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1.
Georgetown; PAHO; 2021-09-09. (PAHO/GUY/21-0001).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54811

ABSTRACT

Founded in 1902 as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has developed recognized competence and expertise, providing technical cooperation to its Member States to fight communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, to strengthen health systems, and to respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Region of the Americas. In addition, acting in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office, PAHO participates actively in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other agencies, the funds and programs of the United Nations system to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. This 2020 annual report reflects PAHO’s technical cooperation in the country for the period, implementing the Country Cooperation Strategy, responding to the needs and priorities of the country, and operating within the framework of the Organization’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Universal Health and the Pandemic – Resilient Health Systems, it highlights PAHO’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as its continuing efforts in priority areas such as communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases, mental health, health throughout the life course, and health emergencies. It also provides a financial summary for the year under review.


Subject(s)
Technical Cooperation , Health Priorities , Health Systems , National Health Programs , Health Policy , Universal Health Coverage , Universal Access to Health Care Services , Communicable Diseases , Noncommunicable Diseases , Risk Factors , Mental Health , Financial Management , Health Administration , Guyana
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2673-2676, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289335

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 caused by the Gamma variant of concern infected 24/44 (55%) employees of a gold mine in French Guiana (87% symptomatic, no severe forms). The attack rate was 60% (15/25) among fully vaccinated miners and 75% (3/4) among unvaccinated miners without a history of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , French Guiana/epidemiology , Gold , Humans
3.
Br J Nurs ; 30(9): 540-546, 2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In emergency departments (EDs), the staff continually face stressful situations requiring staff to adopt various coping strategies. AIMS: The study aimed to assess work-related stress in ED during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHOD: The study was a monocentric investigation based on a questionnaire survey that elicits general information and uses the Karasek model to analyse the data. FINDINGS: A total of 117 forms were collected for analysis. The score for decision latitude (or autonomy and skills at work) was 70 (IQR: 64-74) and the score for psychological demand was 25 (IQR: 23-27). The score for social support by the management team was 11 (IQR: 9-12) and the score for social support by colleagues 12 (IQR: 10-12). Of the total number of respondents, job strain was assessed as affecting 24.8%. CONCLUSION: The study shows high levels of stress among the ED workforce. The findings indicate that it is imperative to develop simple management tools that are capable of measuring the internal causes of stress in order to develop an adapted wellness programme in ED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Occupational Stress , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/nursing , French Guiana/epidemiology , Humans , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53354

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To determine predictors associated with physical violence during pregnancy, and to determine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence during pregnancy and women’s health and suicide ideation in Guyana. Methods. A secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional household survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to the data to estimate the association between physical violence during pregnancy, controlling partner behavior, and other predictors. Ordered logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the association between physical violence during pregnancy and women’s health, and lifetime physical partner violence and overall health. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate associations between physical violence during pregnancy and lifetime physical partner violence and overall health and suicide ideation. Results. The prevalence of lifetime physical/sexual intimate partner violence was 38.8%, current physical/sexual intimate partner violence 11.1%, and violence during pregnancy 9.2%. Controlling partner behavior was significantly and positively associated with maternal experience of physical violence during pregnancy. Experiencing physical partner violence during pregnancy, but not lifetime physical partner violence, was associated with significantly increased odds of poor overall health. Physical violence during pregnancy and lifetime physical violence were both significantly associated with increased odds of suicide ideation. Conclusions. The prevalence of violence during pregnancy in Guyana is high and is associated with adverse health outcomes. These findings suggest the need for intimate partner violence prevention, and for integrating intimate partner violence screening and treatment into antenatal care, reproductive health services, and maternal and child health programs and services to identify and treat at-risk women.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar los factores predictivos relacionados con la violencia física durante el embarazo y determinar la relación entre la exposición a la violencia de pareja durante el embarazo y la ideación suicida y la salud de las mujeres en Guyana. Métodos. Se realizó un análisis secundario de los datos obtenidos de una encuesta domiciliaria transversal. Se adaptaron modelos multifactoriales de regresión logística a los datos para calcular la asociación entre la violencia física durante embarazo, comportamiento controlador de la pareja y otros factores predictivos. Se emplearon modelos ordenados de regresión logística para calcular la asociación entre la violencia física durante el embarazo y la salud de la mujer, y la violencia de pareja a lo largo de la vida y la salud en general. Se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística para calcular la asociación entre la violencia física durante el embarazo y la violencia de pareja a lo largo de la vida y la ideación suicida y la salud en general. Resultados. La prevalencia de la violencia física o sexual infligida por la pareja a lo largo de la vida fue 38,8%, la violencia física o sexual infligida por la pareja en la actualidad fue 11,1% y la violencia durante el embarazo fue 9,2%. El comportamiento controlador de la pareja mostró una asociación positiva y significativa con una experiencia materna de violencia física durante el embarazo. Sufrir violencia física durante el embarazo, aunque no a lo largo de la vida, se asoció significativamente con mayores probabilidades de un estado de salud general deficiente. Tanto la violencia física durante el embarazo como la violencia física a lo largo de la vida se asociaron significativamente con mayores probabilidades de ideación suicida. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de la violencia durante el embarazo en Guyana es alta y está relacionada con consecuencias adversas en materia de salud. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de prevenir la violencia de pareja y de integrar su detección y tratamiento en la atención prenatal, los servicios de salud reproductiva y los programas y servicios de salud maternoinfantil para detectar y tratar a las mujeres en riesgo.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Determinar as variáveis preditivas associadas à violência física contra mulheres na gravidez e avaliar a relação entre exposição à violência por parceiro íntimo na gravidez e saúde e ideação suicida em mulheres na Guiana. Métodos. Foi realizada uma análise dos dados secundários de uma pesquisa transversal domiciliar. Modelos de regressão logística multivariada foram ajustados ao conjunto de dados para estimar a associação entre violência física na gravidez, controlando-se o efeito do comportamento do parceiro e outras variáveis preditivas. Modelos de regressão logística ordinal foram ajustados para estimar a associação entre violência física na gravidez e saúde das mulheres e violência física por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida e saúde geral. Modelos de regressão logística foram ajustados para estimar a associação entre violência física na gravidez e violência física por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida e saúde geral e ideação suicida. Resultados. Observou-se uma prevalência de 38,8% de violência física/sexual por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida, 11,1% de violência física/sexual por parceiro íntimo no momento presente e 9,2% de violência física/sexual na gravidez. Controlando-se o efeito do comportamento do parceiro, verificou-se uma associação positiva significativa com experiência materna de violência física na gravidez. Sofrer violência física por parceiro íntimo na gravidez, mas não violência física por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida, foi associado a uma chance significativamente maior de saúde geral ruim. Verificou-se uma associação significativa entre violência física na gravidez e violência física ao longo da vida e uma maior chance de ideação suicida. Conclusões. A prevalência da violência contra mulheres na gravidez na Guiana é alta e está associada a desfechos de saúde adversos. Esses resultados apontam para a necessidade de prevenir a violência por parceiro íntimo e integrar a avaliação da violência por parceiro íntimo e o tratamento das mulheres aos serviços de assistência pré-natal e de saúde reprodutiva e programas e serviços de saúde materno-infantil para identificar e tratar as mulheres em risco.


Subject(s)
Intimate Partner Violence , Pregnancy , Domestic Violence , Physical Abuse , Mental Health , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Guyana , Intimate Partner Violence , Pregnancy , Domestic Violence , Physical Abuse , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections , Intimate Partner Violence , Pregnancy , Domestic Violence , Mental Health , Violence Against Women , Violence Against Women , Violence Against Women , Sex Offenses , Sex Offenses , Sex Offenses , Guyana
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1634, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712596

ABSTRACT

While general lockdowns have proven effective to control SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, they come with enormous costs for society. It is therefore essential to identify control strategies with lower social and economic impact. Here, we report and evaluate the control strategy implemented during a large SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in June-July 2020 in French Guiana that relied on curfews, targeted lockdowns, and other measures. We find that the combination of these interventions coincided with a reduction in the basic reproduction number of SARS-CoV-2 from 1.7 to 1.1, which was sufficient to avoid hospital saturation. We estimate that thanks to the young demographics, the risk of hospitalisation following infection was 0.3 times that of metropolitan France and that about 20% of the population was infected by July. Our model projections are consistent with a recent seroprevalence study. The study showcases how mathematical modelling can be used to support healthcare planning in a context of high uncertainty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Pandemics , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Basic Reproduction Number/prevention & control , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , French Guiana/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/trends , Young Adult
6.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E418-E421, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009901

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) hosted a workshop in May of 2020 with a goal of critically evaluating Trauma Team Training courses. The workshop was held virtually because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Twenty-three participants attended from 8 countries: Canada, Guyana, Kenya, Nigeria, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda and the United States. More participants were able to attend the virtual meeting than the traditional in-person meetings. Web-based videoconference software was used, participants presented prerecorded PowerPoint videos, and questions were raised using a written chat. The review proved successful, with discussions and recommendations for improvements surrounding course quality, lecture content, skills sessions, curriculum variations and clinical practical scenarios. The CNIS's successful experience conducting an online curriculum review involving international participants may prove useful to others proceeding with collaborative projects during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Congresses as Topic/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Curriculum , General Surgery/education , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Canada/epidemiology , Congresses as Topic/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , General Surgery/methods , Guyana/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Kenya/epidemiology , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology , Tanzania/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Videoconferencing/organization & administration , Videoconferencing/standards , Wounds and Injuries/surgery
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