "technological issues". Facilitators were "convenience", "reduced cost in transportation", "saves time" and opportunity to become "tech savvy". Conclusion: Online classes are suitable for theoretical aspects but require face to face interaction for practical components.


Objetivo: explorar las percepciones y experiencias de los estudiantes de enfermería sobre el aprendizaje en línea durante la pandemia por COVID-19 con una metodología mixta. Método: se utilizó un método mixto y se obtuvo la aprobación ética del IRB. Cuantitativamente se evaluaron las percepciones de 419 estudiantes de enfermería utilizando una escala de Likert válida y fiable con 37 ítems a través de una encuesta en Google Forms. Desde el punto de vista cualitativo, se llevaron a cabo y se grabaron 5 debates de grupos focales (de 6 a 8 estudiantes cada uno) con una duración de 60 a 90 minutos en las 5 escuelas de enfermería respectivas. Los códigos se generaron utilizando MAXQDA analytics Pro 2022 versión 22.2.1. Resultados: 276 (65,87 %) estudiantes están de acuerdo en que la autodisciplina es necesaria para el aprendizaje en línea. 267 (63,72 %) estudiantes están totalmente de acuerdo en que las clases en línea reducen los gastos de desplazamiento. El género no influyó en la percepción. Los estudiantes más jóvenes mostraron una percepción más positiva que los de más edad, los estudiantes BSN senior mostraron una percepción positiva en comparación con los estudiantes RN; las asociaciones son estadísticamente significativas a <0,001. El análisis temático dio lugar a los siguientes temas. Algunos prefirieron el aprendizaje en línea por su "flexibilidad", "comodidad" y "acceso a sesiones grabadas". Otros prefirieron el aprendizaje presencial: el aprendizaje en línea es "bueno solo para la teoría", pero para las sesiones prácticas es necesaria la interacción presencial, "sensación de aislamiento", "no hay interacción entre estudiantes", "hay menos interacción entre estudiantes y profesores". Los obstáculos identificados fueron "problemas de conectividad a Internet", "problemas de electricidad" y "problemas tecnológicos". Los facilitadores fueron la "comodidad", el "menor coste de transporte", el "ahorro de tiempo" y la oportunidad de adquirir "conocimientos tecnológicos". Conclusiones: Las clases en línea son adecuadas para los aspectos teóricos, pero requieren interacción presencial para los componentes prácticos.


Objetivo: explorar as percepções e experiências dos alunos de enfermagem sobre o aprendizado on-line durante a pandemia da COVID-19 - um método misto. Métodos: foi usado um método misto e obteve-se aprovação ética do IRB. Quantitativamente, as percepções de 419 estudantes de enfermagem foram avaliadas usando uma escala Likert válida e confiável com 37 itens por meio de uma pesquisa no Google Forms. Qualitativamente, 5 discussões de grupos focais (6 a 8 alunos cada) com duração de 60 a 90 minutos das respectivas 5 escolas de enfermagem foram conduzidas via zoom e gravadas. Os códigos foram gerados usando o MAXQDA analytics Pro 2022 versão 22.2.1. Resultados: 276 (65,87 %) alunos concordaram que a autodisciplina é necessária para o aprendizado on-line. 267 (63,72 %) alunos concordam fortemente que as aulas on-line reduzem as despesas de viagem. O gênero não influenciou a percepção. Os alunos mais jovens demonstraram uma percepção mais positiva do que os alunos mais velhos, os alunos de BSN sênior demonstraram uma percepção positiva em comparação com os alunos de RN, e as associações são estatisticamente significativas em <0,001. A análise temática levou aos seguintes temas. Alguns preferiram o aprendizado on-line devido à sua "flexibilidade", "conveniência" e "acesso a sessões gravadas", enquanto outros preferiram o presencial: o aprendizado on-line é "bom apenas para a teoria", mas para as sessões práticas são necessárias interações presenciais, "sensação de isolamento", "falta de interação com os alunos", "menos interação entre alunos e professores". As barreiras identificadas foram "problemas de conectividade com a Internet", "problemas de eletricidade" e "problemas tecnológicos". Os facilitadores foram: "conveniência", "custo reduzido de transporte", "economia de tempo" e oportunidade de se tornar "conhecedor de tecnologia". Conclusão: As aulas on-line são adequadas para os aspectos teóricos, mas exigem interação presencial para os componentes práticos.


Subject(s)
Humans
10.
Georgetown; PAHO; 2022-12-06. (PAHO/GUY/22-0001).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56334

ABSTRACT

In 2022 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is celebrating its 120th anniversary. Operating as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, PAHO provides technical cooperation to its Member States to address communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, strengthen health systems, and respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Americas. In addition, in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for the Americas, PAHO participates in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other United Nations agencies, funds, and programs to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. At the subregional level, PAHO works with integration mechanisms to position health and its determinants on the political agenda. The 2021 Country Annual Reports reflect PAHO’s technical cooperation in countries and territories in implementing the Country Cooperation Strategies, responding to their needs and priorities, and operating within the framework of PAHO’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Responding to COVID-19 and Preparing for the Future, they highlight PAHO’s actions on the COVID-19 pandemic and its continuing efforts in priority areas such as health emergencies, health systems and services, communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases and mental health, health throughout the life course, and health equity. They also provide a financial summary for the biennium 2020-2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies , Health Systems , Health Services , Noncommunicable Diseases , Equity , Gender Equity , Cultural Diversity , Technical Cooperation , Americas , Guyana
12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 105: 105370, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184049

ABSTRACT

Since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Wuhan in December 2019, this RNA virus gave rise to different viral lineages with different virological, epidemiological and immunological properties. Here we describe the dynamics of circulation of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in an Amazonian South American French overseas territory, French Guiana (FG). The data analyzed are based on the general epidemic course, and genomic surveillance data come from whole genome sequencing (WGS) as well as typing PCRs. From March 2020 to October 2021, four COVID-19 epidemic waves were observed in FG with an evolution of viral lineages influenced by virus introductions from continental France and above all by land-based introductions from neighbouring countries. The third epidemic wave from March to June 2021 was driven by a predominant Gamma introduced from Brazil and a less frequent Alpha introduced from France. This coexistence was completely substituted by Delta that initiated the fourth epidemic wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , French Guiana/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Brazil
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 994964, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36275821

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The Maroni basin -delineating the border between Suriname and French Guiana- presents sociocultural, geographical and economic circumstances that have been conducive to the circulation of sexually transmitted infections and to delays in diagnosis and care. Given the scarcity of published data, we aimed to describe different sexually transmitted infections along the Maroni and to gain a broader understanding of the epidemiologic situation. Methods: We conducted a scoping review of the efforts to approach the problem of sexually transmitted infections in this complex border area. Temporal trends were plotted and crude numbers were divided by local population numbers. Results: For HIV, despite increasing testing efforts, most patients still present at the advanced HIV stage (median CD4 count at diagnosis is < 20 per mm3), and 25% of patients in Saint Laurent du Maroni were lost to follow-up within 6 years. However, progress on both sides has led to a decline in AIDS cases and mortality. Despite a rapid increase in the 1990's along the Maroni, the current HIV prevalence seemed lower (0.52%) in the rural villages than in coastal urban centers (> 1%). High risk HPV infection prevalence among women reaches 23.3%. The incidence of gonorrhea was 4.2 per 1,000 population aged 15-59. For chlamydiasis it was 3.4 per 1,000 population aged 15-59. For syphilis, the incidence was 2.5 per 1,000 population aged 15-59. Gonorrhea, chlamydiasis, hepatitis B detection increased over time with greater testing efforts and new diagnostic tests. Since the COVID-19 epidemic, congenital syphilis has dramatically increased in Saint Laurent du Maroni reaching 808 per 100,000 live births. Conclusion: Sexually transmitted infections seemed more prevalent in Saint Laurent du Maroni -the sole urban center-than in the remote villages along the Maroni. The syndromic approach and the heterogeneity of diagnostic platforms presumably overlook most infections in the region. Therefore, a concerted approach and a shared diagnostic upgrade with molecular diagnosis and rapid diagnostic tests seem necessary to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted infections on both sides of the Maroni. Congenital syphilis resulting from COVID-19 disruption of health services requires urgent attention.

15.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(4)2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041837

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To manage the rapid rise of misleading information on the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the pandemic, the Breakthrough ACTION project developed a theory-based rumor-tracking system to inform Guyana's COVID-19 communication campaign. METHODS: The rumor-tracking project used the extended parallel processing model (EPPM) to identify and categorize rumors reflecting perceived high versus low vulnerability to COVID-19 and high versus low efficacy of engaging in recommended COVID-19 prevention behaviors. The project designed contextually relevant social and behavior change messages, called "MythBusters," responded to rumor categories with the following objectives: (1) high perceived vulnerability and high efficacy rumors included a call to action; high perceived vulnerability and low efficacy rumors educated about effective and achievable solutions; (3) low perceived vulnerability and high efficacy rumors educated about risk; and (4) low perceived vulnerability and low efficacy rumors educated about risk and effective and achievable solutions. RESULTS: Most rumors emanated from regions 4 and 8 (29%). Over two-thirds of the rumors (71%) recurred. Rumors were typically related to COVID-19 treatment or prevention (40%) and transmission (35%). Most rumors (48%) reflected low perceived vulnerability and low efficacy, 29% reflected high perceived vulnerability and low efficacy, 13% reflected low perceived vulnerability and high efficacy, and 10% reflected high perceived vulnerability and high efficacy. The project rapidly developed 12 MythBusters from June through December 2020 and integrated them into the national COVID-19 communication campaign, disseminated via radio, television, and Facebook. Estimates indicate that they have reached most of the target Guyanese population. DISCUSSION: The EPPM was a particularly useful tool, giving direction to countering myths with appropriate messaging to affect relevant behaviors. The COVID-19 MythBusters provided the Guyanese public with valid and verifiable information and promoted preventive and protective behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Guyana/epidemiology , Humans
16.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(7): 746-751, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the neonatal outcomes related to maternal SARS-COV-2 infection. METHODS: In this study, we identified newborns born between May 14 and August 31, 2020, to mothers who were PCR-SRAS-CoV-2 positive at the time of delivery. From the cohort of 974 infants, we performed a nested case-control study. RESULTS: During the study period, 133 (13.7%) mothers were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among the 35 pregnant women with COVID-19 symptoms (26.3%), cough was the most common symptom, present in half of the cases. Four of them have progressed to critical pneumonia requiring transfer to intensive care unit. The neonates from mothers with positive SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR, were routinely tested for COVID-19 within the first 24 h after labor, and 3 other newborns tested in the presence of symptoms. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to preterm birth, meconium-stained amniotic fluid distress, and neonatal asphyxia. Most infants were breastfed at birth, regardless of their mothers' COVID-19 status. In COVID-19-positive pregnant women admitted to intensive care unit, the proportion of preterm births (OR=12.5 [1.7-90.5]), fetal death in utero (OR=25.9 [2.2-305]) and admission in neonatal intensive care unit admission (OR=13.4 [3.0-60]), appeared higher than the controls. No maternal deaths were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest little neonatal morbidity associated with maternal COVID-19, except for those born to mothers admitted to intensive care unit. However, under breastfeeding conditions with rigorous hygiene precautions and parental education, the risk of transmission of SARS-COV-2 virus to the newborn was very low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , French Guiana/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 296: 114747, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123372

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19 disproportionally affect vulnerable groups in society. This paper assesses responses to, and impacts of, the pandemic among mobile migrant populations who work in Artisanal and Small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM) in Suriname and French Guiana. These populations are characterized by poverty, informal or illegal status, and limited access to health care and information. Field research in Suriname (November 2020-January 2021) and French Guiana (January, May, June 2021) included qualitative interviews, informal conversations and observations, and a quantitative survey with 361 men and women in ASGM communities. Contrary to reports from the ASGM sector elsewhere, interviewed inhabitants of ASGM areas in Suriname and French Guiana showed little concern about COVID-19. Respondents reported feeling safer in the forest where they work than in the urban areas or in their home country. Trust in home remedies and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals further reduced anxiety about the pandemic. Three-quarters of survey respondents reported that the COVID-19 pandemic had not affected their work or income at all. The researchers conclude that in these remote Amazon communities, responses to COVID-19 mirror attitudes and behavior vis-à-vis malaria and other health risks: self-medicate, ignore, and pray. Living on the margins of society mitigates the socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19, as containment measures are not applied to these socially invisible populations. Whereas the urban poor are severely hit by the pandemic, this hidden population benefits from high gold prices, an outdoors lifestyle, and traditional resourcefulness in dealing with a life full of risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , French Guiana/epidemiology , Gold , Humans , Male , Mining , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Suriname/epidemiology
18.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671259

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: During the COVID-19 outbreak, several studies showed an increased prevalence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-PE) carriage in intensive care units (ICUs). Our objective was to assess the impact of antibiotic prescriptions on the acquisition of ESBL-PE in ICUs during the COVID-19 crisis. (2) Methods: We conducted an observational study between 1 April 2020, and 31 December 2021, in the medical-surgical ICU of the Cayenne General Hospital. We defined two periods: Period 1 with routine, empirical antibiotic use, and Period 2 with no systematic empiric antibiotic prescription. (3) Results: ICU-acquired ESBL-PE carriage was 22.8% during Period 1 and 9.4% during Period 2 (p = 0.005). The main isolated ESBL-PE was Klebsiella pneumoniae (84.6% in Period 1 and 58.3% in Period 2). When using a generalized linear model with a Poisson family, exposure to cefotaxime was the only factor independently associated with ESBL-PE acquisition in ICU (p = 0.002, IRR 2.59 (95% IC 1.42-4.75)). The propensity scores matching estimated the increased risk for cefotaxime use to acquire ESBL-PE carriage at 0.096 (95% CI = 0.02-0.17), p = 0.01. (4) Conclusions: Exposure to cefotaxime in patients with severe COVID-19 is strongly associated with the emergence of ESBL-PE in the context of maximal infection control measures.

19.
Sci Afr ; 14: e01060, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816058

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted humans' activities across the globe. Measures related to social/physical distancing and lockdown have led to a shift and increase in waste generated at households' level. This study examined waste generation, composition and the implications for exposure during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Guyana and Nigeria. The study adopted a mixed-method design to collect qualitative and quantitative data. Owing to adherence to social/physical distancing, an online Google Form survey was administered and phone interviews were conducted with waste managers in Nigeria and Guyana. Findings showed that the volumes of waste had increased and there was a mixture of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) with the municipal waste. Also, the majority of the respondents in both countries were concerned that solid waste has the potential to contribute to contamination and spreading of the pandemic. A paired sample T-test analysis indicated an increase in the use of PPE. The values of t = 19.46 and t = 23.73 at p ≥ 0.05 in Nigeria and Guyana, respectively were significant. Waste mostly contaminated, as submitted by the respondents, were cans, bottles, plastics and all biodegradable wastes while the most probable point of contamination as noted by the waste managers occurred at the point of waste collection. Therefore, sorting of waste at household levels and training of personnel involved in waste management should be done with an emphasis on adherence to COVID-19 protocol and enforcement of same to prevent the spread of the virus.

20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835147

ABSTRACT

In French Guiana, a French overseas territory in South America facing a fourth wave of COVID-19, vaccination coverage is very low, both in the population and among health care workers (HCWs). Vaccine hesitancy concerned 35.7% of the latter in early 2021. The objective of this complementary study is to understand barriers and levers and to adapt messages to increase vaccination coverage among HCWs. We conducted a regional cross-sectional survey of HCWs with a questionnaire containing open-ended questions exploring factors associated with vaccine hesitancy and the needs to adapt the vaccination campaign in French Guiana. The discourses were analyzed using a qualitative approach based on grounded theory, with open coding of data by themes and construction of abstract categories. The analysis of the 357 responses collected from January to March 2021 reveals several trends. The ethical aspect of the HCWs' role emphasizes the importance of getting vaccinated themselves (to protect patients, to set an example...) and of vaccinating as many people as possible, including the most geographically or socially distant, such as undocumented migrants. However, some HCWs remain suspicious of the vaccine with concerns over the efficacy and side effects, of health institutions, and of the pharmaceutical industry. The role of fake news circulating on social networks has been widely discussed. Efforts to explain and convince HCWs must be continued in French Guiana using the identified levers to improve the acceptability of vaccination.

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