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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(12): 1117-1131, 2021 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828389

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection presents a significant global public health burden. In 2015, over 400000 deaths worldwide were attributed to HCV infection. This led the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016 to set the ambitious goal of eliminating HCV by 2030. Adult-centered guidelines have been established in order to provide direction for healthcare professionals, allowing integration of the newest screening policies and therapeutic strategies into their practices. However, for children and adolescents, HCV is a significant, unrecognized public health problem. HCV infection rates in the United States in women of childbearing age and those who are pregnant have increased in parallel with the rising opioid epidemic. An estimated 29000 women with HCV infection gave birth each year from 2011 to 2014 in the United States, with approximately 1700 of their infants being infected with HCV. Newer HCV-specific therapeutics, namely direct acting antivirals (DAA), has brought a new and highly successful approach to treatment of hepatitis C. Recent studies have confirmed similar levels of effectiveness and safety of DAA therapies in the pediatric population. Thus, an enhanced cascade of care, which should include the population under 18 years of age, can help achieve the WHO goal by focusing on elimination in the youngest populations. This review will present an overview of the natural history, clinical features, and management of HCV in children and adolescents.

2.
J Viral Hepat ; 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797190

ABSTRACT

Very few low-income countries have developed national plans to achieve the viral hepatitis elimination targets set in the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy. We reviewed the policy environment, strategies and challenges on the fight against viral hepatitis in Zimbabwe. The review focussed on the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MoHCC) policy documents, strategic plans and reports. We performed key informant interviews to enhance evidence generated from the document review. Twelve documents were reviewed and interviews with 10 key informants were completed. The MoHCC established a technical working group to work towards elimination of viral hepatitis. The technical working group drafted a strategic plan for elimination of viral hepatitis; however, it is still awaiting implementation. Key strategies that are working well include screening of donated blood for transfusion, safe injection practices and hepatitis B virus (HBV) three-dose vaccination. Current challenges in the drive towards elimination of viral hepatitis include poor to non-existent surveillance systems, lack of epidemiological data, absence of the HBV vaccine birth dose and lack of systematic screening and treatment services for viral hepatitis. In conclusion, despite political will demonstrated towards achieving viral hepatitis elimination, substantial investment and work are required to implement the strategic plan and realize significant success.

3.
Braz J Infect Dis ; : 101573, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836175

ABSTRACT

A retrospective cohort of 11,308 chronic hepatitis C infected patients treated with regimens that included Sofosbuvir (SOF), Daclatasvir (DCV), Simeprevir (SMV), or an association of Ombitasvir, Veruprevir/Ritonavir and Dasabuvir (3D) with or without Ribavirin (RBV) were assessed for sustained virologic response (SVR) or viral cure after a 12-week treatment. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors independently associated with positive response to direct-acting antivirals (DAA)-based therapies. Overall 57.1% were male; 48.3% self-identified as white; 78.3% were over 50 years old; 44.1% were from the Southeast region; 47.7% had genotype 1b; and 84.5% were treated for 12 weeks. The SVR rates with DAAs ranged from 87% to 100%. Genotypes 1 and 4 had higher SVR rates (96.3-100%), and genotypes 2 and 3 had SVR of 90.6-92.2%, respectively. Treatment durations of 12 and 24 weeks were associated with an average SVR of 95.0% and 95.9%, respectively. Females were half as likely (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.4-0.6) to have a negative response to therapy compared to males, and those with genotypes 2 and 3 were one and half fold more likely (OR 1.5-2.2; 95 CI% 0.7-2.9; 1.2-3.6 and OR 2.7-2.8; 95% CI 2.0-3.8, respectively) to not have SVR compared to genotype 1. Patients in the age-range of 50-69 years old were 1.2-fold (OR 1.2; 95% CI 0.7-1.9) more likely to not have SVR compared to other age groups, although not statistically significant. This study is the first of this magnitude to be held in a Latin-American country with high SVR results, supported by a free-of-charge universal and public health system. The high performance found in this study gives support to the Brazilian public health policy decision of adopting DAA-based therapies as a strategy to eliminate HCV by 2030.

4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The current prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and hepatitis C virus-associated mortality in Japan falls short of the World Health Organization goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030. We aimed to evaluate the trends in hepatitis C virus-associated mortality in Japan. METHODS: This nationwide observational study used the Japanese Vital Statistics from 1998 to 2017 and included all Japanese hepatitis C virus-associated deaths (84,936) of adults aged ≥40 years. We calculated the crude and age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 persons by age and sex. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify significant changing points in trends and to estimate the annual percentage changes and the average annual percentage changes for the entire study period. RESULTS: The crude mortality rate per 100,000 persons (annual death number) increased from 5.5 (3,548) in 1998 to 7.0 (4,843) in 2005 and decreased to 4.0 (3,095) in 2017. By 2017, the crude mortality rates per 100,000 persons among men and women had dropped to 3.6 and 4.3, respectively. The age-standardized mortality rate was higher in women than in men. The average annual percentage change was -3.8% (95% confidence interval: -5.0 to -2.5). The declining trend was more rapid in men (-4.5%, 95% confidence interval: -5.3 to -3.6) than in women (-2.7%, 95% confidence interval: -3.8 to -1.6). CONCLUSIONS: Trends in hepatitis C virus-associated mortality rates have declined in an accelerating manner in Japan, especially among men.

5.
Mar Drugs ; 19(4)2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808126

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major global health problem. It is therefore imperative to develop drugs for anti-hepatitis B with high-efficiency and low toxicity. Attracted by the observations and evidence that the symptoms of some patients from the Southern Fujian, China, suffering from hepatitis B were alleviated after daily eating an edible marine mollusk, Thais clavigera (Küster 1860) (TCK). Water-soluble polysaccharide from TCK (TCKP1) was isolated and characterized. The anti-HBV activity of TCKP1 and its regulatory pathway were investigated on both HepG2.2.15 cell line and HBV transgenic mice. The data obtained from in vitro studies showed that TCKP1 significantly enhanced the production of IFN-α, and reduced the level of HBV antigens and HBV DNA in the supernatants of HepG2.2.15 cells in a dose-dependent manner with low cytotoxicity. The result of the study on the HBV transgenic mice further revealed that TCKP1 significantly decreased the level of transaminases, HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA in the serum, as well as HBsAg, HBeAg, HBV DNA, and HBV RNA in the liver of HBV transgenic (HBV-Tg) mice. Furthermore, TCKP1 exhibited equivalent inhibitory effect with the positive control tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) on the markers above except for HBV DNA even in low dosage in a mouse model. However, the TCKP1 high-dose group displayed stronger inhibition of transaminases and liver HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV RNA when compared with those of TAF. Meanwhile, inflammation of the liver was, by pathological observation, relieved in a dose-dependent manner after being treated with TCKP1. In addition, elevated levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon γ (IFN-γ), and reduced level of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the serum were observed, indicating that the anti-HBV effect of TCKP1 was achieved by potentiating immunocyte function and regulating the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines.

6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804260

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has established an elimination plan for hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 2030. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) access to diagnostic tools is limited, and a number of genotype 4 subtypes have been shown to be resistant to some direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). This study aims to analyze diagnostic assays for HCV based on dried blood spots (DBS) specimens collected in Kinshasa and to characterize genetic diversity of the virus within a group of mainly HIV positive patients. HCV antibody detection was performed on 107 DBS samples with Vidas® anti-HCV and Elecsys anti-HCV II, and on 31 samples with INNO-LIA HCV. Twenty-six samples were subjected to molecular detection. NS3, NS5A, and NS5B regions from 11 HCV viremic patients were sequenced. HCV seroprevalence was 12.2% (72% with detectable HCV RNA). Both Elecsys Anti-HCV and INNO-LIA HCV were highly sensitive and specific, whereas Vidas® anti-HCV lacked full sensitivity and specificity when DBS sample was used. NS5B/NS5A/NS3 sequencing revealed exclusively GT4 isolates (50% subtype 4r, 30% 4c and 20% 4k). All 4r strains harbored NS5A resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) at positions 28, 30, and 31, but no NS3 RAS was detected. Elecsys Anti-HCV and INNO-LIA HCV are reliable methods to detect HCV antibodies using DBS. HCV subtype 4r was the most prevalent among our patients. RASs found in subtype 4r in NS5A region confer unknown susceptibility to DAA.

7.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Italy, hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination is achievable; however, barriers remain to achieving the World Health Organization's elimination targets, and have become more pronounced with the spread of COVID-19. Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) is a direct-acting antiviral therapy for HCV, approved for 8-week treatment in patients without cirrhosis, and with compensated cirrhosis (CC). Previously, 12 weeks of therapy was recommended for patients with CC. Shortened treatment may reduce the burden on healthcare resources, allowing more patients to be treated. This study presents the benefits that 8-week vs 12-week treatment with G/P may have in Italy. METHODS: A multicohort Markov model was used to assess the collective number of healthcare visits and time on treatment with 8-week vs 12-week G/P in the HCV-infected population of Italy from 2019 to 2030, using healthcare resource data from post-marketing observational studies of G/P. Increased treatment capacity and downstream clinical and economic benefits were also assessed assuming the reallocation of saved healthcare visits to treat more patients. RESULTS: Modeled outcomes showed that by 2030, 8-week treatment saved 27,006 years on therapy compared with 12-week treatment, with 21,065 fewer hepatologist visits. Reallocating these resources to treat more patients could increase capacity to treat 5064 (1.4%) more patients with 8 weeks of G/P, all with CC. This increased treatment capacity would further avoid 2257 cases of end-stage liver disease, 893 liver-related deaths, and provide net savings to the healthcare system of nearly €70 million. CONCLUSION: The modeled comparisons between 8- and 12-week treatment with G/P show that shorter treatment duration can lead to greater time and resource savings, both in terms of healthcare visits and downstream costs. These benefits have the potential to enable the treatment of more patients to overcome elimination barriers in Italy through programs aimed to engage and treat targeted HCV populations.

8.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20460, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Switzerland are mainly related to intravenous drug use. Since 2017, all patients with chronic hepatitis C can be treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) irrespective of fibrosis stage. In March 2019, the Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH) published guidelines for HCV management in people who use drugs. To achieve HCV elimination by 2030, 80% treatment uptake is necessary. AIM: To evaluate the benefit of interferon-based and interferon-free HCV treatment in patients on opioid agonist therapy (OAT) and monitor HCV elimination, a 2-year study commissioned by the FOPH and conducted within the Swiss Association for the Medical Management in Substance Users (SAMMSU) cohort was performed. METHODS: Since 2014, the SAMMSU cohort has recruited OAT patients from eight different centres throughout Switzerland. In addition to yearly follow up, cross-sectional data were collected at the time-points 1 May 2017, 1 May 2018 and 1 May 2019. HCV treatment uptake, adherence and success, as well as reinfection rates, the effect of early versus late treatment and the efficacy of the “treatment-as-prevention” approach were analysed. RESULTS: Between 1 May 2017 and 1 May 2019, the number of patients enrolled into the SAMMSU cohort increased from 623 to 900: 78% were male, the median age was 45 years, 81% had ever used intravenous drugs, 13% were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and 66% were HCV antibody positive. HCV treatment up to 2012 was exclusively interferon based (maximum 21 patients/year) and since 2016 exclusively interferon free (102 patients in 2017). Treatment success increased from 57% (112/198; interferon based) to 97% (261/268; interferon free) irrespective of cirrhosis or prior non-response to interferon. Simultaneously, treatments became shorter and better tolerated in the interferon-free era, resulting in fewer preterm stops (17% vs 1%) and adherence problems (9% vs 2%). Between 2015 and 2018, the proportion of patients with no/mild fibrosis (F0/F1) at first HCV treatment increased from 0% to 61%. Earlier treatment reduced the duration of infectiousness. Between 1 May 2017 and 1 May 2019, the proportion of chronic hepatitis C patients ever treated increased from 62% (198/321) to 80% (391/490). In parallel, the HCV-RNA prevalence among HCV antibody-positive patients declined from 36% (139/385) to 19% (113/593). The reinfection rate after successful treatment was 2.7/100 person-years. The number of HCV first diagnoses per year decreased from >20 up to 2015 to <10 in 2017 and 2018. CONCLUSION: With nearly 100% DAA treatment success and a low reinfection rate, treatment uptake directly translates into a reduction of HCV-RNA prevalence. Eighty percent treatment uptake is feasible in OAT patients, and adherence and treatment success are not worse than in other populations. Duration of infectiousness and thus HCV transmission can be reduced by early detection and treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

9.
Vaccine ; 39(14): 1982-1989, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712351

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization Western Pacific Region (WPR) set a hepatitis B virus (HBV) control target to achieve HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence of <1% among children aged 5 years by 2017. The estimated HBsAg prevalence in the Philippines among adults was 16.7% during the pre-vaccine era. We estimated the HBsAg seroprevalence among children aged 5-7 years to measure the impact of vaccination. We conducted a household serosurvey, using a three-stage cluster survey methodology (provinces, clusters, and households). We estimated HBsAg prevalence using a rapid, point-of-care HBsAg test and calculated vaccination coverage by reviewing vaccination records or by caregiver recall. A questionnaire was administered to assess demographic variables for the child and family. We assessed the association between chronic HBV infection, vaccination coverage, and demographic variables, accounting for the complex survey design. Of the 2178 children tested, HBsAg was detected in 15 children [0.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 1.7]. Only two of the HBsAg-positive children had been fully vaccinated against HBV. Based on documented vaccination or caregiver recall for the survey population, hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) coverage was 53%, and the third dose hepatitis B vaccination (HepB3) coverage was 73 percent. Among the 1362 children with documented HepB-BD, timely HepB-BD coverage (given within 24 h of birth) was 43%; children born outside a health facility were less likely to receive a timely HepB-BD than those born in a health facility (adjusted odds ratio 0.10, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.23). HBsAg prevalence among children in the Philippines has decreased compared to the prevalence among adults in the pre-vaccination era. Strategies to further reduce HBsAg prevalence include ensuring that all children, whether born in health facilities or at home, receive a timely HepB-BD, and increasing HepB-BD and HepB3 coverage to reach the WPR goals of ≥95% coverage.

10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) set a goal to eliminate hepatitis C (HCV) infection globally by 2030, with specific targets to reduce new viral hepatitis infections by 80% and reduce related deaths by 65%. However, an overlooked aspect that may hinder these efforts is the impact other liver diseases could have by continuing to drive liver disease progression and offset the beneficial impact of DAAs on end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, the decrease in HCV prevalence has been countered by a marked increase in the prevalence of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). AIMS: To review the potential interaction of HCV and MAFLD. METHODS: We have reviewed the literature relating to an arrange of interaction of HCV, metabolic dysfunction and MAFLD. RESULTS: In this viewpoint, international experts suggest a holistic and multidisciplinary approach for the management of the growing number of treated HCV patients who achieved SVR, taking into consideration the overlooked impact of MAFLD for reducing morbidity and mortality in people who have had HCV. CONCLUSIONS: This will strengthen and improve the continuum of care cascade for patients with liver disease(s) and holds the potential to alleviate the cost burden of disease; and increase quality of life for patients following DAAs treatment.

11.
J Community Health ; 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738619

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to ascertain hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection rates in individuals toward the early initiation of treatment and prevention of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This cross-sectional study was performed on 2084 participants from two subdistricts in Chiang Mai and Lampang provinces, northern Thailand. Screening for viral hepatitis in the general population was conducted at subdistrict health-promoting hospitals in Nong Pa Krang, in the suburb of Chiang Mai city, and Thoenburi, a subdistrict in the rural area of Lampang province, northern Thailand. Ninety-one (4.4%) participants tested positive for either HBV or HCV, with 3.3% of all participants infected with HBV and 1.1% infected with HCV. Treatment follow-up was 29.0% of HBV and 54.5% of HCV. A proactive approach to eliminate viral hepatitis can be carried out at the subdistrict level in Thailand. Success could increase participation in other subdistricts in a cascade-like manner by 2030. The identified factors of success are leadership by the local government supported by the Local Health Fund and Village Health Volunteers.

12.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(1): 10-18, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658732

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the projected burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in China, the intervention strategies that can eliminate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) by 2030 or earlier and the measurable parameters that can be used to monitor progress towards this target. Methods: We developed a dynamic, sex- and age-stratified model of the HBV epidemic in China, calibrated using hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg) prevalence data from sequential national serosurveys (1979-2014) and the numbers of HBV-related cancer deaths (2012). We determined whether China can achieve elimination of MTCT of HBV by 2030 under current prevention interventions. We modelled various intervention scenarios to represent different coverage levels of birth-dose HBV vaccination, hepatitis B immunoglobulin to newborns of HBsAg-positive mothers and antiviral therapy (tenofovir) to HBeAg-positive pregnant women. Findings: We project that, if current levels of prevention interventions are maintained, China will achieve the elimination target by 2029. By modelling various intervention scenarios, we found that this can be brought forward to 2025 by increasing coverage of birth-dose vaccination, or to 2024 by the administration of tenofovir to HBeAg-positive pregnant women. We found that achievement of the target by 2025 would be predicted by a measurement of less than 2% MTCT in 2020. Conclusion: Our results highlight how high-quality national data can be combined with modelling in monitoring the elimination of MTCT of HBV. By demonstrating the impact of increased interventions on target achievement dates, we anticipate that other high-burden countries will be motivated to strengthen HBV prevention policies.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China/epidemiology , Female , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Humans , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Tenofovir/therapeutic use
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 239, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a leading cause for chronic liver diseases worldwide. The European Union and World Health Organization aspire to eliminate HCV by 2030. However, among at-risk populations, including, homeless people, prisoners and People Who Inject Drugs, access to diagnosis and treatment is challenging. Hepcare Europe is an integrated model of care developed to address this by assessing potential reasons for these restrictions and determining measures needed to improve HCV diagnosis, treatment and access to care within different communities. OBJECTIVES: HepCare Europe is an EU-supported project involving collaboration between five institutions in: Ireland, United Kingdom, Spain and Romania. We aim to explore the journey of care experienced by those living with HCV with a focus on previous care disruptions (loss to follow up) and the new HepCare Europe Programme. METHODS: Research teams conducted semi-structured interviews with patients who accessed services through HepCare Europe thus, patients were recruited by purposeful sampling. Patients interviewed had received, or were in the final weeks of receiving, treatment. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and translated into English, and sent to the Dublin team for inductive thematic analysis. Researchers from the HepCare Europe research team coded the data separately, then together. RESULTS: Common themes are introduced to present similarities, following individual site themes to highlight the importance of tailored interventions for each country. Key themes are: 1) Hepatitis C patients lost to follow up 2) HepCare improved access to treatment and 3) the need for improved HCV education. Individual themes also emerged for each site. These are: Ireland: New opportunities associated with achieving Sustained Virologic Responses (SVR). Romania: HCV is comparatively less crucial in light of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV) coinfections. UK: Patients desire support to overcome social barriers and Spain: Improved awareness of HCV, treatment and alcohol use. CONCLUSION: This study identified how the tailored HepCare interventions enabled improved HCV testing and linkage to care outcomes for these patients. Tailored interventions that targeted the needs of patients, increased the acceptability and success of treatment by patients. HepCare demonstrated the need for flexibility in treatment delivery, and provided additional supports to keep patients engaged and educated on new treatment therapies.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/therapy , Adult , Drug Users , Europe , Female , Hepacivirus , Homeless Persons , Humans , Ireland , Male , Middle Aged , Prisoners , Romania , Spain , Sustained Virologic Response , United Kingdom
14.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652619

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem causing acute and chronic liver disease that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is essential for viral replication and the establishment of a persistent infection. Integrated HBV DNA represents another stable form of viral DNA regularly observed in the livers of infected patients. HBV DNA integration into the host genome occurs early after HBV infection. It is a common occurrence during the HBV life cycle, and it has been detected in all the phases of chronic infection. HBV DNA integration has long been considered to be the main contributor to liver tumorigenesis. The recent development of highly sensitive detection methods and research models has led to the clarification of some molecular and pathogenic aspects of HBV integration. Though HBV integration does not lead to replication-competent transcripts, it can act as a stable source of viral RNA and proteins, which may contribute in determining HBV-specific T-cell exhaustion and favoring virus persistence. The relationship between HBV DNA integration and the immune response in the liver microenvironment might be closely related to the development and progression of HBV-related diseases. While many new antiviral agents aimed at cccDNA elimination or silencing have been developed, integrated HBV DNA remains a difficult therapeutic challenge.

15.
J Viral Hepat ; 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759257

ABSTRACT

Modelling suggests hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination is possible among men who have sex with men (MSM), with key screening groups including HIV-diagnosed MSM and MSM using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Mathematical modelling was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of HCV case-finding strategies among MSM from the provider perspective, and to determine which interventions could achieve a 90% reduction in HCV incidence over 2015-2030. At baseline, we assumed symptomatic screening in HIV-negative MSM (including PrEP users) and 12-monthly screening among HIV-diagnosed MSM. Improved case-finding strategies included screening alongside HIV testing in HIV-negative MSM not using PrEP (PrEP non-users); 12/6/3-monthly screening in PrEP users; and 6-monthly screening in HIV-diagnosed MSM, with the cost-effectiveness being compared incrementally. Costs (GBP) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were assessed to estimate the mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) with a time horizon to 2050, compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000/QALY. From the baseline, the most incrementally cost-effective strategy is to firstly undertake: (1) 12-monthly HCV screening of PrEP users (gaining 6715 QALYs with ICER £1760/QALY), followed by (2) HCV screening among PrEP non-users alongside HIV testing (gaining 7048 QALYs with ICER £4972/QALY). Compared to the baseline, this combined strategy would cost £46.9 (95%CrI £25.3-£66.9) million and achieve the HCV elimination target in 100% of model runs. Additional screening incurs ICERs >£20,000/QALY compared to this combined strategy. In conclusion, HCV elimination can be achieved cost-effectively among UK MSM. Policymakers should consider scaling-up HCV screening in HIV-negative MSM, especially PrEP users, for achieving this target.

16.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 45(2): 101564, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740477

ABSTRACT

Significant steps must be taken to reduce the global incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and mortality from HCV infection to achieve the WHO goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. Proper epidemiological surveillance of the full continuum of care is essential for monitoring progress and identifying gaps that need to be addressed. The tools required for elimination have largely been established, and the issue at hand is more how they should best be implemented in different settings around the world. Documenting good practices allows for knowledge exchange to prevent transmission and improve health outcomes for people with HCV. This review found 13 well documented HCV good practices that have become the standard of care or that should become the standard of care as soon as possible. In 2013, highly effective direct-acting antiviral therapy became available, which has cure rates of over 95%. Together with this new therapy, evidence-based good practices can help countries eliminate viral hepatitis C.

17.
J Viral Hepat ; 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759258

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the leading causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The WHO 2030 Elimination Goals require each country to evaluate their response to their epidemics. This can be achieved by visualization of cascades of care, depicting how infected cases move through disease control stages. However, methods of displaying data are debated and lack practical application. This project proposes a new way of codifying and displaying HCV data using Tayside as a case study. 1464 cases of active HCV infections in Tayside from 2015 to 2019 were analysed from NHS Tayside's HCV Database. Variables were evaluated to create a systematic coding framework that was then used to code each patient's diagnosis, treatment and cure status each year from 2015 to 2019. Graphical representation of the data in the form of a stacked clustered bar chart demonstrates general trends and conversion rates. For example, Tayside has seen an increase in diagnosis-to-cure rates from 18% to 49% (2015-2019). This method also demonstrates the portion of newly and previously diagnosed people accessing treatment, those with unsuccessful or incomplete treatments, completed treatments with unconfirmed cure, and the number of deaths and relocations. In conclusion, this project proposes a novel way of displaying cascades of care data that relays yearly snapshots of an epidemic, cumulative progression over time, nuanced information of each stage and progression towards elimination targets. This method can be meaningfully used to improve local service planning, knowledge exchange across health systems and reporting to bodies like the WHO.

18.
Analyst ; 146(5): 1569-1578, 2021 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586713

ABSTRACT

The increasing incidence of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection worldwide is a major concern for causing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, the prevalence of HCV infection is estimated to be in the range of ∼3%. According to the World Health Organization, antiviral drugs can cure more than 95% of the HCV infected cases, if timely diagnosis and treatment are provided. The gold standard RT-qPCR assay is expensive and requires a minimum turnaround time of 4 h. Hence, a rapid and cost-effective detection assay that can be used even in resource-limited settings would be highly beneficial for mass level screening. Herein, we present an Au NP based facile strategy for rapid, early-stage, and sensitive detection of HCV RNA in clinical samples which avoids thiol tagging to the antisense oligonucleotide and expensive infrastructure. This technique utilizes the hybridization of a short-chain antisense oligonucleotide from the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the viral genome with the isolated HCV RNA samples. Using a specific sequence universal to all HCV genotypes-obtained through the NCBI BLASTn tool-the HCV positive samples have stabilized the citrate capped Au NPs against salt-induced aggregation, retaining their red color. On the other hand, negative controls, including HBV and HIV positive samples, do not stabilize the Au NPs, which results in purple coloration. Besides, the assay is successfully tested with a RNase A enzyme-treated HCV positive sample, which does not stabilize the Au NPs, thus confirming the role of the viral HCV RNA in this strategy. This Au NP based assay takes about 30 min using the viral RNA isolate and has high specificity with a detection limit of 100 IU mL-1, which is ∼10 fold lower than the state-of-the-art Au NP based strategy.

19.
Liver Int ; 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590659

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aims to assess the trend of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-attributable liver cancer as well as the impact of HBV vaccine on it. METHODS: We retrieved data from Global Burden Disease study to estimate trends of HBV-attributable liver cancer by region and age from 1990 to 2017 and HBV vaccine data from World Health Organization to assess its impact on these trends for children (0-14 years), adolescents and young adults (15-29 years). Change of cancer cases, age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) and estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) were used to quantify the trends of HBV-attributable liver cancer. RESULTS: In this study, reduction in HBV-attributable cancer incident cases was found among children (from 2080 to 1430), adolescents and young adults (from 10 890 to 9090). In terms of ASR, overall reduction was observed globally by an average of -0.45% (95% CI: -0.62 to -0.29) per year in the same period. The highest reduction in ASR was found in adolescents and young adults with EAPC of -3.02 (95% CI: -3.57 to -2.46). Although the ASR has decreased from all the five regions with universal HBV immunization programme, it has increased in the region without universal vaccination and the highest increase was found among children with EAPC of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.71-2.23). CONCLUSION: Significant reduction in HBV-attributable liver cancer among children was mainly because of the universal HBV vaccination. However, the increasing trend of HBV-attributable liver cancer in region without universal HBV vaccination suggested the necessity of introducing universal immunization.

20.
J Viral Hepat ; 2021 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550694

ABSTRACT

Under the WHO plan, the global elimination of the HCV pandemic is scheduled for 2030. The burden of HCV infection in developed countries is largely borne by people who inject drugs (PWID): new infections and reinfections are related to their risky behaviour. Although safe and sensitive hepatitis C diagnostic tools and directly acting antiviral medication are widely used, major challenges to disease elimination still remain in developed countries, where the WHO plan is in progress. The challenge is in the involvement and engagement of infected PWID. There is a strong need to change our uptake and treatment strategies to address all patients from the risk groups, connect them with the healthcare system and cure them with the vision to eliminate this HCV pandemic.

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