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Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 30: e2022_0116, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515068


ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical activity can play a critical and effective role in the health and self-esteem of the general population. However, the research on the association between participation in physical activity and self-esteem in those with physical disabilities in non-Western countries, especially Saudi Arabia is limited. Objective: To analyze self-esteem levels among those with physical disabilities in Saudi Arabia, and examine the relationship between participation in physical activity and self-esteem among those with physical disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A participant sample (N = 292) consisting of Saudi Arabian individuals with physical disabilities (male n = 201; female n = 91) aged 18-59 years (M = 36.08 years; SD = 10.64) was recruited to participate in this study. Levels of self-esteem were measured using the Arabic version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Results: Statistical analysis illustrated that the participants' overall self-esteem was moderate (M = 3.14; SD = 0.56). A stepwise multiple linear regression demonstrated that participating in physical activity (measured by days per week) was the only predictor of the total RSES scale (ß = −0.304; p = <0.001). Conclusions: The findings suggest that participation in physical activity is a statistically significant predictor of self-esteem levels in those with physical disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, it is essential to increase awareness of the importance of participation in physical activity among people with physical disabilities. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigation of Treatment Results.

RESUMEN Introducción: La actividad física puede desempeñar un papel crítico y efectivo en la salud y autoestima de la población en general. Sin embargo, la investigación sobre la asociación entre la participación en actividad física y la autoestima en personas con discapacidad física en países no occidentales, especialmente en Arabia Saudita, es limitada. Objetivo: Analizar los niveles de autoestima en personas con discapacidad física en Arabia Saudita y examinar la relación entre la participación en actividad física y la autoestima en este grupo. Métodos: Se reclutó una muestra de participantes (N = 292) compuesta por individuos sauditas con discapacidad física (hombres n = 201; mujeres n = 91), con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 59 años (M = 36,08 años; DE = 10,64) para participar en este estudio. Los niveles de autoestima se midieron utilizando la versión árabe de la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (RSES). Resultados: El análisis estadístico mostró que la autoestima general de los participantes fue moderada (M = 3,14; DE = 0,56). Una regresión lineal múltiple stepwise demostró que la participación en actividad física (medida por días por semana) fue el único predictor de la puntuación total de la escala RSES (ß = −0,304; p = <0,001). Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la participación en actividad física es un predictor estadísticamente significativo de los niveles de autoestima en personas con discapacidad física en Arabia Saudita. Por lo tanto, es esencial aumentar la conciencia sobre la importancia de la participación en actividad física entre las personas con discapacidad física. Nivel de Evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de los Resultados del Tratamiento.

RESUMO Introdução: A atividade física pode desempenhar um papel crítico e efetivo na saúde e autoestima da população em geral. No entanto, a pesquisa sobre a associação entre a participação em atividade física e a autoestima em pessoas com deficiência física em países não ocidentais, especialmente na Arábia Saudita, é limitada. Objetivo: Analisar os níveis de autoestima em pessoas com deficiência física na Arábia Saudita e examinar a relação entre a participação em atividade física e a autoestima nesse grupo. Métodos: Uma amostra de participantes (N = 292) composta por indivíduos sauditas com deficiência física (homens n = 201; mulheres n = 91), com idades entre 18 e 59 anos (M = 36,08 anos; DP = 10,64), foi recrutada para participar deste estudo. Os níveis de autoestima foram medidos usando a versão árabe da Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (RSES). Resultados: A análise estatística mostrou que a autoestima geral dos participantes foi moderada (M = 3,14; DP = 0,56). Uma regressão linear múltipla stepwise demonstrou que a participação em atividade física (medida por dias por semana) foi o único preditor da pontuação total da escala RSES (ß = −0,304; p = <0,001). Conclusões: Os resultados sugerem que a participação em atividade física é um preditor estatisticamente significativo dos níveis de autoestima em pessoas com deficiência física na Arábia Saudita. Portanto, é essencial aumentar a conscientização sobre a importância da participação em atividade física entre as pessoas com deficiência física. Nível de Evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação dos Resultados do Tratamento.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(2): e2023059, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515596


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Few food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) have been validated for pregnant women, particularly those in small- and medium-sized cities in different regions of Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To validate and calibrate a semiquantitative FFQ for pregnant women. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study was validated with a sample of 50 pregnant women (≥ 18 years) enrolled in Brazilian prenatal services. METHODS: An FFQ and a 24-hour recall were used to evaluate dietary intake. Dietary variables were tested for normality and log-converted when asymmetrical. Pearson's Correlation Coefficient was used to validate the questionnaire. Linear regression was applied to extract calibration factors. All variables underlying the consumption analysis were adjusted for energy. RESULTS: The mean age of the pregnant women was 26 years ± 6.2 years; 58% were in their first trimester, and 30% were identified as overweight/obese. The Pearson correlation analysis results indicated that the FFQ overestimated energy and nutrient intake, whose coefficients ranged from −0.15 (monounsaturated fat) to 0.50 (carbohydrate). Adjusting for energy reduced the mean values of intake coefficients, which now ranged from −0.33 (sodium) to 0.96 (folate). The calibration analysis results indicated variation in the coefficients from −0.23 (sodium) to 1.00 (folate). Calibration produced satisfactory coefficients for the FFQ compared with the reference standard for energy, macronutrients, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol, vitamins B12/C, folate, sodium, iron, and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: After validating and calibrating tests, we observed that the FFQ was adequately accurate for assessing the food consumption of the pregnant women in this study.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(3): e2022264, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515597


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The cardiopulmonary function of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is significantly lower than that of patients with simple snoring and is significantly related to the severity of OSA. Currently, only a few studies have been conducted on cardiopulmonary exercise testing in overweight patients with OSA. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) indices and the condition of overweight patients with OSA. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine. METHODS: This study included 73 hospitalized overweight patients. The patients were divided into no, mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups. Differences in the CPET indices among the four groups were compared. The correlation between the CPET indices and conditions was analyzed. RESULTS: No, mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups had 18 men and 5 women, 11 men and 3 women, 12 men and 2 women, and 21 men and 1 woman, respectively (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in resting pulmonary function among the four groups (P > 0.05). In the CPET, the anaerobic threshold, maximum oxygen uptake, and oxygen pulse were significantly lower in the severe OSA group than those in the normal OSA group (P < 0.05). Moreover, CPET indices negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. CONCLUSION: Changes in CPET indices occurred earlier than changes in resting pulmonary function in patients with OSA. CPET might be a potential method for evaluating the severity of OSA combined with overweight status.

CoDAS ; 36(1): e20220341, 2024. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514026


ABSTRACT Purpose Due to the pandemic of the Covid-19 disease, it became common to wear masks on some public spaces. By covering mouth and nose, visual-related speech cues are greatly reduced, while the auditory signal is both distorted and attenuated. The present study aimed to analyze the multisensory effects of mask wearing on speech intelligibility and the differences in these effects between participants who spoke 1, 2 and 3 languages. Methods The study consisted of the presentation of sentences from the SPIN test to 40 participants. Participants were asked to report the perceived sentences. There were four conditions: auditory with mask; audiovisual with mask; auditory without mask; audiovisual without mask. Two sessions were conducted, one week apart, each with the same stimuli but with a different signal-to-noise ratio. Results Results demonstrated that the use of the mask decreased speech intelligibility, both due to a decrease in the quality of auditory stimuli and due to the loss of visual information. Signal-to-noise ratio largely affects speech intelligibility and higher ratios are needed in mask-wearing conditions to obtain any degree of intelligibility. Those who speak more than one language are less affected by mask wearing, as are younger listeners. Conclusion Wearing a facial mask reduces speech intelligibility, both due to visual and auditory factors. Older people and people who only speak one language are affected the most.

RESUMO Objetivo Devido à pandemia da doença Covid-19, o uso de máscaras em espaços públicos tornou-se comum. Ao cobrir a boca e o nariz, reduzem-se amplamente as pistas visuais associadas à fala, assim como se distorce e atenua o sinal auditivo. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar os efeitos multissensoriais do uso da máscara na percepção da fala e a diferença entre participantes falantes de uma, duas ou três línguas. Método Este estudo consistiu na apresentação de frases do SPIN teste a 40 participantes. Os participantes tinham como tarefa reportar as frases percebidas em quatro condições: Auditiva com máscara, audiovisual com máscara, auditiva sem máscara, audiovisual sem máscara. Conduziram-se duas sessões, com uma semana de intervalo, cada uma com os mesmos estímulos mas com diferente relação sinal-ruído. Resultados Os resultados demonstraram que o uso de máscara reduz a inteligibilidade da fala, tanto devido à diminuição da qualidade do estímulo auditivo, como devido à perda de informação visual. A relação sinal-ruído afeta a inteligibilidade e com o uso de máscara são necessárias relações mais altas para obter qualquer identificação correta. Aqueles que falam mais do que uma língua, assim como os mais novos, são menos afetados na percepção de fala com uso de máscara. Conclusão O uso de máscara facial reduz a inteligibilidade da fala, tanto devido a fatores visuais como auditivos. Indivíduos monolíngues, assim como os mais velhos, são os mais afetados nesta tarefa.

CoDAS ; 36(1): e20220251, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514028


RESUMO Objetivo Elaborar um protocolo de avaliação do planejamento motor da fala com estímulos fonologicamente balanceados para o português brasileiro e que contemple todas as variáveis necessárias para este diagnóstico. Método Foram realizadas três etapas: Na primeira, construíram-se listas de palavras cujo critério principal foram os padrões silábicos e acentuais. Do levantamento realizado na Etapa 1, procedeu-se à seleção dos vocábulos que compuseram a primeira versão do protocolo na Etapa 2, reunidas em duas tarefas: de repetição e de Leitura em Voz Alta (LVA). Em seguida, investigou-se a ocorrência das palavras usando a base de dados do Corpus Brasileiro (PUC-SP) - Linguateca. Na etapa 3 realizou-se a análise estatística para verificar se as listas de repetição e de LVA estavam equilibradas quanto à ocorrência das palavras. Assim, as listas foram distribuídas em quartis e foram analisadas de forma descritiva e bivariada. O nível de significância utilizado foi de 5%. Resultados Após a realização de todas as etapas, foi possível obter as palavras que compuseram as listas das tarefas de repetição e de LVA. Finalmente, foram então acrescidas ao protocolo as demais tarefas consideradas essenciais para a avaliação da apraxia como as taxas diadococinéticas e a prancha para a emissão oral espontânea. Conclusão O protocolo desenvolvido contém as tarefas consideradas padrão para a avaliação da apraxia de fala pela literatura internacional, o que torna esse instrumento importante para o diagnóstico desse distúrbio em falantes do português brasileiro.

ABSTRACT Purpose To develop an assessment protocol for speech motor planning with phonologically balanced stimuli for Brazilian Portuguese, including all necessary variables for this diagnosis. Methods Three stages were carried out: In the first, word lists were built with the main criterion being syllabic and accentual patterns. From the survey conducted in Stage 1, the words that composed the first version of the protocol lists in Stage 2 were selected, and grouped into two fundamental tasks for diagnosing acquired apraxia of speech (AOS): repetition and Reading Aloud (RA). In Stage 3, the occurrence of words was investigated using the Brazilian Corpus (PUC-SP) - Linguateca database, and a statistical analysis was performed to verify if the repetition and RA lists were balanced in terms of the occurrences. Thus, the lists were distributed in quartiles and submitted to both descriptive and bivariate analyses. A significance level of 5% (p<0.05) was adopted. Results After completion of all stages, the words that composed the lists of the repetition and RA tasks were obtained. Finally, other tasks considered essential for the assessment of AOS, such as diadochokinetic rates and the board for spontaneous oral emission, were then added to the protocol. Conclusion The developed protocol contains the tasks considered standard for the assessment of AOS according to the international literature, which makes this instrument important for diagnosing this disorder in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese.

Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 42: e2022234, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514850


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile and prevalence of live births with orofacial clefts in Brazil between 1999 and 2020. Methods: Descriptive study. The population corresponded to live births with isolated orofacial clefts in Brazil registered in the Live Birth Information System between 1999 and 2020. Descriptive variables were selected according to their availability and grouped into socioeconomic and demographic, maternal and child health care, and biological variables. Data were submitted to a descriptive analysis using the Software for Statistics and Data Science (STATA). Results: During the period, 33,699 children were born with orofacial clefts, and 82.1% (27,677) of them were isolated clefts. Regarding these cases, the majority were cleft lip and palate (9,619 or 34.7%), followed by cleft palate (9,442 or 34.1%), and by cleft lip (8,616 or 31.3%). Conclusions: Live births with orofacial clefts in Brazil were male, white, with birthweight ≥2,500 g and gestational age ≥37 weeks, born by cesarean section, and with Apgar scores ≥7. The cases were more frequent among mothers who were in their first and single pregnancy and had seven or more prenatal appointments. The mothers were 20 and 29 years old, had eight to ten years of study, and were single. The national prevalence of clefts was 4.24/10,000. The South and Southeast regions of Brazil had the highest prevalence, while the lowest prevalence was recorded in the Northeast and North regions. For the Federative Units, the highest and lowest prevalences were found, respectively, in Paraná and Acre.

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever o perfil epidemiológico e a prevalência dos nascidos vivos com fissuras orofaciais no Brasil entre 1999 e 2020. Métodos: Estudo descritivo. A população correspondeu aos nascidos vivos com fissuras orofaciais isoladas no Brasil registrados no Sistema de Informação de Nascidos Vivos entre 1999 e 2020. As variáveis descritivas foram selecionadas de acordo com a sua disponibilidade e agrupadas em variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas, de atenção à saúde materno-infantil e biológicas. Os dados foram submetidos a análise descritiva utilizando o Software for Statistics and Data Science (STATA). Resultados: No período, 33.699 indivíduos nasceram com fissura orofacial no Brasil, e 82,1% (27.677) deles foram fissuras isoladas. Com relação a esses casos, a maioria foi de fissuras de lábio e palato (9.619 ou 34,7%), seguidas por fissura de palato (9.442 ou 34,1%) e por fissura de lábio (8.616 ou 31,1%). Conclusões: O perfil epidemiológico dos nascidos vivos com fissuras orofaciais no Brasil foi de nascidos do sexo masculino, da raça/cor branca, por parto cesáreo, com peso ao nascer ≥2,500 g, idade gestacional ≥37 semanas e com índices de Apgar ≥7. Os casos foram mais frequentes entre mães que estavam na primeira gestação, única e que haviam realizado sete ou mais consultas de pré-natal. As mães, com maior frequência, tinham entre 20 e 29 anos, apresentavam oito ou mais anos de estudo, eram solteiras e residiam em cidades do interior. A prevalência nacional de fissuras foi de 4,24/10.000. As Regiões Sul e Sudeste apresentaram as maiores prevalências, enquanto as menores foram registradas nas Regiões Nordeste e Norte. Para as Unidades Federativas, as maiores e menores prevalências foram encontradas, respectivamente, no Paraná e no Acre.

Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507424


ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the prevalence of developmental defects in dental enamel and its possible association with prenatal, neonatal and postnatal conditions in six-year-old schoolchildren in a southern Brazilian municipality. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 655 six-year-old schoolchildren. Sociodemographic and health data were collected through interviews with mothers and children's oral examinations at schools. Multivariate analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust estimator. Results: The prevalence of developmental defects of enamel was 44.0%. Demarcated opacities were the most prevalent, followed by diffuse opacities. Late pregnancy, maternal schooling less than eight years, female gender and child's white skin color were independently associated with the prevalence of demarcated opacities. Conclusions: The prevalence of developmental defects in dental enamel was 44.0%. Late pregnancy, maternal schooling less than eight years, female gender and child's white skin color were associated with the prevalences.

RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos de desenvolvimento do esmalte dentário e sua possível associação com fatores pré-natais, neonatais e pós-natais em escolares de seis anos de idade em um município do sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal envolvendo 655 escolares de seis anos de idade. Os dados sociodemográficos e de saúde foram coletados por meio de entrevistas com as mães e exames bucais das crianças nas escolas. As análises multivariadas foram realizadas por meio de regressão de Poisson com estimador robusto. Resultados: A prevalência de defeitos de desenvolvimento do esmalte foi de 44,0%. As opacidades demarcadas foram as mais prevalentes, seguidas das difusas. Gravidez tardia, escolaridade materna inferior a oito anos, sexo feminino e cor da pele branca da criança foram independentemente associados à prevalência de opacidades demarcadas. Conclusões: A prevalência de defeitos de desenvolvimento do esmalte dentário foi de 44,0%. Gravidez tardia, escolaridade materna inferior a oito anos de estudo, sexo feminino e cor da pele branca da criança estiveram associados às prevalências.

Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 42: e2022198, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507425


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 social distancing recommendations on nutritional status, pulmonary function, and morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A retrospective cohort study including patients older than six years with a diagnosis of CF was performed. Demographic and clinical data, anthropometric measurements, pulmonary function, days of antibiotic use, and length of hospital stay were recorded. Variables were recorded at three time points relative to the baseline for implementation of social distancing measures: T-1 (14 months before implementation), T0 (baseline), and T1 (14 months after implementation). Delta (Δ) was calculated for each period: Δ1 (pre-pandemic T0-T-1) and Δ2 (pandemic T1-T0). Results: The study included 25 patients, with a mean age of 11.7±4.3 years. The mean forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) was 85.6±23.6%, and body mass index (BMI) was 17.5±3.0 kg/m2. When comparing the two periods (Δ1 and Δ2), there was a significant increase in the FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (p=0.013) and in the forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75%) (p=0.037) in the pandemic period. There was also a significant reduction (p=0.005) in the use of antibiotics in the pandemic period compared with the pre-pandemic period. The Δ1 and Δ2 values did not differ significantly for BMI, FEV1, or length of hospital stay. Conclusions: COVID-19 social distancing recommendations had a positive impact (decrease) on morbidity (use of antibiotics) and small airway obstruction (FEF25-75%) in patients with CF.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto das recomendações de medidas de distanciamento social por COVID-19 sobre estado nutricional, função pulmonar e morbidade em pacientes com fibrose cística (FC). Métodos: Estudo de coorte, retrospectivo, que incluiu pacientes com diagnóstico de FC e idade superior a seis anos. Foram registrados os dados demográficos, antropométricos, clínicos, de função pulmonar e o total de dias de uso de antibiótico e de hospitalizações. As variáveis foram registradas em três momentos relativos ao início das recomendações de distanciamento social: T-1 (14 meses antes), T0 (início das recomendações) e T1 (14 meses depois). Foram calculados deltas (Δ) para cada um dos períodos: Δ1 (pré-pandemia T0-T-1) e Δ2 (pandemia T1-T0). Resultados: Vinte e cinco pacientes, com média de idade de 11,7±4,3 anos, sendo 76% homozigotos para Δf508 e 28% colonizados por Pseudomonas aeruginosa, foram incluídos. A média do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1) foi de 85,6±23,6 (% do previsto) e o índice de massa corporal (IMC) foi de 17,5±3,0 kg/m2. Ao compararmos os períodos (Δ1 e Δ2), houve aumento significativo do VEF1/CVF (p=0,013) e do FEF25-75% (p=0,037) no período das recomendações de distanciamento. Também se observou redução significativa (p=0,005) do uso de antibióticos no período da pandemia em comparação ao período anterior a ela. Não houve diferenças significativas nos deltas para o IMC, VEF1 e dias de hospitalização. Conclusões: As recomendações de distanciamento social por COVID-19 tiveram impacto positivo (redução) sobre a morbidade (uso de antibióticos) e a obstrução de vias aéreas de menor calibre (FEF25-75%) em pacientes com FC.

Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507428


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the cognitive development of preterm infants at six and 12 months of corrected age and the associations with perinatal and socioeconomic factors. Methods: Cognitive development of 40 infants (20 preterm and 20 full-term) at six and 12 months of age was evaluated using the Bayley-III scale. Correlations between cognitive outcome and associated factors were assessed using Spearman correlation. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with covariance was applied to identify changes on cognitive score between six and 12 months. Results: Bayley-III cognitive score in preterm group was significantly lower than in full-term group at both six and 12 months of age. Birth weight correlated with cognitive performance at six months and head circumference at birth at 12 months, in full-terms infants. The occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis was inversely associated with cognitive score in preterms at 12 months. An increase in cognitive score was observed between six and 12 months in both groups, but the gain was more pronounced in preterms. Conclusions: These findings suggest some cognitive recovery capacity in the first year despite the restrictions imposed by premature birth and emphasize the importance of early interventions in this population.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças pré-termo aos seis e 12 meses de idade corrigida e as associações com fatores perinatais e socioeconômicos. Métodos: O desenvolvimento cognitivo de 40 crianças (20 pré-termo e 20 a termo) foi avaliado aos seis e 12 meses de idade, utilizando a escala Bayley-III. Correlações entre resultados cognitivos e fatores associados foram avaliadas pelo teste de correlação de Spearman. A análise de regressão linear múltipla stepwise com covariância foi aplicada para identificar mudanças na pontuação cognitiva entre seis e 12 meses. Resultados: O escore cognitivo no grupo pré-termo foi significativamente menor que no grupo a termo aos seis e 12 meses. O peso ao nascer foi diretamente associado com o desempenho cognitivo aos seis meses e perímetro cefálico ao nascimento aos 12 meses, nas crianças a termo. A ocorrência de enterocolite necrosante foi inversamente associada ao desempenho cognitivo em pré-termos, aos 12 meses. Verificou-se aumento na pontuação cognitiva entre seis e 12 meses nos dois grupos, porém mais pronunciado no pré-termo. Conclusões: O estudo sugere que crianças pré-termo apresentam alguma capacidade de recuperação cognitiva no primeiro ano, apesar das restrições impostas pelo nascimento prematuro, e enfatizam a importância de acompanhamento dessa população desde os primeiros meses de vida.

Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 42: e2022196, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507429


ABSTRACT Objective: Considering the importance of the beginning of the academic trajectory for children to reach their full development, this work aims to evaluate the school readiness of preschool-age children and identify which factors influence these results, in order to contribute to the proposition of strategies that allow improving the teaching-learning process and child development. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study with 443 preschool children belonging to the West Region Cohort (ROC Cohort), from the public school system of the city of São Paulo. School readiness was assessed by the International Development and Early Learning Assessment (IDELA) tool. Non-parametric techniques were used for the correlation analysis between IDELA scores and sociodemographic and socioeconomic conditions: Spearman's parametric correlation, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: The children's mean age was 69 months (standard deviation — SD=2.8; ranging from 55 to 72 months) and most of them came from families with low socioeconomic level. Most children showed adequate readiness in the overall score (65%) and in most domains, except for emergent literacy, in which most (56.9%) were classified as "emergent". The highest percentage of insufficiency was identified in executive functions (4.1%), which showed a correlation only with the caregiver's education. Conclusions: Children had adequate school readiness scores, except for emergent literacy, but the insufficiency in executive functions may compromise the future schooling of these children. Thus, pedagogical proposals should consider these aspects for learning and pediatricians need to reinforce the habit of reading and playing games to stimulate child development.

RESUMO Objetivo: Considerando-se a importância do início da trajetória acadêmica para as crianças alcançarem o seu pleno potencial de desenvolvimento, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a prontidão escolar de crianças em idade pré-escolar e identificar que fatores influenciam esses resultados, com a finalidade de propor estratégias que possam melhorar o processo de ensino-aprendizagem e o desenvolvimento da criança. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo e analítico, com 443 pré-escolares pertencentes à Coorte da Região Oeste (Coorte ROC) da rede pública de ensino da cidade de São Paulo. A prontidão escolar foi avaliada pela ferramenta International Development and Early Learning Assessment (IDELA). Técnicas não paramétricas foram utilizadas para a análise de correlação entre escores de IDELA e as condições sociodemográficas e socioeconômicas: correlação paramétrica de Spearman, testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados: A média de idade das crianças foi de 69 meses (desvio padrão — DP=2,8; variando de 55 a 72 meses) e maioria era proveniente de famílias com baixo nível socioeconômico. A maioria das crianças apresentou prontidão adequada na pontuação geral (65%) e na maior parte dos domínios, com exceção da pré-escrita, na qual as crianças foram predominantemente (56,9%) classificadas como "emergentes". O maior percentual de insuficiência foi identificado nas funções executivas (4,1%), apresentando correlação apenas com a formação do cuidador. Conclusões: As crianças apresentaram escores adequados de prontidão escolar, exceto para a pré-escrita, mas a insuficiência nas funções executivas pode comprometer a escolaridade futura dessas crianças. Assim, as propostas pedagógicas devem considerar esses aspectos para a aprendizagem, e os pediatras precisam reforçar o hábito de ler e dos jogos e brincadeiras para estimular o desenvolvimento infantil.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(1): e2022527, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509214


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Managing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) is challenging, considering the CIN2 regression rate, perinatal risks associated with excisional procedures, and insufficient well-established risk factors to predict progression. OBJECTIVES: To determine the ability of p16INK4a and Ki-67 staining in biopsies diagnosed with CIN2 to identify patients with higher-grade lesions (CIN3 or carcinoma). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at a referral center for treating uterine cervical lesions. METHODS: In 79 women, we analyzed the correlation of p16INK4a and Ki-67 expression in CIN2 biopsies with the presence of a higher-grade lesions, as determined via histopathology in surgical specimens from treated women or via two colposcopies and two cytological tests during follow-up for untreated women with at least a 6-month interval. The expression of these two biomarkers was verified by at least two independent pathologists and quantified using digital algorithms. RESULTS: Thirteen (16.8%) women with CIN2 biopsy exhibited higher-grade lesions on the surgical excision specimen or during follow-up. p16INK4a expression positively and negatively predicted the presence of higher-grade lesions in 17.19% and 86.67% patients, respectively. Ki-67 expression positively and negatively predicted the presence of higher-grade lesions in 40% and 88.24% patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Negative p16INK4a and Ki67 immunohistochemical staining can assure absence of a higher-grade lesion in more than 85% of patients with CIN2 biopsies and can be used to prevent overtreatment of these patients. Positive IHC staining for p16INK4a and Ki-67 did not predict CIN3 in patients with CIN2 biopsies.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(1): e2022629, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509216


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The identification and understanding of dietary factors and other characteristics that influence gestational weight gain can contribute to the formulation of strategies to promote healthy eating habits before and during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between dietary patterns, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics, and health-related behaviors in pregnant women. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted on women undergoing prenatal care in the Unified Health System of Colombo, Paraná, Brazil, from February 2018 to September 2019. METHOD: A weekly food frequency questionnaire was administered, and dietary patterns were identified through factor analysis. Median regression models were constructed to identify the associations between dietary pattern scores and variables. RESULTS: Complete data were obtained from 495 pregnant women. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) "healthy," with higher factor loadings for the weekly consumption of raw vegetables, cooked vegetables, and fresh fruits; 2) "Western," including soft drinks or artificial juice, candies, milk, and dairy products, and processed cold meat; and 3) "traditional," beans and meat. Pregnant women aged 30 years or older (coefficient [Coef.] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-1.33) with moderate/intense physical activity (Coef. 0.32, 95% CI 0.02-0.62) had higher adherence to the "healthy" pattern. Adolescents and smokers adhered more to the "traditional" pattern (Coef. 0.17, 95% CI 0.01-0.33). CONCLUSION: Age, smoking status, and physical activity were associated with dietary patterns in pregnant women.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(2): e2023015, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509217


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is a non-rare genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in every 800 live births worldwide. Further, it is associated with comorbidities, anatomical alterations of the respiratory tract, and immunological dysfunctions that make individuals more susceptible to respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To systematize the current scientific knowledge about the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among individuals with DS. DESIGN AND SETTING: This integrative review was conducted at the Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This review was conducted in the following databases: the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, BVS), PubMed, and Web of Science, using MeSH descriptors. The search included English or Portuguese studies published between January 1, 2020, and October 14, 2022. RESULTS: A total of 55 articles from 24 countries were selected, comprising 21 case-control or cohort studies, 23 case reports or series, and 11 narrative reviews or opinion studies. The articles were grouped into five categories: previous comorbidities, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical features and evolution, cytokine storm and interleukins, living in institutions as a risk factor, and behavioral actions as a protective factor against SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Individuals with DS are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection due to variables such as previous comorbidities, immunological factors, and their habitable environments. These aspects confer a higher risk of infection and an unfavorable clinical course. The precise pathways involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in individuals with DS are not clear, thus requiring further studies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The Open Science Framework registered the research protocol (

São Paulo med. j ; 142(1): e2022615, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450507


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Understanding social determinants is crucial for implementing preventive strategies, especially for low birth weight (LBW)—a public health issue that severely increases the risk of morbimortality in children. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the factors associated with LBW among newborns, assisted by the Brazilian Unified Health System. DESIGN AND SETTING: It analyzed data from newborns and their mothers. The sample was selected by convenience from users of the public health system in Francisco Beltrão (Paraná, Brazil). METHODS: Cases (n = 26) were babies weighing ≤ 2,500 g and controls (n = 52) > 2,500 g. All babies were assessed and paired by sex and date of birth in a 1:2 proportion. Statistical power was computed a posteriori, revealing a power of 87% (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Strong and significant differences were found in the bivariate analysis, in which the number of current smokers or those who quit during pregnancy was higher among mothers of babies with LBW. Moreover, the gestational weeks were lower among these cases. Logistic regression models indicated that the gestational week (odds ratio [OR] = 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.05-0.54) and fathers' educational level (high school or above; OR = 0.22, 95% CI:0.06-0.99) were related to lower chances of low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm previous investigations on LBW's multi-causality, showing that the gestational week could reduce up to 82% chances of a baby being born with ≤ 2,500 g. Its association with paternal education underlines the importance of comprehensive policies to protect newborns.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(1): e2022539, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450508


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common condition, and the Menstrual Bleeding Questionnaire (MBQ) is used for its assessment. OBJECTIVES: To translate, assess the cut-off point for diagnosis, and explore psychometric properties of the MBQ for use in Brazilian Portuguese. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study including 200 women (100 with and 100 without AUB) at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: MBQ translation involved a pilot-testing phase, instrument adjustment, data collection, and back-translation. Cut-off point was obtained using receiver operating curve analysis. Menstrual patterns, impact on quality of life due to AUB, internal consistency, test-retest, responsiveness, and discriminant validity were assessed. For construct validity, the Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart (PBAC) and World Health Organization Quality of Life - abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF) were applied. RESULTS: Women with AUB were older, had higher body mass indices, and had a worse quality of life during menstruation. Regarding the MBQ's psychometric variables, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was > 0.70 in all analyses, high intraclass correlation coefficient was found in both groups; no ceiling and floor effects were observed, and construct validity was demonstrated (correlation between MBQ score, PBAC score, and clinical menstrual cycle data). No difference between MBQ and PBAC scores were perceived after the test-retest. Significant differences were found between MBQ and PBAC scores before and after treatment. An MBQ score ≥ 24 was associated with a high probability of AUB; accuracy of 98%. CONCLUSION: The MBQ is a reliable questionnaire for Brazilian women. The cut-off ≥ 24 shows high accuracy to discriminate AUB.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(1): e2022666, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450510


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in critical care units remains limited, especially in terms of the factors associated with their use. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and factors associated with PIMs use in intensive care units. DESIGN AND SETTING: Historical cohort study was conducted in a high-complexity hospital in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 314 patients aged ≥ 60 years who were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at a high-complexity hospital in Brazil. The dates were extracted from a "Patient Safety Project" database. A Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess which factors were associated with PIMs. The statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: According to Beers' criteria, 12.8% of the identified drugs were considered inappropriate for the elderly population. The incidence rate of PIMs use was 45.8%. The most frequently used PIMs were metoclopramide, insulin, antipsychotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and benzodiazepines. Factors associated with PIMs use were the number of medications (odds ratio [OR] = 1.17), length of hospital stay (OR = 1.07), and excessive potential drug interactions (OR = 2.43). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of the older adults in ICUs received PIM. Patients taking PIMs had a longer length of stay in the ICU, higher numbers of medications, and higher numbers of potential drug interactions. In ICUs, the use of explicit methods combined with clinical judgment can contribute to the safety and quality of medication prescriptions.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(1): e2022445, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450513


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: With the increase in the older adult population, it is essential to identify the living and health conditions that can impact the quality of life of these individuals. OBJECTIVES: To identify the domains and factors associated with the quality of life of older adults under the Family Health Strategy program. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the municipality of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. METHODS: We assessed 449 older adults enrolled in the Family Health Strategy program. Data were collected between April and July, 2018. World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-OLD) was used to assess the quality of life (QoL) and multiple linear regression was used to estimate the factors associated with QoL. RESULTS: The QoL domain with the highest score was death and dying (mean = 70.4), and the lowest score was for sensory functions (mean = 61.0 points). The factors associated with QoL were single marital status (β = -4.55; P = 0.014), level of independence for daily living activities (β = 4.92; P < 0.001), self-assessment of regular health (β = 5.35; P < 0.001), and poor health (β = -8.67; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The death and dying domain of QoL presented the highest score. Marital status, impairment in daily activities, and health self-assessment were associated with QoL.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(2): e2022662, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450515


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: A bibliometric analysis covering only the production of original studies or considering world production until 2022 has yet to be conducted. The creation and advancement of vaccines have also influenced research priorities, demonstrating the need for a new approach to this subject. OBJECTIVES: To analyze worldwide scientific production related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the aged and to describe what has already been produced. DESIGN AND SETTING: Bibliometric analysis with a quantitative approach. METHOD: The search terms "COVID-19," "SARS-CoV-2," "Aged," and "Elderly" were used to retrieve articles from the Web of Science database. A total of 684 articles were included in the analysis. Data were imported into RStudio Desktop Software and linked to R Software. The Bibliometrix R package and VOSviewer software were used for analysis. RESULTS: Most articles were published in 2020. These were produced by 4,937 authors and published in 379 journals. The keyword most used by the authors was "COVID-19." Publications from 77 countries were obtained. China had the highest article production ranking, and Spain collaborated the most. The articles addressed the implications of the pandemic on the aged, the relationship between vaccination in the aged, and the implications for the disease itself. CONCLUSION: Further research should be conducted, mainly concerning vaccines and vaccination of the aged, owing to the need for and importance of immunization in this risk group, including assessing the long-term effects of vaccines.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(2): e2022548, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450518


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Current research supports the fact that prophylactic ankle taping (AT) is effective in preventing ankle injuries in amateur and elite sports athletes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of AT on balance, knee valgus during drop jump and single-leg countermovement jump (SL-CMJ) landings, and ankle range of motion (ROM) restriction in healthy participants. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. METHODS: Participants: Thirty-nine healthy individuals participated in this study and performed the movements under two conditions (with and without tape). Outcome measurements: ankle ROM, balance, SL-CMJ height, flight time, ground time, and knee valgus. Before any intervention, a random process was developed with a 1:1 allocation ratio, and the participants were assigned to groups A (tape-no tape) and B (no tape-tape). RESULTS: Significant differences between tape and no-tape moments were observed for drop jump knee valgus flexion (P = 0.007), with an increase in knee valgus in participants with ankle taping. Similarly, the Y-balance testshowed a significant decrease in all variables (P = 0.001 and), ankle dorsiflexion (P = 0.001) in participants with ankle taping. CONCLUSIONS: AT is effective for immediate ankle ROM restriction. However, an increase in knee valgus during drop jump task and a decrease in lower limb balance were observed during drop jump task. Based on these results, it can be concluded that AT application in healthy individuals should not be recommended as it results in increase in injury risk factors.

São Paulo med. j ; 142(3): e2022578, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450522


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Ankle taping (AT) is effective in preventing ankle sprain injuries in most common sports and is employed in rehabilitation and prevention sports. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of AT to restricting excessive frontal plane ankle movements in semi-professional basketball players throughout the training session. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was performed at the Universidad Europea de Madrid. METHODS: Forty male and female semi-professional basketball players were divided into two groups. The ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and interlimb asymmetries in a weight-bearing lunge position were evaluated at four time points: 1) with no tape, 2) before practice, at 30 min of practice, and 3) immediately after practice. RESULTS: In male basketball players, no differences were observed in the right and left ankles between the baseline and 30 min and between baseline and 90 min of assessment. In female athletes, significant differences were reported between baseline and pre-training assessments for the right ankle and also significant differences between baseline and 90 min in both ankles. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle taping effectively decreased the ankle dorsiflexion ROM in male and female basketball players immediately after application. However, ROM restriction was very low after 30 and 90 min, as assessed in a single basketball practice. Therefore, the classic taping method should be revised to develop new prophylactic approaches, such as the implementation of semi-rigid bracing techniques or the addition of active stripes during training or game pauses.