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1.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52503

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. El desafío de avanzar hacia la materialización del derecho a la salud para todos a través de la estrategia para el acceso y la cobertura universal de salud (salud universal) requiere de múltiples condiciones y acciones. Una de ellas es contar con trabajadores de la salud suficientes, bien distribuidos y con las competencias y motivación que hagan posible la transformación de los servicios de salud y proporcionen respuestas integrales y de calidad a las personas y sus comunidades. Este artículo, producto del diálogo de académicos de diversos centros universitarios de las Américas, reflexiona y enfatiza cuatro dimensiones esenciales: la planificación, la formación interprofesional, la misión o responsabilidad social de los centros formadores y el uso de modelos de docencia-servicio-investigación. Estas dimensiones deben ser atendidas para una formación integral de profesionales de salud que contribuyan a hacer factible la salud universal.


[ABSTRACT]. The challenge of moving towards the right to health for all —through the strategies for universal access to health and universal health coverage (universal health)— requires multiple conditions and actions. One of them is to have sufficient health workers, well distributed and with the skills and motivation needed for the transformation of health services and to provide comprehensive and quality responses to people and their communities. This article presents the results of a dialogue between academics from universities in the Americas, and reflects on four essential dimensions: planning, interprofessional training, social responsibility of academic centers, and the use of models of teaching-service-research. These dimensions are fundamental for a comprehensive training of health professionals that contributes to universal health coverage.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Desarrollo de Personal , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Educación Interprofesional , Responsabilidad Social , Universidades , Américas , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Desarrollo de Personal , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Educación Interprofesional , Responsabilidad Social , Universidades , Américas
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123391, 2020 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653795

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the microbial safety and antibiotic resistance risks of a sustainable ecological farm under large-scale open-air composting (OC) and green composting toilet systems (CT). Samples of livestock manure, compost, soil, vegetables, and rainwater were analysed to determine the best treatment of wastes and risk assessment of land application. Results showed that pathogenic bacteria (PB) in livestock manure was significantly greater than that in the surrounding topsoil, while the distribution of bacteria resistant to amoxicillin (AMX), tetracycline (TC), and amoxicillin-tetracycline (AMX- TC) was the opposite through long-term resistance selection pressure. E. coli and Enterococcus were the dominant pathogens in feces and surrounding soil, respectively, and AMX-resistant bacteria dominated soil, compost, and vegetable samples. Overall, while OC may significantly increase antibiotic resistance and effectively remove fecal PB, CT offers faster consumption with greater antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) removal but more PB. Moreover, PB and ARB were concentrated in mature compost, soil in planting areas, vegetables, and rainwater. In farm soil and vegetables, AMX-resistant and AMX-TC-resistant bacterial communities displayed similar composition. These findings may explain the main pathways of PB transmission, migration and accumulation of ARB in farms, and the potential risks to human health through the food chain.

3.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2020-06-02.
en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52238

RESUMEN

Perspectivas e contribuções da enfermagem para promover a saúde universal apresenta projetos, atividades, histórias e casos recebidos de países da Região das Américas, que ilustram a função dos profissionais de enfermagem no avanço para alcançar o acesso e a cobertura universal de saúde, além da sua extensa contribuição aos sistemas de saúde, as universidades, os centros penitenciários e as escolas de todos os países da Região, com vistas a impulsionar a atenção primaria à saúde e a saúde universal. O epílogo inclui uma comovedora história de dois enfermeiros dos Estados Unidos da América, que, com seu trabalho de enfrentamento da pandemia de COVID-19, põe em destaque o papel vital que estes trabalhadores de saúde desempenham no avanço de saúde para todos. O presente documento foi dividido em seis partes que destacam as contribuições da enfermagem nas seguintes áreas: 1. Fortalecer a administração e a gestão em saúde. 2. Eliminar as barreiras de acesso à saúde universal. 3. Capacitar novos quadros de profissionais de enfermagem. 4. Promover a utilização e inovação de recursos tecnológicos. 5.Desenvolver programas considerando a diversidade humana, interculturalidade e a etnicidade. 6. Gerar mecanismos de participação social. Estas áreas apresentam e resumem os projetos, atividades, histórias e casos recebidos dos países da Região que ilustram o papel enfermeiros e obstetrizes no avanço rumo ao acesso e cobertura universal de saúde, além de sua rica contribuição para os sistemas de saúde, das universidades, das prisões, a nível comunitário e governamental, e nas escolas dos países da Região. O objetivo do presente material é divulgar boas práticas no campo da inovação, da liderança, da pesquisa, das políticas e da educação em enfermagem, assim como compreender como os profissionais de enfermagem favorecem ao avanço dos sistemas e serviços de saúde para alcançar o acesso universal à saúde, a cobertura universal de saúde e os ODS, em colaboração com outros profissionais da saúde.


Asunto(s)
Cobertura Universal de Salud , Enfermería , Equidad en el Acceso a los Servicios de Salud , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(5): 876-890, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541107

RESUMEN

About 55% of energy used in the South African water cycle is for wastewater treatment, with the bulk of this energy associated with aeration in biological processes. However, up to 15% of wastewater energy demand can be offset by energy generation from sludge (power and/or combined heat and power), while best practices adoption can deliver energy efficiency gains of between 5% and 25% in the water cycle. Advanced process modelling and simulation has been applied in this study as a tool to evaluate optimal process and aeration control strategies. This study further applied advanced modelling to investigate and predict the potential energy consumption and consumption cost pattern by the South African wastewater sector resulting from implementation of optimal process and aeration energy use reduction strategies in support of sustainable municipal wastewater management. Aeration energy consumption and cost savings of 9-45% were demonstrated to be achievable through implementation of energy conservation measures without compromising final effluent regulatory compliance. The study further provided significant potential future energy savings as high as 50% and 78% through implementation of simple and complex aeration energy conservation measures respectively. Generally, the model-predicted energy savings suggest that adoption of energy efficiency should be coupled with electricity generation from sludge in order to achieve maximum energy consumption and cost savings within the South African wastewater services sector.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales , Electricidad , Aguas del Alcantarillado
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589417

RESUMEN

The sixth Sustainable Development Goal seeks to achieve universal sanitation, but a lack of progress due to inhibiting factors (e.g., limitations in financial resources, sociocultural conditions, household decision-making) demands innovative approaches to meet this ambitious goal. Resource recovery may generate income to offset sanitation costs while also enhancing agriculture through increased access to agricultural nutrients. The objective of this work was to determine if resource recovery sanitation can be a profitable business model in a specific context (Kampala, Uganda) and to explore the potential for this approach to translate to other Sub-Saharan African contexts. A techno-economic analysis was performed to evaluate the financial viability of two nutrient recovery systems and business models in urban communities in Kampala under two financing scenarios: (1) Startup relying on partial sanitation aid, and (2) Self-sustaining without philanthropic financing. Results show profitability can be achieved at a nutrient selling price at or below fertilizer market value in Uganda. Recoverable nutrients from the total population without at least basic sanitation services, in 10 Sub-Saharan African countries, are the same magnitude as nutrients distributed in subsidy programs (30-450% of distributed nutrients), indicating a potential to offset inorganic fertilizer consumption or increase nutrient availability. This research makes a case to support innovative sanitation strategies and the development and financial support of human-derived fertilizer markets in areas with poor fertilizer and sanitation access.

6.
Water Res ; 181: 115903, 2020 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504907

RESUMEN

To clarify the effect of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic polarity of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on sludge filterability improvement during S2O82-/Fe2+ oxidation, waste activated sludge (WAS), glucose-fed hydrophilic sludge (HPI-WAS), and sodium acetate-fed hydrophobic sludge (HPO-WAS) samples were cultivated, and their dewatering behaviors were individually explored. Experimental results showed that S2O82- oxidation effectively disintegrated the polymeric EPS and led to a more significant reduction in the water content for HPO-WAS than for HPI-WAS (12.87-15.23% vs 9.31-12.12%), especially regarding the bound water (Wb) content. After oxidation, as high as 38.88-42.61% of the Wb within HPO-WAS samples were declined, much higher than the HPI-WAS samples (19.27-29.20%). Specifically, carbohydrates within sludge EPS negatively influenced the dewatering process of S2O82-/Fe2+ oxidation. By contrast, abundant existence of humic acids and polymeric proteinaceous components (especially those hydrophilic proteins and transitional humic acids) within the sludge EPS exhibited a converse trend. FT-IR and EEM spectral, as well as particle sizes variation for the sludge samples before and after S2O82-/Fe2+ oxidation was also evaluated. This study provides new insight into the enhancement of S2O82-/Fe2+ oxidation for sludge dewatering based on polarity analysis of EPS.


Asunto(s)
Matriz Extracelular de Sustancias Poliméricas , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Oxidación-Reducción , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Agua
7.
Ann Ig ; 32(5): 439-448, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578839

RESUMEN

Public health measures to cope with the Covid-19 pandemic, imposed also a shutdown of sports facilities and swimming pools. Safety issues related to recreational waters were emerging during the lockdown, rising concerns on how and when reopening pools and on how improve their management while SARS-CoV-2 is circulating in the population. The GSMS-SItI, Working Group on Movement Sciences for Health of the Italian Society of Hygiene Preventive Medicine and Public Health, discussed and summarized some indications for a suitable preventive approach. Several measures are highlighted, including social distancing, optimized water management, airflow and microclimatic parameters in the pool as well in the annexed rooms, verification of sanitation procedures. The GSMS-SItI underlines that prevention should be based on monitoring of the local epidemiological situation and on the constant collaboration with the local health authority and the national health service.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Piscinas/normas , Calidad del Agua/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Desinfección , Ejercicio Físico , Arquitectura y Construcción de Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Italia , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Vigilancia de la Población , Cuarentena , Medición de Riesgo , Microbiología del Agua/normas , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Purificación del Agua/normas
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 313: 123648, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563791

RESUMEN

High-solid anaerobic digestion (AD) faces the problems of easy acidification and low methane production efficiency. In this study, activated carbon (AC)-enhanced direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) was investigated to overcome such problems. Results showed the conversion of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) into methane rate was increased with AC addition, which led improved methane production efficiency. The methane yields from the early AD stage improved by 124.0-146.3% with AC addition. The T80 shortened by 8-9 days with AC addition. The relative abundances of Geobacter, Syntrophomonas and Methanosaeta that associated with DIET improved for 63.65%, 256.3% and 4.35% by AC addition, which reflected the enhanced DIET with AC addition. The redox activity of AC might be responsible for the enhanced DIET. This study would advance the understanding of DIET and provide a potential solution to the problems existed in high-solid AD.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Electrones , Metano
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-05-12.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52121

RESUMEN

Perspectives and Contributions of Nursing to the Promotion of Universal Health highlights more than 40 projects, activities, stories, and case studies received from the countries of the Region, illustrating the role of nurses and midwives in advancing toward universal health. It also details these essential health workers' rich contribution to health systems, universities, prisons, communities, governments, and schools in all the countries of the Americas. An epilogue includes a powerful story of two American nurses on the front lines of the COVID-19 epidemic. It is further proof of the vital role these health workers have in advancing health for all.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería , Acceso Universal a los Servicios de Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Atención de Salud Universal , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29228-29238, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436088

RESUMEN

Artificial top-to-bottom water transmitting channels made of threads of wool blend (WT), cotton (CT), flax (FT), and polyethylene (PET) were used to enhance the dewater efficiency for river sediment. In addition, the disordered channels composed of 3-mm-long WT segments mixed randomly into the river sediment were also employed. The most effective dewatering channels were found to be top-to-bottom WT channels with water absorption capacity of 8.7 ± 0.5 g · g-1 and volume compressibility of 2.94 ± 0.11. On the application of 0.1 MPa pressure to the mud surface, with initial water content of 60.0 ± 0.2 wt%, the water content obtained with channel material weight 0.411 wt% dry solids and channel to a mud cake height ratio of 0.95 upon 90-min dewatering was 39.6 ± 0.7 wt% with enhanced dewaterability, compared to that without channel addition, of 74.9 ± 0.9 kg · kg-1 · h-1. Using the same parameters, enhanced dewaterability was only 69.1 ± 0.3, 55.2 ± 2.8, and 9.1 ± 0.9 kg · kg-1 · h-1 for CT, FT, and PET channels, respectively. Moreover, the final water content of the mud cake dewatered in the presence of disordered WT channels at dosage 1.10 wt% was 49.8 ± 0.7 wt% with enhanced dewaterability of 5.9 ± 0.5 kg · kg-1 · h-1 only. These demonstrate that the compressibility of the water transmitting material is the main factor affecting dewatering efficiency with the water absorption capacity also being important.


Asunto(s)
Acuaporinas , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Ríos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Agua
11.
Waste Manag ; 109: 38-50, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387839

RESUMEN

Sewage sludge (SS) is widely used in agriculture in several countries around the world. However, the impact of successive applications of SS on soil and the risks of nutrient leaching are often neglected. In this study, corn was grown on a constructed wetland for four crop cycles (two years), in which the wetland was subjected to successive SS applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate how the successive applications of SS affect the availability and leaching of nutrients in the soil profile, after two years of cultivation. Experiments were performed using a randomized block design with repeated measurements in time, that is, soil was sampled in each harvest. Six treatments were tested: four fertilizations based on sewage sludge, resulting from biological and anaerobic treatment, calculated to provide 25 (SS25), 50 (SS50), 75 (SS75), and 100% (SS100), of the N required for corn production (140 kg ha-1); a mineral fertilization (NPK) (140 kg ha-1 N, 70 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 40 kg ha-1 of K2O) and a control (without fertilization). The results showed that four consecutive applications of SS100 for two years caused significant accumulation of nutrients and organic matter in the superficial layers of the soil. The electrical conductivity and the concentration of NO3- in the soil solution were higher than those permitted by Brazilian legislation. The adoption of domestic SS in Brazilian agriculture can be a viable alternative in the search for an environment-friendly and economically feasible method for SS disposal.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Contaminantes del Suelo , Agricultura , Brasil , Fertilizantes , Reciclaje , Suelo
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(22): 28155-28168, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415437

RESUMEN

Biogas production from sewage sludge volatile solids (VS) by anaerobic digestion slows down towards the end of the process, among inhibitory factors being pH increase upon ammonia accumulation, poorly digestible biomaterials, and high fixed solid (FS) content. The possibility of concentrating the digested sludge VS (41.7-56.6% on a dry weight basis) by surface and bottom layer separation with biogas post-production was studied. Furthermore, the potential to recycle concentrated VS and digested sludge back to the process after adjusting pH 7.0 to optimal for biogas-producing microbes and after acid, alkali, thermal, and sonolytic treatments was examined. In general, pH 7.0 control alone improved biogas production from the recycled digested sludge the most. An equally good improvement in biogas production was achieved by recycling the digested sludge, which had been heated until ammonia had evaporated and the pH dropped to 7.0 (1-2 h, 75 °C), and at the same time, VS was degraded. The biogas production from the sonicated and recycled sludge was almost as good as from the pH-adjusted, or heat-treated recycled sludge. After the acid and base treatments of the digested sludge, the recycled sludge yielded often the lowest biogas volume, as the added chemicals increased the FS concentration, which proved to be a more important inhibitory factor than poorly degradable VS. The high FS content significantly reduced the benefits of the treatments. By separating the surface and bottom layers with biogas post-production, the surface layer of VS was concentrated to 51.6-61.8%, while different compositions of the layers affected the biogas production.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Reactores Biológicos , Amoníaco , Anaerobiosis , Metano , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
13.
Water Res ; 179: 115884, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388049

RESUMEN

Globally increasing concerns have been raised on the high energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in conventional municipal wastewater treatment processes over the past decades. In this study, a self-sustaining synergetic microalgal-bacterial granular sludge process was thus developed to address these challenges. The results showed that the microalgal-bacterial granular sludge process was capable of removing 92.69%, 96.84% and 87.16% of influent organics, ammonia and phosphorus under non-aeration conditions over a short time of 6 h. The effluent could meet the increasingly stringent discharge standards in many countries worldwide. A tight synergetic interrelationship effect between microalgae and bacteria in granules was essential for such excellent process performance. The stoichiometric and functional genes analyses further revealed that most of organic matter and nutrients were removed through microalgal and bacterial assimilations. Moreover, it was found that there existed a desirable distribution of functional species of microalgae and bacteria in microalgal-bacterial granules, which appeared to be essential for the self-sustaining synergetic reactions and stability of microalgal-bacterial granules. Consequently, this work may offer a promising engineering alternative with great potential to achieve energy-efficient and environmentally sustainable municipal wastewater treatment.


Asunto(s)
Microalgas , Aguas Residuales , Biomasa , Fósforo , Aguas del Alcantarillado
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 310: 123436, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353771

RESUMEN

In this study, the distribution, removal efficiency, and potential risks of 9 typical endocrine active compounds (EACs) in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were investigated. The EAC concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 7394.2 ng/L in influents. The source of influents was a critical factor in determining the EAC levels. EACs were primarily removed in the secondary biological processing units, with removal efficiencies fluctuating from 13.7% to 98%. The biological treatment processes and operating parameters (i.e., HRT and SRT) influenced the EAC removal efficiency. Bisphenol A (BPA) and estriol were mainly removed by biodegradation, while antidepressants were primarily eliminated by sludge adsorption according to the distribution patterns and mass flow of EACs in WWTPs. Novosphingobium, Saprospiraceae, etc. were the core functional bacteria for EAC biodegradation. In addition, sertraline in effluents and dewatered sludge may pose medium environmental risks, while the other EACs pose low environmental risks.


Asunto(s)
Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Biodegradación Ambiental , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294881

RESUMEN

Diarrhoeal disease in children under five in low income settings has been associated with multiple environmental exposure pathways, including complementary foods. Conducted from February to December 2018 in rural Malawi, this before and after trial with a control used diarrhoeal disease as a primary outcome, to measure the impact of a food hygiene intervention (food hygiene + handwashing) relative to a food hygiene and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention (food hygiene + handwashing + faeces management + water management). The 31-week intervention was delivered by community-based coordinators through community events (n = 2), cluster group meetings (n = 17) and household visits (n = 14). Diarrhoeal disease was self-reported and measured through an end line survey, and daily diaries completed by caregivers. Difference-in-differences results show a 13-percentage point reduction in self-reported diarrhoea compared to the control group. There were also significant increases in the presence of proxy measures in each of the treatment groups (e.g., the presence of soap). We conclude that food hygiene interventions (including hand washing with soap) can significantly reduce diarrhoeal disease prevalence in children under five years in a low-income setting. Therefore, the promotion of food hygiene practices using a behaviour-centred approach should be embedded in nutrition and WASH policies and programming.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244287

RESUMEN

Good hand hygiene is necessary to control and prevent infections, but many children do not adequately wash their hands. While there are classroom communications targeted at children, the toilet space, the location of many hand hygiene activities, is neglected. This paper describes an initial evaluation of "123" persuasive space graphics (images and messages integrated within an architectural environment that encourage specific actions). The effectiveness (whether hand hygiene improves) and efficiency (the ease with which a setting can adopt and implement an intervention) is evaluated in three UK schools and one museum. Five evaluations (participant demographic, handwashing frequency, handwashing quality, design persuasiveness, stakeholder views) were conducted. In the school settings, persuasive space graphics increased the quality and frequency of handwashing. In the museum setting, frequency of handwashing slightly increased. In all settings children found the graphics persuasive, and stakeholders also believed them to be effective. Stakeholders considered persuasive space graphics a low-cost and time-efficient way to communicate. It can be concluded that persuasive space graphics are effective in increasing hand hygiene, particularly in school settings where children have a longer exposure to the graphics. Persuasive space graphics are also an efficient low-cost means of communicating hand hygiene.

17.
Water Res ; 176: 115763, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272323

RESUMEN

Kitchen wastes (KW) have been widely investigated for bio-ethanol production, while no study utilizes KW as ethanol source to stimulate the methanogenic communities to perform direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET), since the excess acidity contained after the biological ethanol-type fermentation pretreatment (BEFP) can seriously inhibit the DIET-based syntrophic metabolism. In this study, a strategy that utilized waste activated sludge (WAS) as co-substrate to relieve the excess acidity after BEFP during anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) was proposed. The results showed that, under the mixed ratio of 1:2 and 1:5 (KW:WAS, volume ratio), both methane production and organic compound removal evidently increased, compared with that treating the sole WAS. Conversely, under the other mixed ratios (sole KW, 5:1, 2:1 and 1:1), no methane but the evident hydrogen production was detected, and syntrophic metabolism of organic acids and alcohols was prevented. Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix (3D-EEM) analysis showed that the protein-like organic compounds contained in both KW and WAS were effectively degraded. Furthermore, the maximum methane production potential from WAS during AcoD (260.5 ± 4.1 and 264.3 ± 2.7 mL/g-COD) was higher than that treating sole WAS (250.8 ± 0.1 mL/g-COD). Microbial community analysis showed that, some genera capable of metabolizing the complex organic compounds with the reduction of the elemental sulfur or equipped with the electrically conductive pili were specially enriched during AcoD under the mixed ratio of 1:2 and 1:5. They might proceed DIET with methanogens, such as Methanosarcina and Methanospirillum species, to maintain the syntrophic metabolism effective and stable, since the abundance of both Methanosarcina and Methanospirillum species evidently increased.


Asunto(s)
Etanol , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Electrones , Metano
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 308: 123250, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244132

RESUMEN

This work investigated the effect of biochar addition to mitigate VFA accumulation and enhance methane production in mesophilic food waste/sludge co-digestion. Different types of biochar derived from agricultural and forestry residues at two pyrolysis temperatures were tested. Results showed that wheat straw biochar 550 °C supported the highest specific methane yield of 381.9 LCH4/kg VSadded and VS removal efficiency of 41.62% among all treatments. Degradation of propionic acid and long-chain fatty acids such as valeric, caproic and isovaleric acids was observed. This also corresponded to an increase in methanogenic favorable substrates including acetic acid (>40%) and butyric acid (~20%) over the control. Consequently, a 24% increase in overall methane production was obtained as compared to control. This demonstrated that biochar addition had positive effects on VFA degradation and methane production which could be a useful strategy to increase the organic loading in co-digestions without the fear of process failure.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Carbón Orgánico , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles , Alimentos , Metano
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229666, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130241

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing political will to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), there is a paucity of empiric data describing what health system indicators are useful surrogates of country-level progress towards UHC. We sought to determine what public health interventions were useful tracers of country-level UHC progress. METHODS: Across 183 countries we evaluated the extent to which 16 service delivery indicators explained variability in the UHC Service Coverage Index, (UHC SCI) a WHO-validated indicator of country-level health coverage. Dominance analyses, stratifying countries by World Bank income criteria, were used to determine which indicators were most important in in predicting UHC SCI scores. FINDINGS: Health workforce density ranked first overall, provision of basic sanitation and access to clean water ranked second, and provision of basic antenatal services ranked third. In analysis stratified by World Bank income criteria, health workforce density ranked first in Lower Middle Income-Countries (LMICs) (n = 45) and third in Upper Middle Income-Countries (UMICs) (n = 51). CONCLUSIONS: While each country will have a different approach to achieving UHC, strengthening the health workforce will need to be a key priority if they are to be successful in achieving UHC.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Femenino , Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionales de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137949, 2020 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208278

RESUMEN

Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for life that is introduced through feed in modern aquaculture-the fastest growing food production sector. P can also be a source of environmental contamination and eutrophication if mistreated. Fish assimilate only 20-40% of the applied P; the rest is released into the water. The goals of this research were to study the fate of P in a novel intensive near-zero discharge (<1%) recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). We also tested means to recover and reuse the removed P. Water, sludge and the microbial communities in the different treatment units of the system were analyzed. The treated sludge was tested as a potential substitute for P fertilization in a planter experiment. Of the applied P, 29.5% was recovered by fish, 69.8% was found in the fish sludge and 3.8% was released into the water as soluble reactive P. The P concentration in the fish tank remained stable, likely due to its uptake by denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and its precipitation in the RAS's anaerobic reactor. Thus, only 1.5% of the applied P was discharged as effluent, and 69% recovered. The dominant minerals were from the apatite group, followed by the struvite family. Differences in mineral abundance between thermodynamic prediction and actual findings were most probably due to biomineralization by bacteria. Similar plant biomass was recorded for the commercial and digested-sludge fertilization treatments. Biological P removal and recovery from RAS was successfully studied and demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Reactores Biológicos , Fertilizantes , Fósforo , Aguas del Alcantarillado
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