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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 776-784, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153399

ABSTRACT

Abstract Present study was conducted to record ecotoparasitic prevalence in bat fauna of the northwestern parts of Pakistan. A total of 204 bat specimens representing 14 species were captured during a two year survey, extending from June 2015 through May 2016. A species of soft ticks Argas vespertilionis was identified from 23 bat specimens. Similarly, members of the family Dermanyssoidae (dermanyssoid mites) were isolated from 10 bat specimens, that of Spinturnicidae (spinturnicid mites) from 3 and Streblidae (bat flies) from 2 bat specimens. These parasites were collected using entomological tweezers and were identified on morphological basis. Further studies on parasitic prevalence, molecular characterization of bat parasites and their control measures are recommended.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para registrar a prevalência de ectoparasitas na fauna de morcegos em partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 204 espécimes de morcegos, representando 14 espécies, foi capturado durante uma pesquisa de dois anos, de junho de 2015 a maio de 2016. A espécie de carrapato Argas vespertilionis foi identificada em 23 espécimes de morcegos. Da mesma forma, os membros da família Dermanyssidae (ácaros dermanyssoid) foram isolados de 10 espécimes de morcego, os da Spinturnicidae (ácaros spinturnicid), de 3, e os da Streblidae (mosca de morcego), de 2 espécimes de morcego. Esses parasitas foram coletados com pinça entomológica e identificados com base morfológica. Estudos adicionais sobre prevalência parasitária, caracterização molecular de parasitas de morcego e suas medidas de controle devem ser realizados.

2.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 160-174, ene.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1155521

ABSTRACT

Há crescente interesse sobre o comportamento abusivo sofrido por trabalhadores nas cozinhas de restaurantes comerciais, uma vez que agressões físicas e verbais parecem ser comuns neste contexto laboral. Este estudo objetivou identificar a prevalência do assédio moral e descrever as características das situações em que ele ocorre entre trabalhadores da gastronomia. Participaram do estudo 160 indivíduos com graduação em gastronomia, sendo que 95 eram do sexo feminino (59,4%), com idade média de 30,81 anos (DP = 8,34). Os mesmos responderam ao Questionário Biossociodemográfico e Laboral e ao Questionário de Atos Negativos, cujos dados foram analisados descritivamente. Os resultados indicaram elevados índices de prevalência de assédio moral (63,1%) e de violência psicológica (33,8%), que alertam sobre a importância de divulgar informações sobre o assédio moral e seus prejuízos, visando a uma maneira mais saudável de gerenciar e trabalhar na cozinha.


Great interest in abusive behavior suffered by workers in commercial restaurant kitchens was observed. In this work context, verbal and physical aggression seems to be common. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of moral harassment and describe the characteristics of the situations in which it occurs among gastronomy workers. Participants were 160 individuals undergraduate in gastronomy and 95 were female (59.4%), that have an average age of 30.81 years (SD = 8.34). The participants answered the Biosociodemographic and Labor Questionnaire and the Negative Acts Questionnaire, whose data were analyzed descriptively. The results indicated high prevalence rates of moral harassment (63.1%) and psychological violence (33.8%), which warn the importance of disclosing information about bullying and its harms, aiming at a healthier way to manage and work in the kitchen.


Una creciente preocupación por el comportamiento abusivo que sufren los trabajadores en las cocinas de restaurantes comerciales ha sido observada. Esta agresión puede ser verbal o física y parece ser común en este contexto laboral. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalencia del bullying y describir las características de las situaciones en las que ocurre entre los trabajadores de la gastronomía. Los participantes fueron 160 individuos con un título en gastronomía, de los cuales 95 eran mujeres (59.4%), con una edad promedio de 30.81 años (DE = 8.34). Los participantes respondieron el Cuestionario Biosociodemográfico y Laboral y el Cuestionario de Actos Negativos, cuyos datos fueron analizados descriptivamente. Los resultados indicaron altas tasas de prevalencia de acoso moral (63.1%) y violencia psicológica (33.8%), que advierten sobre la importancia de divulgar información sobre el acoso y sus daños, con el objetivo de una forma más saludable de manejar y trabajar en la cocina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Restaurants , Work , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cooking , Aggression , Bullying , Workplace Violence , Occupational Groups
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 392-397, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153365

ABSTRACT

Abstract Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disease in cats. However, scarce data on its prevalence are available in Brazil. Persian cats and Persian-related breeds were assessed by molecular genotyping for a C to A transversion in exon 29 of PKD1 gene to determine ADPKD prevalence in a Brazilian population. Genomic DNA extracted from peripheral whole blood or oral swabs samples was used to amplify exon 29 of PKD1 gene employing a PCR-RFLP methodology. From a total of 616 animals, 27/537 Persian and 1/17 Himalayan cats showed the single-nucleotide variant (C to A) at position 3284 in exon 29 of feline PKD1. This pathogenic variation has been identified only in heterozygous state. The prevalence of ADPKD in Persian cats and Persian-related breeds was 5.03% and 1.6%, respectively. There was no significant association between feline breed, gender or age with ADPKD prevalence. Of note, the observed ADPKD prevalence in Persian cats and Persian-related breeds in Brazil was lower than the ones reported in other parts of the world. This finding may be related to genetic counseling and consequent selection of ADPKD-free cats for reproduction.


Resumo A doença renal policística autossômica dominante (DRPAD) é a doença genética mais comum em gatos. No entanto, poucos dados sobre sua prevalência estão disponíveis no Brasil. Gatos Persas e de raças relacionadas foram avaliados por genotipagem molecular para a transversão C→A no exon 29 do gene PKD1 felino para determinar a prevalência de DRPAD. DNA genômico extraído de sangue total periférico ou amostras de swabs orais foram utilizados para amplificar o exon 29 do gene PKD1 pela técnica de PCR-RFLP. De um total de 616 gatos, 27/537 Persas e 1/17 Himalaia mostraram a variante de nucleotídeo único (C→A) na posição 3284 no exon 29 do gene PKD1. Esta variante patogênica foi identificada apenas em heterozigose. A prevalência de DRPAD em gatos Persas e raças relacionadas foram de 5,03% e 1,6%, respectivamente. Não houve associações significativas entre raça, gênero ou idade dos felinos e incidência de DRPAD. A prevalência de DRPAD em gatos Persas e raças relacionadas no Brasil foi menor do que em outras partes do mundo, o que pode estar relacionado ao aconselhamento genético e consequente seleção de gatos sem ADPKD para reprodução.

4.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(1): 6-12, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177663

ABSTRACT

Introduction: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are the subject of many studies, some of them reporting a prevalence of up to 50 percent. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with HIV neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in São Paulo city, Brazil. Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional study including 106 HIV-1-infected patients, employing direct interview and neuropsychological tests, applied by trained neuro-psychologists with expertise in the tests. Other, similar assessment tools we used were Brief Neurocognitive Questionnaire, International HIV Dementia Scale, Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Social Support Scale for People with HIV/Aids, Assessment of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Questionnaire, and a complex neuropsychological assessment. Results: We included 106 patients from May 2015 to April 2018. We found a high prevalence of HAND in our patients (45%), with 27.5% presenting asymptomatic neurological impairment (ANI) and 17.5% mild neurological dysfunction (MND); only one patient presented HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (0.9%). Women were more likely to have MND (52.9%) and the only case of HAD was also female. The high prevalence of neurocognitive disorders was independent of the immunological status, use of efavirenz, or virological control. Conclusions: This study may mirror the national and international scenarios, showing a high prevalence of HAND (45%) and the prevalence of some risk factors, in special among women.


Introdução: As doenças neurocognitivas associadas ao HIV (HAND), são o assunto de muitos estudos, alguns deles relatando uma prevalência de até 50 por cento. Objetivos: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados aos distúrbios neurocognitivos do HIV (HAND) em uma coorte de pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1 na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Metodologia: Estudo transversal descritivo incluindo 106 pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1, utilizando entrevista direta e testes neuropsicológicos, aplicados por neuropsicólogos treinados com experiência nos testes. Foram utilizados também: Questionário Neurocognitivo Breve, Escala Internacional de Demência do HIV, Atividades Instrumentais de Vida Diária de Lawton, Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão, Escala de Apoio Social para Pessoas com HIV / Aids, Avaliação da Adesão à Terapia Antiretroviral Questionário e uma bateria de avaliação neuropsicológica complexa. Resultados: Foram avalaidos 106 pacientes de maio de 2015 a abril de 2018. Foi observado uma alta prevalência de HAND em nossos pacientes (45%), com 27,5% apresentando comprometimento neurológico assintomático (ANI) e 17,5% comprometimento cognitive leve (MND); apenas um paciente apresentou demência associada ao HIV (DAH) (0,9%). As mulheres eram mais propensas a ter MND (52,9%) e o único caso de HAD também era do sexo feminino. A alta prevalência de distúrbios neurocognitivos foi independente do estado imunológico, uso de efavirenz ou controle virológico. Conclusões: Este estudo pode espelhar o cenário nacional e internacional, mostrando uma alta prevalência de HAND (45%) e a prevalência de alguns fatores de risco, em especial entre as mulheres.

5.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 51-60, 20210000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178618

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Actualmente el tabaquismo es una de las mayores amenazas para la salud pública a nivel mundial. La muerte atribuida al tabaco en Paraguay representa el 12,2% de todas las muertes y el costo de la enfermedad asociada al consumo de tabaco en el sistema de salud es elevado. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características del consumo de tabaco en jóvenes en Paraguay. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal no probabilístico de muestreo estandarizado con representatividad nacional en estudiantes matriculados del 7° al 9° grado de la educación escolar básica, de 13 a 15 años de ambos sexos que incluyo a 6.518 estudiantes, correspondiente a 25 escuelas de la capital y 25 escuelas en el resto del país. Resultados: La prevalencia actual de consumo de productos de tabaco fue del 7%, fumadores actuales de 3,9% y fumadores de cigarrillos electrónicos de 3,7%. La prevalencia de fumadores de segunda mano fue más del 20% en todos los escenarios estudiados. Alto porcentaje de adolescentes con acceso fácil a la compra de cigarrillos sin verificación de la edad. Más del 50% con acceso a mensajes publicitarios sobre tabaco. Casi un 30% tenían conocimiento del efecto dañino del tabaco y más del 80% se manifiestan favorables a la prohibición de fumar en espacios cerrados y abiertos. Conclusión: Aunque la prevalencia de fumadores en adolescentes no es muy elevada, es un problema de salud pública creciente. Se requiere fortalecer las medidas de prevención y control.


Introduction: Currently, smoking is one of the greatest threats to public health worldwide. Death attributed to tobacco in Paraguay represents 12.2% of all deaths and the cost of the disease associated with tobacco consumption in the health system is high. Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of tobacco consumption in young people in Paraguay. Materials and methods: A non-probabilistic descriptive cross-sectional study of standardized sampling was carried out with national representativeness in students enrolled from 7th to 9th grade of basic school education, from 13 to 15 years old of both sexes that included 6,518 students, corresponding to 25 schools in the capital and 25 schools in the rest of the country. Results: The current prevalence of tobacco product use was 7%, current smokers 3.9%, and electronic cigarette smokers 3.7%. The prevalence of second-hand smokers was more than 20% in all the scenarios studied. High percentage of adolescents with easy access to the purchase of cigarettes without age verification. More than 50% with access to advertising messages about tobacco. Almost 30% were aware of the harmful effect of tobacco and more than 80% are in favor of the prohibition of smoking in closed and open spaces. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of smoking in adolescents is not very high, it is a growing public health problem. It is necessary to strengthen prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
Tobacco , Tobacco Use Disorder , Tobacco Use , Students , Disease , Prevalence , Costs and Cost Analysis , Control
6.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(275): 5514-5529, abr.-2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1224213

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: discutir sobre o impacto do déficit de investimentos para o tratamento da Doença de Chagas no Brasil. Método: trata-se de uma revisão narrativa da literatura realizada nas seguintes bases de dados: SCIELO, LILACS, BIREME e MEDLINE. A amostra final foi composta por 27 artigos científicos publicados entre o período de 2000 a 2020. Resultados: o Brasil é um dos países com maior prevalência de pacientes portadores da doença, porém pouco se avançou em pesquisas nessa área, de modo a repercutir em um baixo incentivo e investimento dos governantes e da indústria farmacêutica para a Doença de Chagas, tendo em vista a doença ser de progressão lenta e o diagnóstico e o tratamento serem tardios. Conclusão: fica evidente a falta de investimento e políticas públicas que possibilitem o diagnóstico e o tratamento precoce da doença tendo como conseqüência um déficit na qualidade de vida dos pacientes.(AU)


Objective: to discuss the impact of the investment deficit for the treatment of Chagas Disease in Brazil. Method: This is a narrative review of the literature conducted in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, BIREME and MEDLINE. The final sample consisted of 27 scientific articles published between 2000 and 2020. Results: Brazil is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of patients with the disease, but little progress has been made in research in this area, so as to have a low incentive and investment from governments and the pharmaceutical industry for Chagas Disease, in view of the disease being of slow progression and the diagnosis and treatment are late. Conclusion: it is evident the lack of investment and public policies that make possible the diagnosis and early treatment of the disease with the consequence of a deficit in the quality of life of the patients.(AU)


Objetivo: discutir el impacto del déficit de inversión para el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas en Brasil. Método: se trata de una revisión narrativa de la literatura realizada en las siguientes bases de datos: SCIELO, LILACS, BIREME y MEDLINE. La muestra final consistió en 27 artículos científicos publicados entre 2000 y 2020. Resultados: el Brasil es uno de los países con mayor prevalencia de pacientes con la enfermedad, pero se ha avanzado poco en la investigación en esta área, para tener un bajo incentivo e inversión de los gobiernos y de la industria farmacéutica para la enfermedad de Chagas, considerando que la enfermedad es de progresión lenta y el diagnóstico y tratamiento son tardíos. Conclusión: es evidente la falta de inversión y de políticas públicas que permitan el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz de la enfermedad con el consiguiente déficit en la calidad de vida de los pacientes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Prevalence , Chagas Disease/therapy , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Health Policy , Investments , Therapeutics/economics , Public Health Policy
7.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(1): 1-7, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222342

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La policitemia afecta del 1 a 5% de los recién nacidos, se asocia a complica-ciones por afectación orgánica y sistémica en el neonato que puede ser prevenible. El ob-jetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la prevalencia de Policitemia neonatal y sus factores asociados en recién nacidos en un servicio de maternidad Público de la ciudad de Cuenca-Ecuador. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, el universo estuvo conformado por todos los recién nacidos en el servicio de maternidad del Hospital ¨Vicente Corral Moscoso¨. La muestra fue probabilística de 470 neonatos y sus madres. Para identificar asociación se realizó mediante X2 y para medir intensidad de asociación se utilizó OR (IC 95%) y valor de P < 0.05. Resultados: Ingresaron al estudio en forma aleatoria 470 casos. Se obtuvo una prevalencia del 12.8%. La residencia materna del 93% fue por sobre los 2000 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Los factores asociados fueron: bajo peso al nacer (OR 3.8; IC95%: 1.9 ­ 7.5) P < 0.001), patología materna incluida la diabetes (OR 2.6, IC95%: 1.3 ­ 5.2) P = 0.013), toxemia del em-barazo (OR 2.3; IC95%: 0.7 ­ 7.6) P = 0.134 y asociación negativa con prematuridad (OR 0.3; IC 95%: 0.07 ­ 1.2) P = 0.099. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de policitemia neonatal es alta y se asocia significativamente con bajo peso al nacer, patología materna.


Introduction: Polycythemia affects 1 to 5% of newborns, it is associated with complications due to organic and systemic involvement in the newborn that can be preventable. The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence of neonatal polycythemia and its associated factors in newborns in a public maternity service in the city of Cuenca-Ecuador. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, the universe was made up of all new-borns in the maternity service of the ¨Vicente Corral Moscoso¨ Hospital. The sample was probabilistic of 470 neonates and their mothers. To identify association, it was performed using X2 and to measure association intensity, OR (95% CI) and P value <0.05 were used. Results: 470 cases were randomly entered into the study. A prevalence of 12.8% was ob-tained. The 93% maternal residence was above 2000 meters above sea level. The associat-ed factors were: low birth weight (OR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9 - 7.5) P <0.001), maternal pathology including diabetes (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3 - 5.2) P = 0.013), pregnancy toxemia (OR 2.3; 95% CI: 0.7 - 7.6) P = 0.134 and negative association with prematurity (OR 0.3; 95% CI: 0.07 - 1.2) P = 0.099. Conclusions: the prevalence of neonatal polycythemia is high and is significantly associated with low birth weight, maternal pathology.


Subject(s)
Polycythemia , Infant, Newborn , Risk Factors , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight
8.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(1): 1-7, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222349

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las Infecciones asociadas a la atención de la salud (IAAS) son procesos infecciosos transmisibles que se presentan después de 48 horas de hospitalización sin estar presentes en el momento de ingreso. El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer la prevalencia y sus factores asociados. Métodos: El presente estudio de tipo transversal y analítico se realizó en el área de Pediatría y Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos del Hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso de Cuenca, Ecuador en el período Mayo 2018-Octubre 2019. Se incluyeron con una muestra probabilística niños de 29 días de edad hasta menores de 16 años. Las variables observadas fueron la presencia de IAAS, edad, estado nutricional, diagnóstico de ingreso, días de hospitalización, uso de ventilación mecánica, uso de catéteres, sitio de internación, germen aislado y resistencia antibiótica. Se utiliza estadística descriptiva y razón de prevalencia (RP). Resultados: Fueron 385 casos, 212 hombres (55.1%). La edad más prevalente: lactantes 31.4%. La prevalencia de IAAS fue del 13.5% (IC95% 13.33-13.68%). La principal IAAS fue la sepsis (40.4%), seguida por la neumonía (36.5%). La edad <24 meses RP 2.55 (IC95% 1.5-4.2, P<0.001), Desnutrición RP 4.07 (IC95% 2.5-6.6, P=<0.001), hospitalización >14 días RP 32.0 (IC95% 16.6-61.6 P<0.001), uso de catéter venoso central RP 16.6 (IC95% 8.7-32.2, P<0.001). Conclusiones: Existe una prevalencia de IASS mayor al 10% y se asocia con factores que condiciona mayor permanencia hospitalaria, desnutrición y uso de dispositivos invasivos.


Introduction: Infections associated with health care (HAI) are communicable infectious processes that occur after 48 hours of hospitalization without being present at the time of admission. The objective of the present study was to establish the prevalence and its associated factors. Methods: The present cross-sectional and analytical study was carried out in the area of Pediatrics and the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Vicente Corral Moscoso Hospital in Cuenca, Ecuador in the period May 2018-October 2019. Children of 29 days of age to under 16 years were included with a probabilistic sample. The variables observed were the presence of HAI, age, nutritional status, admission diagnosis, days of hospitalization, use of mechanical ventilation, use of catheters, hospitalization site, isolated germ, and antibiotic resistance. Descriptive statistics and prevalence ratio (PR) are used. Results: There were 385 cases, 212 men (55.1%). The most prevalent age: infants 31.4%. The prevalence of HAI was 13.5% (95% CI 13.33-13.68%). The main HAI was sepsis (40.4%), followed by pneumonia (36.5%). Age <24 months PR 2.55 (95% CI 1.5-4.2, P <0.001), Malnutrition PR 4.07 (95% CI 2.5-6.6, P = <0.001), hospitalization> 14 days PR 32.0 (95% CI 16.6-61.6 P <0.001), so from central venous catheter RP 16.6 (95% CI 8.7-32.2, P <0.001). Conclusions: There is a prevalence of IASS greater than 10% and it is associated with factors that condition longer hospital stays, malnutrition and the use of invasive devices.


Subject(s)
Pediatrics , Cross Infection , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors , Malnutrition
9.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(1): 1-8, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222375

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Organización mundial de la salud expresa que la depresión es un trastorno mental frecuente, caracterizado por aparición de tristeza, pérdida de interés o placer, sentimientos de culpa o falta de autoestima, trastornos del sueño, apetito, sensación de cansancio y falta de concentración. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de depresión y factores asociados en los adolescentes de 14 a 18 años estudiantes de la Unidad Educativa Luis Cordero en la ciudad de Azogues en el año 2019. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de tipo analítica y transversal. La muestra fue de 262 estudiantes de 14 a 18 años en la Unidad Educativa Luis Cordero. Se aplicó una encuesta, que incluyó la escala HAD (Hospital anxiety and Depression Scale ), la información fue recolectada en formularios, se procesaron los datos utilizando el programa SPSS V.15 mediante frecuencia absoluta, porcentaje, Chi cuadrado y Odds ratio con un Intervalo de Con-fianza de 95% y valor P=0.05. Resultados: al aplicar el Cuestionario HAD se determinó una prevalencia de depresión del 25.9%. La depresión en mujeres fue de 14.1%, mientras que en hombres fue el 11.8%, residen en áreas urbanas (21.4%), no tienen padres migrantes (19.5%), su percepción de la existencia de violencia intrafamiliar (23.3%) y su percepción de bajo rendimiento académico (21%). En cuanto a la edad, no se encontró diferencias, correspondiendo cada grupo etario al 13%. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de depresión en los adolescentes es alta, los más afectados son las mujeres y los que presentan bajo rendimiento académico; sin encontrar asociación estadística entre las variables analizadas y la presencia de depresión.


Introduction: The World Health Organization has stated that depression is a very frequent mental disorder, characterized by the appearance of sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or lack of self-esteem, sleep or appetite disorders, feeling tired, and having a lack of concentration. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression and associated factors in adolescents from 14 to 18 years students of the Luis Cordero High School in the city of Azogues, Cañar-Ecuador in the year 2019. Methods: An analytical and cross-sectional investigation was carried out. The sample con-sisted of 262 students aged 14 to 18 in the Luis Cordero Luis Cordero High School. A survey was applied, which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Information was collected on forms, the data was processed using the SPSS V.15 program by absolute frequency, percentage, Chi square and odds ratio with a 95% confidence Interval and value P=0.05, which are represented in tables. Results: When applying the HADS questionnaire, students were determined to have a rate of depression of 26%. The prevalence of depression in women was 14.1%, while in men it was 11.8%. These students resided in urban areas (21.4%) and did not have migrant parents (19.5%). The existence of domestic violence was 23.3% and poor academic performance was 21%. Regarding age, no differences were found with each age group corresponding to 13%. Conclusions: The prevalence of depression in adolescents is high. The most affected are women and those with poor academic performance. However, there was no statistical association between the analyzed variables and the presence of depression.


Subject(s)
Students , Adolescent , Depression , Anxiety , Patient Health Questionnaire
10.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(1): 1-9, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222376

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección del tracto urinario es una afectación frecuente en niños, y su recurrencia predispone a patologías crónicas que disminuyen la sobrevida de pacientes hospitalizados. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de infección del tracto urinario y factores asociados en niños hospitalizados de 0 a 5 años. Métodos: El presente estudio es transversal analítico, el universo lo constituyó los niños hospitalizados en pediatría de 0 -5 años del Hospital ¨José Carrasco Arteaga¨ de Cuenca-Ecuador, la muestra fue probabilística 147 casos, el muestreo fue aleatorio simple. Las variables fueron presencia de ITU, edad, sexo, nivel socio-económico, balanitis, estreñimiento, antecedentes de ITU. En el análisis bivariado se determinó asociación mediante chi cuadrado y se midió la intensidad de asociación por Razón de prevalencia (RP) con un Intervalo de confianza del 95% y un valor significativo de P< 0.05. Resultados: Fueron 147 casos. La prevalencia de ITU fue 10.6%, se presentaron como factores protectores: edad < 1 año RP 0.21 (IC 95% 0.16-0.42, P<0.001) y el sexo masculino RP 0.28 (IC 0.18-0.471, P<0.001). Los factores de riesgo fueron: el nivel socioeconómico medio-bajo RP 1.70 (IC 1.01-2.86, P=0.04), balanitis RP 3.23 (IC 2.48-4.21, P=0.012), fimosis RP 29.37 (IC 6.34-136.3., P<0.001), sinequias RP 1.43 (IC 1.14-1.79, P=0.02), el antecedente de infección del tracto urinario RP 78.91 (IC 10.72-580.7, P<0.001) y estreñimiento RP 4.51 (IC 2.16-9.50, P<0.001). La hidronefrosis fue el hallazgo ecográfico más frecuente RP 78.9 (IC 10.7-580.7, P<0.001). Conclusiones: El sexo masculino fue un factor protector, y alteraciones anatómicas del tracto urinario fueron los mayores factores de riesgo.


Introduction: Urinary tract infection is a frequent affliction in children, and its recurrence predisposes the patient to chronic pathologies that decrease the survival of hospitalized patients. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection and associated factors in hospitalized children aged 0 to 5 years. Methods: The present study is cross-sectional analytical. The universe was made up of children hospitalized in pediatrics, aged 0-5 years, at "José Carrasco Arteaga" Hospital in Cuenca-Ecuador. The sample was probabilistic, with 147 cases, while the sampling was simple random. The variables were the presence of UTI, age, sex, socioeconomic status, balanitis, constipation, and history of UTI. In the bivariate analysis, the association was determined using chi-square, and the intensity of the association was measured by prevalence ratio (PR) with a 95% confidence interval and a significant value of P <0.05. Results: There were 147 cases. The prevalence of UTI was 10.6%. The following were presented as protective factors: age <1 year PR 0.21 (95% CI 0.16-0.42, P <0.001) and male sex PR 0.28 (CI 0.18-0.471, P <0.001). The risk factors were: low-middle socioeconomic level PR 1.70 (CI 1.01-2.86, P = 0.04), balanitis PR 3.23 (CI 2.48-4.21, P = 0.012), phimosis PR 29.37 (CI 6.34-136.3., P <0.001), synechiae PR 1.43 (CI 1.14-1.79, P= 0.02), history of urinary tract infection PR 78.91 (CI 10.72-580.7, P <0.001), and constipation PR 4.51 (CI 2.16-9.50, P <0.001 ). Hydronephrosis was the most frequent ultrasound finding PR 78.9 (CI 10.7-580.7, P <0.001). Conclusions: Male sex was a protective factor, and anatomical alterations of the urinary tract were the major risk factors.


Subject(s)
Pediatrics , Urinary Tract Infections , Urologic Diseases , Risk Factors
11.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 55(1): 27-34, ene. - abr. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1248277

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la diabetes mellitus (DM) se considera un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de adenocarcinoma ductal de páncreas (ACDP). Objetivos: describir la prevalencia de DM y glucemia en ayuno alterada (GAA) al diagnóstico de ACDP en pacientes asistidos en un centro de referencia gastroenterológico; analizar las diferencias en las características personales y nutricionales en pacientes con ACDP y DM, ACDP y GAA, y ACDP sin DM ni GAA; establecer el tiempo transcurrido desde el diagnóstico de DM hasta diagnosticar ACDP. Materiales y métodos: de octubre de 2019 a marzo de 2020 se revisaron 465 historias clínicas de las Secciones Oncología y Nutrición de pacientes >18 años con diagnóstico de ACDP. Resultados: se registraron 171 historias clínicas (36,7%) con ACDP y DM, y 294 (63,2%) con ACDP sin DM. En el 45,1% de las primeras, el intervalo entre el diagnóstico de DM y el de ACDP fue <1 año, y en el 17,65%, 15,69% y 21,57% los lapsos correspondieron a 1 y 5 años, entre 5 y 10 años y >10 años respectivamente. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de DM en ACDP fue superior a la registrada en la población general (37% vs 12,7%), siendo del 45,10% cuando se presentó dentro del primer año del diagnóstico oncológico. Nuestros resultados concuerdan con la bibliografía internacional que relaciona la DM de reciente diagnóstico como factor asociado a la presencia de ACDP por factores de riesgo compartidos, variables fisiopatológicas de la DM o a consecuencia de la terapéutica farmacológica de la misma.


Introduction: diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a risk factor for the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Objectives: describe the prevalence of DM and of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) at the diagnosis of PDAC, among patients assisted in a gastroenterological reference center. Analyze differences in personal and nutritional characteristics in patients with both PDAC and DM; with both PDAC and IFG; and with PDAC but neither DM nor IFG. Determine the time lapse between the diagnosis of DM and the diagnosis of PDAC. Materials and methods: between October 2019 and March 2020, we analyzed 465 clinical records of PDAC-diagnosed patients over 18 years, from Oncology and Nutrition Sections. Results: 171 clinical records (36.7%) showed both PDAC and DM; 294 clinical records (63.2%) showed PDAC but not DM. In 45.1% of the former, the interval between the diagnosis of DM and that of PDAC was <1 year, and in 17.65%, 15.69% and 21.57%, the lapses corresponded to 1 and 5 years, between 5 and 10 years y >10 years, respectively. Conclusions: the prevalence of DM in PDAC patients (37%) is higher than that registered in the overall population (12.7%), reaching a 45.10% when detected during the first year of oncological diagnosis. Our results match the international literature relating recently-diagnosed DM with the presence of PDAC, as effect of shared risk factors between both diseases, or DM pathophysiology factors, or DM pharmacological therapeutic


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Pancreas , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Blood Glucose , Glucose , Medical Oncology
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): 99-105, abril 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151488

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La obesidad infantil en España es preocupante y el entorno familiar puede influir en su desarrollo. Los objetivos fueron determinar la prevalencia de exceso de peso en adolescentes, evaluar variables familiares que pudieran condicionarla y determinar la percepción corporal de los padres.Población y métodos. Estudio transversal; se incluyeron alumnos de cinco centros de secundaria del Área V de Murcia. Se registró antropometría de los alumnos y se administró una encuesta a los padres con variables de peso, talla, ejercicio, estudios, tipo de familia y percepción corporal. Se realizó el análisis mediante tablas de contingencia y asociación con d de Somers.Resultados. Participaron 421 alumnos (edad: 12,8 ± 0,6 años); el 21,1 % tenían sobrepeso, y el 19,5 %, obesidad. Existió asociación entre padres e hijos con sobrecarga ponderal (d de Somers con p < 0,05). Si ambos padres eran sedentarios, sus hijos realizaban menos ejercicio. A mayor nivel de estudios parental, menor tasa de sobrepeso infantil (p < 0,05). El sobrepeso-obesidad en los hijos fue mayor en familias separadas o monoparentales. El 32 % de los padres no percibía el exceso de peso de sus hijos ni el 53 % en sí mismos.Conclusiones. La prevalencia de exceso de peso en esta muestra fue del 40,6 %. El estado nutricional de los padres, el nivel de estudios y el tipo de familia se asociaron con la obesidad infantil. Influyó en mayor medida la figura materna. Existió una infraconsideración de la obesidad por parte de los padres.


Introduction. In Spain, childhood obesity is worrying, and its development might be influenced by the family setting. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of excess weight among adolescents, evaluate family variables that could affect it, and determine parents' body perception.Population and methods. Cross-sectional study; students from five secondary schools in health area V of the Region of Murcia were included. Students' anthropometric measurements were recorded and a survey was administered to parents, including variables such as weight, height, exercise, level of education, family structure, and body perception. The analysis was done using contingency tables and the association with Somers' D measures.Results. Four hundred and twenty one students participated (age: 12.8 ± 0.6 years old); 21.1 % were overweight and 19.5 %, obese. There was an association between parent and child excess weight (Somers' D with a p value < 0.05). If both parents had a sedentary lifestyle, their children would exercise less. The higher the level of parental education, the lower the rate of childhood overweight (p < 0.05). Overweight-obesity among children was higher in separated or single-parent families. In total, 32 % of parents misperceived their children's excess weight and 53 %, their own.Conclusions. In this sample, the prevalence of excess weight was 40.6 %. Parents' nutritional status, level of education, and family structure were associated with childhood obesity. Mothers had a greater influence on the development of their children's overweight. Parents underestimated obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Nutritional Status , Overweight , Life Style , Parents , Spain/epidemiology , Exercise , Family , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
13.
Rev. Urug. med. Interna ; 6(1): 24-33, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155638

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El tabaquismo es la principal causa de enfermedad y muerte a nivel mundial, siendo una comorbilidad frecuente en los pacientes hospitalizados, con estadías mayores y peores resultados. En el Hospital de Clínicas, no hay estudios que evalúen la prevalencia del tabaquismo en usuarios internados desde el 2005. Objetivo: valorar prevalencia de tabaquistas y sus características en los pacientes que ingresan a sala de cuidados moderados de un Hospital Universitario. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico, de corte transversal. Resultados: Se incluyeron 100 pacientes, 38% eran tabaquistas, 27% ex tabaquistas y 35% no tenían historia de tabaquismo. La edad media fue de 48.65 años entre los tabaquistas; 63,11 en los ex tabaquistas; 58,68 en los no tabaquistas. Refirieron abstinencia 44,73% de los tabaquistas y pretendían mantener la abstinencia. La media de internación del grupo de tabaquistas fue de 31,07 días, mientras que entre no tabaquistas fue de 20,11 (p=0.1337). Falleció 14% de la población del estudio durante la internación. De este grupo, 14,28% no eran tabaquistas, 28,57% eran ex tabaquistas y 57,14% eran tabaquistas (p=0.0569). La media de edad de fallecimiento en los tabaquistas fue de 49,37 años, en los ex tabaquistas de 70,75 años y de 76 años en los no tabaquistas. Conclusiones e Implicancias: alta prevalencia de tabaquismo en pacientes hospitalizados, con mayor estadía de internación, y mayor mortalidad a menor edad. Muchos fumadores están altamente motivados al cese y se verían beneficiados de equipos interdisciplinarios para su abordaje.


Abstract: Introduction: Smoking is the main cause of disease and death worldwide, being a frequent comorbidity in hospitalized patients, with longer stays and worse results. At Hospital de Clínicas, there are no studies evaluating the prevalence of smoking in hospitalized users since 2005. Objective: to assess the prevalence of smokers and their characteristics in patients admitted to the moderate care room of a University Hospital. Methods: Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study. Results: 100 patients were included, 38% were smokers, 27% ex-smokers and 35% had no history of smoking. The mean age was 48.65 years among the smokers; 63.11 in former smokers; 58.68 in non-smokers. 44.73% of the smokers reported abstinence and intended to maintain abstinence. The mean hospitalization of the group of smokers was 31.07 days, while among non-smokers it was 20.11 (p = 0.1337). 14% of the study population died during hospitalization. Of this group, 14.28% were not smokers, 28.57% were ex-smokers and 57.14% were smokers (p = 0.0569). The mean age of death in smokers was 49.37 years, in ex-smokers it was 70.75 years and 76 years in non-smokers. Conclusions and Implications: high prevalence of smoking in hospitalized patients, with longer hospital stays, and higher mortality at a younger age. Many smokers are highly motivated to quit and would benefit from interdisciplinary teams to address them.


Resumo: Introdução: O tabagismo é a principal causa de doença e morte em todo o mundo, sendo uma comorbidade frequente em pacientes hospitalizados, com maior tempo de permanência e piores resultados. No Hospital de Clínicas, não há estudos avaliando a prevalência de tabagismo em usuários hospitalizados desde 2005. Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de fumantes e suas características em pacientes internados na unidade de terapia moderada de um Hospital Universitário. Métodos: Estudo observacional, analítico, transversal. Resultados: 100 pacientes foram incluídos, 38% eram fumantes, 27% ex-fumantes e 35% não tinham história de tabagismo. A média de idade foi de 48,65 anos entre os fumantes; 63,11 em ex-fumantes; 58,68 em não fumantes. 44,73% dos fumantes relataram abstinência e pretendem manter a abstinência. A média de internação do grupo de fumantes foi de 31,07 dias, enquanto entre os não fumantes foi de 20,11 (p = 0,1337). 14% da população do estudo morreu durante a hospitalização. Desse grupo, 14,28% não eram fumantes, 28,57% eram ex-fumantes e 57,14% eram fumantes (p = 0,0569). A idade média de morte em fumantes foi 49,37 anos, em ex-fumantes foi 70,75 anos e 76 anos em não fumantes. Conclusões e implicações: alta prevalência de tabagismo em pacientes hospitalizados, com maior tempo de internação e maior mortalidade em idades mais jovens. Muitos fumantes estão altamente motivados para parar de fumar e se beneficiariam de equipes interdisciplinares para abordá-los.

14.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(1): 172-186, jan.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177387

ABSTRACT

Este estudo avaliou a prevalência de Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) em universitários, associando sexo, estágio de conclusão de curso e tipo de mídia acessada em uma instituição privada. A condição de FOMO foi investigada por meio do instrumento Scale of Assessment of FOMO com a participação de 311 estudantes. A prevalência de alto FOMO foi de 59,2%. No modelo final, as variáveis que se mostraram associadas à FOMO foram ser do sexo feminino, estar cursando a primeira metade do curso, sensação de FOMO quando não se checa mídias sociais, uso de WhatsApp mais de 5 vezes ao dia, uso de Messenger mais de 5 vezes ao dia, FOMO durante o trabalho e FOMO quando sozinho. As sensações e sentimentos associados ao FOMO sugerem influências na tomada de decisões em rotinas comportamentais diárias na produção da individualidade, identidade, no convívio e na interação social cotidiana.


This study evaluated the prevalence of Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) in university students, associating sex, course completion stage and type of media accessed in a private institution. The condition of FOMO was investigated using the Scale of Assessment of FOMO instrument with the participation of 311 students. The prevalence of high FOMO was 59.2%. In the final model, the variables that were associated with FOMO were being female, attending the first half of the course, feeling of FOMO when not checking social media, using WhatsApp more than 5 times a day, using Messenger more than 5 times a day, FOMO during work and FOMO when alone. The sensations and feelings associated with FOMO suggest influences in decisionmaking in daily behavioral routines in the production of individuality, identity, in social interaction and in daily social interaction.


Este estudio evaluó la prevalencia del miedo a perderse (FOMO) en estudiantes universitarios, asociando el sexo, la etapa de finalización del curso y el tipo de medios a los que se accede en una institución privada. La condición de FOMO se investigó utilizando la escala de evaluación del instrumento FOMO con la participación de 311 estudiantes. La prevalencia de FOMO alto fue del 59,2%. En el modelo final, las variables que se asociaron con FOMO fueron ser mujeres, estar en la primera mitad del curso, sentir FOMO al no revisar las redes sociales, usar WhatsApp más de 5 veces al día, usar Messenger más 5 veces al día, FOMO durante el trabajo y FOMO cuando está solo. Las sensaciones y sentimientos asociados con FOMO sugieren influencias en la toma de decisiones en las rutinas conductuales diarias en la producción de individualidad, identidad, en la interacción social y en la interacción social diaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students , Behavior , Internet , Education, Higher , Social Media , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection
15.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 70(1): 59-67, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180819

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study comprises a systematic review and meta-analysis that aimed to estimate the prevalence of dementia in long-term care institutions (LTCIs). Methods: We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Original transversal and longitudinal articles published until July 2020 were eligible in this review. Databases PubMed/MedLine, Web of Science, Scopus and ScienceDirect were searched. Overall prevalence and confidence intervals were estimated. Heterogeneity was calculated according to the index of heterogeneity (I2). Results: One hundred seventy-five studies were found in all databases and 19 studies were meta-analyses, resulting in an overall prevalence of 53% (CI 46-59%; p < 0.01) of demented older adults living in LTCIs. Conclusion: Prevalence of dementia is higher in older adults living in LTCIs than those living in general communities. This data shows a worrying reality that needs to be changed. There is a need for a better understanding of the elements that cause this increase in dementia in LTCFs to direct actions to improve the quality of life and health of institutionalized elderly.


RESUMO Objetivo: Esta revisão sistemática e metanálise objetiva estimar a prevalência de demência em instituições de longa permanência para idosos (ILPIs). Métodos: Utilizou-se o Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Artigos originais transversais e longitudinais publicados até julho de 2020 foram elegíveis para esta revisão. As buscas foram conduzidas por meio das bases de dados do PubMed/MedLine, Web of Science, Scopus e Science Direct. A prevalência geral e o intervalo de confiança foram estimados. A heterogeneidade foi calculada de acordo com o índice de heterogeneidade (I2). Resultados: Cento e setenta e cinco estudos foram encontrados em todas as bases de dados e 19 estudos foram analisados, resultando em uma prevalência geral de idosos com demência de 53% (IC 46-59%; p < 0,01) que habitam em ILPIs. Conclusão: A prevalência de demência é maior em idosos moradores de ILPIs que em idosos da população geral. Tal dado mostra uma realidade preocupante e que precisa ser modificada. Há necessidade de melhor entendimento dos elementos que causam esse aumento de demência nas ILPIs para direcionar ações para melhorar a qualidade de vida e a saúde dos idosos institucionalizados.

16.
J. health sci. (Londrina) ; 23(1): https://revista.pgsskroton.com/index.php/JHealthSci/article/view/8195, 20210330.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179425

ABSTRACT

Dyschromatopsia is defined as an abnormality of color vision, a deficiency that can cause difficulties in the day-to-day of some careers in the health area, including medicine, as it makes clinical practice difficult and may lead to potential errors. The objective was identify the presence of Dyschromatopsias in the student and teaching community of UEMS Medicine School course and the repercussions they bring to the performance of activities related to medical activity. It is a quantitative, observational, cross-sectional and descriptive research. 160 individuals were evaluated, including Medicine School students and professors at the campus of UEMS - Campo Grande Unit, by reading pseudo-isochromatic slides from the Book of Ishihara. Data were tabulated in Excel and analyzed using non-parametric statistics. Of the 160 volunteers, 25 were professors (15.6%) and 135 students (84.3%). Most were female. Only 02 of the 58 volunteers (1.25%) surveyed, had color vision deficiency. Both patients with dyschromatopsia were already aware of their clinical conditions, and were classified in the research as having Deutan deficiency (green, red-green by Ishihara plates 16 and 17). The participants denied having a family history of this disease and both reported difficulties in the microscopies study and during medical prescriptions, due to the color of the pens to be used. The prevalence of Dyschromatopsias was 1.25%, and the 2 affected participants in the medical field already had knowledge of their disability. (AU)


Discromatopsia é definida como anormalidade da visão das cores, deficiência esta que pode causar dificuldades no dia-a-dia de algumas carreiras da área da saúde, incluindo medicina, pois dificulta a prática clínica e pode levar a potenciais erros. O objetivo foi identificar a presença de discromatopsias na comunidade discente e docente do curso de Medicina da UEMS e a repercussão que estas trazem para o desempenho das atividades relativas à atividade médica. Trata-se de uma pesquisa quantitativa, observacional, transversal e descritiva. Avaliou-se 160 indivíduos entre discentes e docentes de medicina do campus da UEMS ­ Unidade Campo Grande através da leitura de lâminas pseudo-isocromáticas do Livro de Ishihara. Dados foram tabulados em Excel e analisados via estatística não paramétrica. Dos 160 voluntários, 25 eram docentes (15,6%) e 135 discentes (84,3%), sendo que a maioria pertencia ao sexo feminino. Apenas 02 dos 58 voluntários (1,25%) pesquisados, apresentaram deficiência da visão de cores. Ambos os portadores de discromatopsia possuíam conhecimento de suas condições clínicas, e foram classificados na pesquisa como tendo deficiência Deutan (verde, vermelho-verde pelas placas 16 e 17 de Ishihara). Os participantes negaram ter histórico familiar deste acometimento e ambos referiram dificuldades no estudo das microscopias e durante as prescrições médicas, devido à cor das canetas a serem utilizadas. A prevalência das discromatopsias foi de 1,25%, e os 2 participantes afetados no meio médico já apresentavam conhecimento de sua deficiência. (AU)

17.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-10, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151569

ABSTRACT

La sexualidad es un aspecto importante en la calidad de vida de la mujer, sin embargo, los estudios sobre sexualidad dedicados a las mujeres de 60 años y más son escasos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de la disfunción sexual femenina y sus dominios en mujeres de 60 años y más, e identificar la asociación entre enfermedades asociadas y consumo de medicamentos con la disfunción sexual. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal, en mujeres de 60 años y más, de La Habana, Cuba. Participaron 112 mujeres a las cuales se les aplicaron dos encuestas: el Índice de Función Sexual Femenino (IFSF) y otra que recogía antecedentes médicos y sociales. El 66,1% de las mujeres presentó algún grado de disfunción sexual, la prevalencia aumentaba con la edad. Los dominios más afectados fueron el deseo, la excitación y la lubricación. Se identificó una fuerte asociación entre la enfermedad de Parkinson, la depresión y la artrosis con la aparición de disfunción sexual en la población estudiada, así como el uso de antidepresivos, hipoglicemiantes orales y diuréticos. La disfunción sexual estuvo presente en el 100% de las mujeres octogenarias. Todas las mujeres con enfermedad de Parkinson presentaron disfunción sexual.


Sexuality is an important aspect in women's quality of life, however, sexuality studies dedicated to women age 60 and older are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction and its domains in women age 60 and older, and to identify the association between diseases and drug use with sexual dysfunction. A descriptive and cross-cutting study was conducted, in women 60 years and older, in Havana, Cuba. Two surveys participated in 112 women: The Female Sexual Function Index (IFSF) and another who collected a medical and social history. 66.1% of women had some degree of sexual dysfunction, the prevalence increased with age. The domains most affected were desire, excitement, and lubrication. A strong association between Parkinson's disease, depression and osteoarthritis was identified with the onset of sexual dysfunction in the studied population, as well as the use of antidepressants, oral hypoglycemics and diuretics. Sexual dysfunction was present in 100% of octogenary women. All women with Parkinson's disease had sexual dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/epidemiology , Sexuality/psychology , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological , Parkinson Disease/complications , Quality of Life , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Distribution , Cuba/epidemiology , Depression/complications
18.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-4, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151626

ABSTRACT

The effect of climatological parameter on infectious disease is an interesting issue in clinical epidemiology. Of several parameters, rainfall is reported for its interrelationship with many tropical diseases such as malaria. In this short communication, the authors report the observation on correlation between rainfall and the prevalence of scrub typhus from a tropical endemic country.


El efecto del parámetro climatológico en las enfermedades infecciosas es un tema interesante en la epidemiología clínica. De varios parámetros, se reportan precipitaciones por su interrelación con muchas enfermedades tropicales como el paludismo. En esta breve comunicación, los autores informan de la observación sobre la correlación entre las precipitaciones y la prevalencia del tifus de matorral de un país endémico tropical.


Subject(s)
Rain , Scrub Typhus/etiology , Prevalence , Thailand , Tropical Climate , Endemic Diseases
19.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(1): 50-57, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152860

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The main objective is to determine the prevalence of American trypanosomiasis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy in a tertiary hospital in western Mexico. Methods: From January 1991 to February 2016, 387 consecutive patients with a confirmed diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy were included in the study. Cases with ventricular dilatation secondary to ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease, hypertension, lung disease, pericardial disease, or congenital heart disease were excluded from the study. Diagnosis was made detecting antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi with two different methods or parasite in blood. Results: Were included 387 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, Chagas cardiomyopathy was confirmed in 6.9%, two patients in the acute phase (in one, suspected transfusion transmission was detected). Most patients were born in rural areas. About 96.2% showed congestive heart failure, only one patient with apical left ventricular aneurysm manifested palpitations. About 66% with right bundle branch block, left anterior fascicular block, or the association of both, in 14.8%, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia was found. Conclusions: Chagas cardiomyopathy is common in México, mainly in people who were born or lived during childhood in rural areas. It is a common cause of heart failure. Chagas’ heart disease should be suspected in patients receiving a blood transfusion, even without another epidemiological history.


Resumen Objetivo: El objetivo principal del estudio es conocer la prevalencia de tripanosomiasis americana en pacientes con cardiomiopatía dilatada, en un hospital de concentración en el occidente de México. Métodos: Desde enero de 1991 a febrero de 2016 se incluyeron 387 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de cardiomiopatía dilatada, se excluyeron los casos con dilatación ventricular secundaria a cardiopatía isquémica, valvulopatías, hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedad pulmonar, enfermedad pericárdica o cardiopatías congénitas. El diagnóstico se realizó mediante la detección de anticuerpos anti-tripanosoma cruzi con 2 métodos positivos diferentes o con la detección del parásito en sangre. Resultados: Se incluyeron 387 paciente con cardiomiopatía dilatada, en el 6.9% se confirmó cardiopatía chagásica; dos pacientes en fase aguda (uno con sospecha de transmisión transfusional). La mayoría de los pacientes provenían de zonas rurales. El 96.2% de los casos presentó insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva, un paciente con aneurisma apical del ventrículo izquierdo solo manifestó palpitaciones. El 66% presentó bloqueo de la rama derecha del haz de His, hemibloqueo anterior izquierdo o la asociación de ambos, en el 14.8% se encontró taquicardia ventricular no sostenida. Conclusiones: La cardiopatía chagásica es frecuente en nuestro medio, principalmente en personas que nacieron o vivieron durante la infancia en áreas rurales. Es causa común de insuficiencia cardiaca. La cardiomiopatía chagásica debe sospecharse en pacientes que reciben transfusión sanguínea, incluso sin otros antecedentes epidemiológicos

20.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(3): 1085-1094, mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153818

ABSTRACT

Abstract We investigated the feasibility of including plasma anti-NMDAR antibody screening in the assessment of first-episode psychosis patients in an early intervention programme in the Southern hemisphere. Anti-NMDAR IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA in 166 patients (64.0% men), 166 matched population-based controls and 76 patients' siblings (30.3% men). Fisher's exact test and ANOVA were performed. Positive anti-NMDAR antibody patients were more often observed in bipolar disorder (10.0%) than schizophrenia (2.4%) or psychotic depression (3.1%), although no significant differences were observed. Our results are not conclusive regarding the inclusion of plasma anti-NMDAR IgG antibodies in differential diagnostic protocols for psychosis.


Resumo Nós investigamos a viabilidade de incluir a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-NMDAR na avaliação de pacientes em primeiro episódio psicótico em um programa de intervenção precoce no Hemisfério Sul. Anticorpos IgG anti-NMDAR foram avaliados por ELISA em 166 pacientes (64,0% homens), 166 controles de base populacional pareados e 76 irmãos (30,3% homens). Foram realizados teste exato de Fisher e ANOVA. Os anticorpos anti-NMDAR positivos foram mais observados no transtorno afetivo bipolar (10,0%) do que na esquizofrenia (2,4%) ou depressão psicótica (3,1%), embora não tenham sido observadas diferenças significativas. Nossos resultados não são conclusivos quanto à inclusão de anticorpos IgG anti-NMDAR no plasma em protocolos de diagnósticos diferenciais para psicose.

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