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1.
J Health Econ ; : 102282, 2020 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955865

ABSTRACT

Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has become a key goal of health policy in many developing countries. However, implementing UHC poses tough policy choices about: what treatments to provide (the depth of coverage); to what proportion of the population (the breadth of coverage); at what price to patients (the height of coverage). This paper uses a theoretical mathematical programming model to derive analytically the optimal balance between the range of services provided and the proportion of the population covered under UHC, using the general principles of cost-effectiveness analysis. In contrast to most CEA, the model allows for variations in both the costs of provision and the social benefits of treatments, depending on the deprivation level of the population. We illustrate empirically the optimal trade-off between the size of the benefits package and the proportion of the population securing access to each treatment for a hypothetical East African country, based on WHO data on the costs and benefits of treatments at different coverage levels. We begin with a scenario allowing coverage levels to vary, then apply differential equity weights to the benefits of coverage, and finally illustrate a scenario where interventions are either provided at 95% coverage or not at all (as is usually done in health benefits package design) for comparison. The results present the optimal trade-off between the social benefits of pursuing full population coverage, at the expense of expanding the benefits package for 'easier to reach' populations.

2.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(1): e39-e49, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of universal health coverage (UHC) requires that everyone receive needed health services, and that families who get needed services do not suffer undue financial hardship. Tracking progress towards UHC requires measurement of both these dimensions, and a way of trading them off against one another. METHODS: We measured service coverage by a weighted geometric average of four prevention indicators (antenatal care, full immunisation, and screening for breast and cervical cancers) and four treatment indicators (skilled birth attendance, inpatient admission, and treatment for acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea), financial protection by the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures (those exceeding 10% of household consumption or income), and a country's UHC performance as a geometric average of the service coverage index and the complement of the incidence of catastrophic expenditures. Where possible, we adjusted service coverage for inequality, penalising countries with a high level of inequality. The bulk of data used in this study were from the World Bank's Health Equity and Financial Protection Indicators database (2019 version), comprising data from household surveys. Gaps in the data were supplemented with other survey data and (where necessary) non-survey data from other sources (administrative, modelled, and imputed data). FINDINGS: A low incidence of catastrophic expenses sometimes reflects low service coverage (often in low-income countries) but sometimes occurs despite high service coverage (often in high-income countries). At a given level of service coverage, financial protection also varies. UHC index scores are generally higher in higher-income countries, but there are variations within income groups. Adjusting the UHC index for inequality in service coverage makes little difference in some countries, but reduces it by more than 10% in others. Seven of the 12 countries for which we were able to produce trend data have increased their UHC index over time (with the greatest average yearly increases seen in Ghana [1·43%], Indonesia [1·85%], and Vietnam [2·26%]), mostly by improving both financial protection and service coverage. Some increased their UHC index, despite reductions in financial protection, by substantially increasing their service coverage. The UHC index decreased in five of 12 countries with trend data, mostly because financial protection worsened with stagnant or declining service coverage. Our UHC indicators (except inpatient admissions) are significantly and positively associated with GDP per capita, and most are correlated with the share of health spending channelled through social health insurance and government schemes. However, associations of our UHC indicators with the share of GDP spent on health and the shares of health spending channelled through non-profit and private insurance are ambiguous. INTERPRETATION: Progress towards UHC can be tracked using an index that captures both service coverage and financial protection. Although per-capita income is a good predictor of a country's UHC index score, some countries perform better than others in the same income group or even in the income group above their own. Strong UHC performance is correlated with the share of a country's health budget that is channelled through government and social health insurance schemes. FUNDING: None.

3.
Health Policy Plan ; 2019 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821487

ABSTRACT

Advances in population health outcomes risk being slowed-and potentially reversed-by a range of threats increasingly presented as 'fragility'. Widely used and critiqued within the development arena, the concept is increasingly used in the field of global health, where its relationship to population health, health service delivery, access and utilization is poorly specified. We present the first scoping review seeking to clarify the meaning, definitions and applications of the term in the global health literature. Adopting the theoretical framework of concept analysis, 10 bibliographic and grey literature sources, and five key journals, were searched to retrieve documents relating to fragility and health. Reviewers screened titles and abstracts and retained documents applying the term fragility in relation to health systems, services, health outcomes and population or community health. Data were extracted according to the protocol; all documents underwent bibliometric analysis. Narrative synthesis was then used to identify defining attributes of the concept in the field of global health. A total of 377 documents met inclusion criteria. There has been an exponential increase in applications of the concept in published literature over the last 10 years. Formal definitions of the term continue to be focused on the characteristics of 'fragile and conflict-affected states'. However, synthesis indicates diverse use of the concept with respect to: level of application (e.g. from state to local community); emphasis on particular antecedent stressors (including factors beyond conflict and weak governance); and focus on health system or community resources (with an increasing tendency to focus on the interface between two). Amongst several themes identified, trust is noted as a key locus of fragility at this interface, with critical implications for health seeking, service utilization and health system and community resilience.

5.
Health Policy ; 2019 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812325

ABSTRACT

The Italian National Health Service (I-NHS) was established in 1978 to guarantee universal access to healthcare. Prominent in international reports, the I-NHS has reached a satisfactory level of efficiency and excellent standards of care in many regions, in forty years. Along the years, I-NHS has developed a structural public-private partnership in health services delivery that in some regions contributes to the achievement of very high standards of healthcare quality. However, the I-NHS is currently facing some major challenges: (a) Italy is experiencing a remarkable aging of its population with increasing health needs; (b) the recent and constant cuts to public expenditures are reducing the budget for welfare. It is of utmost importance to ensure that on-going efforts to contain health system costs do not subsume health care quality. In addition, monitoring of the essential levels of care (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza, LEA) highlights significant differences in healthcare delivery among Italian regions that, in turns, contribute to the burdensome migration of patients to best-performing regions. Therefore, a more consolidated and ambitious approach to quality monitoring and healthcare improvement at a system level is needed to guarantee its sustainability in the future.

7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(6): e001843, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798996

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Aiming for universal health coverage (UHC) as a country-level goal requires that progress is measured and tracked over time. However, few national and subnational studies monitor UHC in low-income countries and there is none for Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the 2015 national and subnational UHC service coverage status for Ethiopia. Methods: The UHC service coverage index was constructed from the geometric means of component indicators: first, within each of four major categories and then across all components to obtain the final summary index. Also, we estimated the subnational level UHC service coverage. We used a variety of surveys data and routinely collected administrative data. Results: Nationally, the overall Ethiopian UHC service coverage for the year 2015 was 34.3%, ranging from 52.2% in the Addis Ababa city administration to 10% in the Afar region. The coverage for non-communicable diseases, reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health and infectious diseases were 35%, 37.5% and 52.8%, respectively. The national UHC service capacity and access coverage was only 20% with large variations across regions, ranging from 3.7% in the Somali region to 41.1% in the Harari region. Conclusion: The 2015 overall UHC service coverage for Ethiopia was low compared with most of the other countries in the region. Also, there was a substantial variation among regions. Therefore, Ethiopia should rapidly scale up promotive, preventive and curative health services through increasing investment in primary healthcare if Ethiopia aims to reach the UHC service coverage goals. Also, policymakers at the regional and federal levels should take corrective measures to narrow the gap across regions, such as redistribution of the health workforce, increase resources allocated to health and provide focused technical and financial support to low-performing regions.

8.
Front Public Health ; 7: 341, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803706

ABSTRACT

Background: Innovative strategies such as digital health are needed to ensure attainment of the ambitious universal health coverage in Africa. However, their successful deployment on a wider scale faces several challenges on the continent. This article reviews the key benefits and challenges associated with the application of digital health for universal health coverage and propose a conceptual framework for its wide scale deployment in Africa. Discussion: Digital health has several benefits. These include; improving access to health care services especially for those in hard-to-reach areas, improvements in safety and quality of healthcare services and products, improved knowledge and access of health workers and communities to health information; cost savings and efficiencies in health services delivery; and improvements in access to the social, economic and environmental determinants of health, all of which could contribute to the attainment of universal health coverage. However, digital health deployment in Africa is constrained by challenges such as poor coordination of mushrooming pilot projects, weak health systems, lack of awareness and knowledge about digital health, poor infrastructure such as unstable power supply, poor internet connectivity and lack of interoperability of the numerous digital health systems. Contribution of digital health to attainment of universal health coverage requires the presence of elements such as resilient health system, communities and access to the social and economic determinants of health. Conclusion: Further evidence and a conceptual framework are needed for successful and sustainable deployment of digital health for universal health coverage in Africa.

9.
Clinicoecon Outcomes Res ; 11: 651-657, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807038

ABSTRACT

Universal health coverage (UHC) during the past decade has become the main goal of the World Health Organization. Access to health services, without suffering financial hardship for the patients, constitutes the key foundation definition of UHC and its three dimensions: population coverage, service coverage, and financial protection. Iranian health policymakers have purposefully or non-purposefully been pursued the UHC goals during the last four decades by the following macro plans: Health corps, establishing and expanding Health-Care Networks, Law of Universal Health and Social Security Insurances, Family Physician, and Health Transformation Plan. In this paper, we evaluated the situation of UHC in the Iranian health system, presented the weaknesses, strengths, and challenges faced with the health system in its implementation, and finally provided some policy recommendations to complete implementation of the policy in the country.

10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3188, 2019.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826152

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to present the development of a toolkit for education quality improvement in universal health and primary health care, targeting schools of nursing and midwifery in Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHODS: an expert work group conducted a systematic literature review, selected key content and completed toolkit drafting, using an iterative consensus approach. International partners reviewed the toolkit. Cognitive debriefing data were analyzed, revisions and new tools were integrated, and the final version was approved. RESULTS: twenty-two articles were identified and mapped as resources. The Model for Improvement, a data-driven approach to performance analysis, was selected for its widespread use and simplicity in carrying out the following steps: 1) organize a team, 2) assess improvement need regarding universal health and primary health care education, 3) set an aim/goal and identify priorities using a matrix, 4) establish metrics, 5) identify change, 6) carry out a series of Plan-Do-Study-Act learning cycles, and 7) sustain change. CONCLUSIONS: the Education Quality Improvement Toolkit, developed through stakeholder consensus, provides a systematic, and potentially culturally adaptable approach to improve student, faculty, and program areas associated with universal health coverage and access.

11.
Global Health ; 15(1): 64, 2019 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847852

ABSTRACT

The WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region is endowed with deep intellectual tradition, interesting cultural diversity, and a strong societal fabric; components of a vibrant platform for promoting health and wellbeing. Health has a central place in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for at least three reasons: Firstly, health is shaped by factors outside of the health sector. Secondly, health can be singled out among several SDGs as it provides a clear lens for examining the progress of the entire development process. Thirdly, in addition to being an outcome, health is also a contributor to achieving sustainable development. Realizing this central role of health in SDGs and the significance of collaboration among diverse sectors, the WHO is taking action. In its most recent General Program of Work 2019-2023 (GPW 13), the WHO has set a target of promoting the health of one billion more people by addressing social and other determinants of health through multi-sectoral collaboration. The WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, through Vision 2023, aims at addressing these determinants by adopting an equity-driven, leaving no one behind approach. Advocating for Health in All Policies, multi-sectoral action, community engagement, and strategic partnerships are the cornerstone for this approach. The focus areas include addressing the social and economic determinants of health across the life course, especially maternal and child health, communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, and injuries. The aspirations are noteworthy - however, recent work in progress in countries has also highlighted some areas for improvement. Joint work among different ministries and departments at country level is essential to achieve the agenda of sustainable development. For collaboration, not only the ministries and departments need to be engaged, but the partnerships with other stakeholders such as civil society and private sector are a necessity and not a choice to effectively pursue achievement of SDGs.

12.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 195, 2019 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Equity seems inherent to the pursuance of universal health coverage (UHC), but it is not a natural consequence of it. We explore how the multidimensional concept of equity has been approached in key global UHC policy documents, as well as in country-level UHC policies. METHODS: We analysed a purposeful sample of UHC reports and policy documents both at global level and in two Western African countries (Benin and Senegal). We manually searched each document for its use and discussion of equity and related terms. The content was summarised and thematically analysed, in order to comprehend how these concepts were understood in the documents. We distinguished between the level at which inequity takes place and the origin or types of inequities. RESULTS: Most of the documents analysed do not define equity in the first place, and speak about "health inequities" in the broad sense, without mentioning the dimension or type of inequity considered. Some dimensions of equity are ambiguous - especially coverage and financing. Many documents assimilate equity to an overall objective or guiding principle closely associated to UHC. The concept of equity is also often linked to other concepts and values (social justice, inclusion, solidarity, human rights - but also to efficiency and sustainability). Regarding the levels of equity most often considered, access (availability, coverage, provision) is the most often quoted dimension, followed by financial protection. Regarding the types of equity considered, those most referred to are socio-economic, geographic, and gender-based disparities. In Benin and Senegal, geographic inequities are mostly pinpointed by UHC policy documents, but concrete interventions mostly target the poor. Overall, the UHC policy of both countries are quite similar in terms of their approach to equity. CONCLUSIONS: While equity is widely referred to in global and country-specific UHC policy documents, its multiple dimensions results in a rather rhetorical utilisation of the concept. Whereas equity covers various levels and types, many global UHC documents fail to define it properly and to comprehend the breadth of the concept. Consequently, perhaps, country-specific policy documents also use equity as a rhetoric principle, without sufficient consideration for concrete ways for implementation.

13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 987, 2019 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social disparities in healthcare persist in the US despite the expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act. We investigated the causal impact of socioeconomic status on the quality of care in a setting with minimal confounding bias from race, insurance type, and access to care. METHODS: We designed a retrospective population-based study with a random 25% sample of adult Taiwan population enrolled in Taiwan's National Health Insurance system from 2000 to 2016. Patient's income levels were categorized into low-income group (<25th percentile) and high-income group (≥25th percentile). We used marginal structural modeling analysis to calculate the odds of hospital admissions for 11 ambulatory care sensitive conditions identified by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the odds of having an Elixhauser comorbidity index greater than zero for low-income patients. RESULTS: Among 2,844,334 patients, those in lower-income group had 1.28 greater odds (95% CI 1.24-1.33) of experiencing preventable hospitalizations, and 1.04 greater odds (95% CI 1.03-1.05) of having a comorbid condition in comparison to high-income group. CONCLUSIONS: Income was shown to be a causal factor in a patient's health and a determinant of the quality of care received even with equitable access to care under a universal health insurance system. Policies focusing on addressing income as an important upstream causal determinant of health to provide support to patients in lower socioeconomic status will be effective in improving health outcomes for this vulnerable social stratum.

14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(Suppl 9): e001046, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681481

ABSTRACT

Against the background of efforts to strengthen health systems for universal health coverage and health equity, many African countries have been relying on lay members of the community, often referred to as community health workers (CHWs), to deliver primary healthcare services. Growing demand and great variability in definitions, roles, governance and funding of CHWs have prompted the need to revisit CHW programmes and provide guidance on the implementation of successful programmes at scale. Drawing on the synthesised evidence from two extensive literature reviews, this article determines foundational elements of functioning CHW programmes, focusing in particular on the systems requirements of large-scale programmes. It makes recommendations for the effective development of large-scale CHW programmes. The key foundational elements of successful CHW programmes identified are (1) embeddedness, connectivity and integration into the larger system of healthcare service delivery; (2) cadre differentiation and role clarity in order to maintain clear scopes of work and accountability; (3) sound programme design based on local contextual factors and effective people management; and (4) ongoing monitoring, learning and adapting based on accurate and timely local data in order to ensure optimal fit to local context since one size does not fit all. We conclude that CHWs are an investment in health systems strengthening and community resilience with enormous potential for contributing to universal health coverage and the sustainable development goals if well designed and managed. While the evidence base is uneven and mixed, it provides extensive insight and knowledge to strengthen, scale up and sustain CHW programmes throughout Africa.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007847, 2019 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751336

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Individuals and communities affected by NTDs are often the poorest and most marginalised; ensuring a gender and equity lens is centre stage will be critical for the NTD community to reach elimination goals and inform Universal Health Coverage (UHC). NTDs amenable to preventive chemotherapy have been described as a 'litmus test' for UHC due to the high mass drug administration (MDA) coverage rates needed to be effective and their model of community engagement. However, until now highly aggregated coverage data may have masked inequities in availability, accessibility and acceptability of medicines, slowing down the equitable achievement of elimination goals. METHODS: We conducted qualitative programmatic analysis across different country contexts through the novel application of the Tanahashi Coverage Framework enhanced by gendered intersectional theory to interrogate different components of programme coverage: availability, accessibility, acceptability, contact and effective. Drawing on communities and health implementers perspectives (using focus groups, interviews, and participatory methods) from varying levels of the health system, across four African country contexts (Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia and Nigeria), we show who is left behind and provide recommendations for programmes to respond. FINDINGS: We have unmasked inequities in programme delivery that repeatedly leave vulnerable populations underserved in relation to the prevention and treatment of PC NTDs across all components of coverage explored within the Tanahashi framework. Inequities are influenced by health systems challenges and limitations, due to lack of consideration of gender, power and equity issues. Effective treatment for individuals and communities is shaped by individual identities and the intersecting axes of inequity that converge to shape these positions including gender, age, disability, and geography. Health systems are inherently social and gendered thus they become mediators in managing the impact that social and structural processes have on individual health outcomes. SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the only paper which has combined a comprehensive equity framework with intersectional feminist theory, to establish a fuller understanding of who is left behind and why in MDA across countries and contexts. Ensuring the most vulnerable have continued access to future treatment options will contribute to the progressive realisation of UHC, allowing the NTD community to continue to support their vision of being a true 'litmus test'.

16.
J Dent Educ ; 2019 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712261

ABSTRACT

Dental education has seen increases in global health and international educational experiences in many dental schools' curricula. In response, the Consortium of Universities for Global Health's Global Oral Health Interest Group aims to develop readily available, open access resources for competency-based global oral health teaching and learning. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Global Health Starter Kit (GHSK), an interdisciplinary, competency-based, open access curriculum for dental faculty members who wish to teach global oral health in their courses. Phase I (2012-17) evaluated longitudinal outcomes from two Harvard School of Dental Medicine pilot global health courses with 32 advanced and 34 predoctoral dental students. In Phase II (2018), the Phase I outcomes informed development, implementation, and evaluation of the open access GHSK (45 enrollees) written by an interdisciplinary, international team of 13 content experts and consisting of five modules: Global Trends, Global Goals, Back to Basics: Primary Care, Social Determinants and Risks, and Ethics and Sustainability. In Phase III (summer and fall 2018), five additional pilot institutions (two U.S. dental schools, one U.S. dental hygiene program, and two dental schools in low- and middle-income countries) participated in an early adoption of the GHSK curriculum. The increase in perceived knowledge scores of students enrolled in the pilot global health courses was similar to those enrolled in the GHSK, suggesting the kit educated students as well or better in nearly all categories than prior course materials. This study found the GHSK led to improvements in learning in the short term and may also contribute to long-term career planning and decision making by providing competency-based global health education.

17.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 0, 2019 11 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775785

ABSTRACT

In many African countries, hundreds of health-related NGOs are fed by a chaotic tangle of donor funding streams. The case of Mozambique illustrates how this NGO model impedes Universal Health Coverage. In the 1990s, NGOs multiplied across post-war Mozambique: the country's structural adjustment program constrained public and foreign aid expenditures on the public health system, while donors favored private contractors and NGOs. In the 2000s, funding for HIV/AIDS and other vertical aid from many donors increased dramatically. In 2004, the United States introduced PEPFAR in Mozambique at nearly 500 million USD per year, roughly equivalent to the entire budget of the Ministry of Health. To be sure, PEPFAR funding has helped thousands access antiretroviral treatment, but over 90% of resources flow "off-budget" to NGO "implementing partners," with little left for the public health system. After a decade of this major donor funding to NGOs, public sector health system coverage had barely changed. In 2014, the workforce/ population ratio was still among the five worst in the world at 71/10000; the health facility/per capita ratio worsened since 2009 to only 1 per 16,795. Achieving UHC will require rejection of austerity constraints on public sector health systems, and rechanneling of aid to public systems building rather than to NGOs.

18.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 75, 2019 11 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775851

ABSTRACT

Sri Lanka reports impressive health indicators compared to its peers in the South Asian region. Maternal and infant mortality are relatively low, and several intractable communicable diseases have been eliminated. The publicly financed and delivered "free" healthcare system has been critical to these health achievements. Placing the country's healthcare system in historical context, this commentary analyses the contradictions and political tensions surrounding Sri Lanka's 2018 Universal Health Coverage (UHC) policy, with attention to the Ministry of Health's plans for public-private partnerships (PPP). As economic exigencies and private interests increasingly erode the 1951 "Free Health" policy, this commentary calls for a re-envisioning of UHC that can meet people's aspirations for health and social justice.

19.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 71, 2019 11 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of crowdfunding platforms to cover the costs of healthcare is growing rapidly within low-, middle-, and high-income countries as a new funding modality in global health. The popularity of such "medical crowdfunding" is fueled by health disparities and gaps in health coverage and social safety-net systems. Crowdfunding in its current manifestations can be seen as an antithesis to universal health coverage. But research on medical crowdfunding, particularly in global health contexts, has been sparse, and accessing robust data is difficult. To map and document how medical crowdfunding is shaped by, and shapes, health disparities, this article offers an exploratory conceptual and empirical analysis of medical crowdfunding platforms and practices around the world. Data are drawn from a mixed-methods analysis of medical crowdfunding campaigns, as well as an ongoing ethnographic study of crowdfunding platforms and the people who use them. RESULTS: Drawing on empirical data and case examples, this article describes three main ways that crowdfunding is impacting health equity and health politics around the world: 1) as a technological determinant of health, wherein data ownership, algorithms and platform politics influence health inequities; 2) as a commercial determinant of health, wherein corporate influence reshapes healthcare markets and health data; 3) and as a determinant of health politics, affecting how citizens view health rights and the future of health coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Rather than viewing crowdfunding as a social media fad or a purely beneficial technology, researchers and publics must recognize it as a complex innovation that is reshaping health systems, influencing health disparities, and shifting political norms, even as it introduces new ways of connecting and caring for those in the midst of health crises. More analysis, and better access to data, is needed to inform policy and address crowdfunding as a source of health disparities.

20.
BMC Proc ; 13(Suppl 9): 7, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737089

ABSTRACT

Background: Inadequate access to quality health care services due to weak health systems and recurrent public health emergencies are impediments to the attainment of Universal Health Coverage and health security in Africa. To discuss these challenges and deliberate on plausible solutions, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa, in collaboration with the Government of Cabo Verde, convened the second Africa Health Forum in Praia, Cabo Verde on 26-28 March 2019, under the theme Achieving Universal Health Coverage and Health Security: The Africa We Want to See. Methods: The Forum was conducted through technical sessions consisting of high-level, moderated panel discussions on specific themes, some of them preceded by keynote addresses. There were booth exhibitions by Member States, World Health Organization and other organizations to facilitate information exchanges. A Communiqué highlighting the recommendations of the Forum was issued during the closing ceremony . More than 750 participants attended. Relevant information from the report of the Forum and notes by the authors were extracted and synthesized into these proceedings. Conclusions: The Forum participants agreed that the role of community engagement and participation in the attainment of Universal Health Coverage, health security and ultimately the Sustainable Development Goals cannot be overemphasized. The public sector of Africa alone cannot achieve these three interrelated goals; other partners, such as the private sector, must be engaged. Technological innovations will be a key driver of the attainment of these goals; hence, there is need to harness the comparative advantages that they offer. Attainment of the three goals is also intertwined - achieving one paves the way for achieving the others. Thus, there is need for integrated public health approaches in the planning and implementation of interventions aimed at achieving them. Recommendations: To ensure that the recommendations of this Forum are translated into concrete actions in a sustainable manner, we call on African Ministers of Health to ensure their integration into national health sector policies and strategic documents and to provide the necessary leadership required for their implementation. We also call on partners to mainstream these recommendations into their ongoing support to World Health Organization African Member States.

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