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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235781, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153480

RESUMEN

Abstract Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in tempeh, has not been investigated especially in vitro as a neuroprotective agent against 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME)-induced beta-amyloid cytotoxicity. Beta amyloid peptides (Aβ) could initiate neurotoxic events and neuron-inflammatory response via microglial activation. However, it remains unknown whether the neurotoxic effect of beta-amyloid and/or associated with the potential of 2-ME to induce neurotoxic effects on primary culture of nerve cells induced by 2-ME. This study investigated potential neuroprotective of trans-resveratrol a promising agent tempeh and soybean seed coats-derived against beta-amyloid cytotoxicity on primary culture of nerve cells induced by 2-methoxyethanol. Biotium and MTT assays were used to analyze neurons, which were isolated from the cerebral cortex of fetal mice at gestation day 19 (GD-19). A standard solution of 2-methoxyethanol was dosed at 10 μL. The cultured cells were randomly divided into the following groups: (1) 2-ME group + resveratrol standard, (2) 2-ME group + resveratrol isolated from tempeh, (3) 2-ME group + resveratrol isolated from soybean seed coats, and (4) the control group, without the addition of either 2-ME or resveratrol. Exposure of the primary cortical neuron cells to beta-amyloid monoclonal antibody pre-incubated for 24 h with 10 µL of 4.2 µg/mL resveratrol and 7.5 mmol/l 2-methoxy-ethanol additions. Here, we report that the addition of 2-ME and resveratrol (standard and isolated from tempeh) of cell culture at concentrations of 1.4, 2.8 and 4.2 µg/mL showed that the majority of neurons grew well. In contrast, after exposure to 2-ME and Beta-amyloid, showed that glial activated. These findings demonstrate a role for resveratrol in neuroprotective-neurorescuing action.


Resumo O resveratrol, um polifenol natural encontrado em tempê, não foi investigado apenas in vitro como agente neuroprotetor contra a citotoxicidade beta-amiloide induzida por 2-metoxietanol (2-ME). Os peptídeos beta-amiloides (Aβ) podem iniciar eventos neurotóxicos e resposta inflamatória dos neurônios via ativação microglial. No entanto, permanece desconhecido se o efeito neurotóxico do peptídeo beta-amiloide associado ao potencial do 2-ME causa efeitos neurotóxicos na cultura primária de células nervosas induzidas pelo 2-ME. Este estudo investigou o potencial neuroprotetor do agente trans-resveratrol em cascas de sementes de soja e tempê derivadas da citotoxicidade beta-amiloide na cultura primária de células nervosas induzidas pelo 2-metoxietanol. Ensaios de biotium e MTT foram utilizados para analisar os neurônios isolados do córtex cerebral de camundongos fetais no dia da gestação 19 (GD-19). As células cultivadas foram divididas aleatoriamente nos seguintes grupos: (1) grupo 2-ME + padrão de resveratrol; (2) grupo 2-ME + resveratrol isolado de tempê; (3) grupo 2-ME + resveratrol isolado de cascas de sementes de soja; e (4) grupo controle, sem a adição de 2-ME ou resveratrol. Houve exposição das células primárias dos neurônios corticais ao anticorpo monoclonal beta-amiloide pré-incubado por 24 horas, com 10 µL de 4,2 µg/mL de resveratrol, e adições de 7,5 mmol/l de 2-metoxietanol. A adição de 2-ME e resveratrol (padrão e isolado do tempê) da cultura de células nas concentrações de 1,4, 2,8 e 4,2 µg/mL mostrou que a maioria dos neurônios cresceu bem. Por outro lado, após a exposição ao 2-ME e beta-amiloide, a glia foi ativada. Esses achados demonstram um papel do resveratrol na ação neuroprotetora e de neurorresgate.

2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(5): 938-947, nov. 2021. graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248907

RESUMEN

Resumo Fundamento: A hipertensão sustentada pode levar ao remodelamento vascular e lesão das células endoteliais, o que pode explicar a disfunção endotelial encontrada em hipertensos. O treinamento físico pode melhorar a saúde vascular em indivíduos com risco cardiovascular, mas pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos em pré-hipertensos e hipertensos. Objetivo: Revisar a literatura mostrando evidências de alterações da função endotelial em resposta a diferentes modalidades de treinamento físico em pré-hipertensos e hipertensos. Métodos: Realizamos uma revisão sistemática de estudos nas bases de dados MEDLINE, Cochrane, LILACS, EMBASE e SciELO seguindo tanto as diretrizes PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes) quanto a estratégia PICO (paciente/população, intervenção, comparação e resultados). Os ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) publicados até abril de 2019 foram selecionados e avaliados por quatro revisores independentes. A qualidade metodológica foi avaliada por meio da escala PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database). Resultados: Nossa busca rendeu 598 resumos, e 10 estudos foram elegíveis para revisão. Todos eles apresentaram qualidade metodológica aceitável pela escala PEDro. Dos 10 estudos, 7 envolveram treinamento aeróbico, 1 treinamento resistido isométrico e 2 treinamento aeróbico e treinamento resistido dinâmico separadamente. Sete estudos usaram dilatação fluxo-mediada (DFM) para avaliar a saúde vascular, e três usaram pletismografia. A maioria dos protocolos de treinamento envolveu indivíduos hipertensos e consistiu em exercícios de baixa e moderada intensidade. Conclusão: Nossa revisão sistemática mostrou que o treinamento aeróbico contínuo moderado é eficaz para melhorar a saúde vascular em indivíduos hipertensos. Em pré-hipertensos, o treinamento aeróbico intervalado vigoroso parece ser uma alternativa para benefícios à saúde vascular. O treinamento físico resistido isométrico ou dinâmico pode ser usado como alternativa secundária, mas ainda requer mais investigação.


Abstract Background: Sustained high blood pressure can lead to vascular remodeling and endothelial cell injury, which may explain the endothelial dysfunction found in hypertensive individuals. Exercise training can improve vascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk, but little is known about its effects in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Objective: To review the literature showing evidence of changes in endothelial function in response to different modalities of exercise training in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies in the MEDLINE, Cochrane, LILACS, EMBASE, and SciELO databases following both the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and the PICO framework (patient/population, intervention, comparison and outcomes). Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published up to April 2019 were selected and assessed by four independent reviewers. The methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) scale. Results: Our search yielded 598 abstracts, and 10 studies were eligible for review. All of them had acceptable methodological quality by PEDro scale. Of the 10 studies, 7 involved aerobic training, 1 isometric resistance training, and 2 aerobic training and dynamic resistance training separately. Seven studies used flow-mediated dilation (FMD) to assess the vascular health, and three used plethysmography. Most training protocols involved hypertensive individuals and consisted of low and moderate-intensity exercise. Conclusion: Our systematic review showed that moderate continuous aerobic training is effective to improve vascular health in hypertensive individuals. In prehypertensive individuals, vigorous interval aerobic training seems to be an alternative to determine vascular health benefits. Resistance exercise training, either isometric or dynamic, can be used as a secondary alternative, but still requires further investigation.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 592-600, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153379

RESUMEN

Abstract Understanding the relation between the environmental stress factors and the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis efficiency can reduce the susceptibility to thyroid diseases. In our study, thyroid dysfunction was induced in female rats by administration of 40 mg Na F/kg.bd.wt/day for a month. Co-administration of the water extract of Arca noae (300 mg/kg. bw) was tested as a treatment for Na F induced thyroid dysfunction. A group of rats injected Arca noae extract only (300 mg/kg.bd.wt) was performed to observe the impact of the extract on the (HPT) axis in addition to the normal control group. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, total protein and albumin levels in the fluoride supplemented group in addition to abnormal levels of TSH, (T4) and (T3) compared to the control group. In the treated group there was an improvement in the proteins level and lipid profile but pseudo-corrected serum (T4) and (T3) levels were observed in addition to a continuous increase in TSH level. Histological findings confirmed the harmful effect of fluoride on both the non treated and the treated groups. Consequently, fluoride supplementation must be considered as a harmful stress that may affect permanently the HPT axis.


Resumo Compreender a relação entre os fatores de estresse ambiental e o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-tireoide (HPT) pode reduzir a suscetibilidade a doenças da tireoide. Em nosso estudo, a disfunção tireoidiana foi induzida em ratos fêmeas pela administração de 40 mg Na F/kg.bw/dia durante um mês. A administração concomitante do extrato aquoso de Arca noae (300 mg/kg.Pc) foi testada como tratamento para a disfunção tireoidiana induzida por Na F. Um grupo de ratos injetados apenas com extrato de Arca noae (300 mg/kg. Pc) foi pré-formado com o intuito de observar o impacto do extrato no eixo (HPT), além do grupo controle normal. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma diminuição significativa nos níveis séricos de triglicerídeos, proteína total e albumina no grupo suplementado com fluoreto, além de níveis anormais de TSH, (T4) e (T3) em comparação ao grupo controle. No grupo tratado, houve uma melhora no nível de proteínas e perfil lipídico. Os níveis séricos pseudocorrigidos (T4) e (T3) foram observados, além de um aumento contínuo no nível de TSH. Os achados histológicos confirmaram o efeito prejudicial do flúor nos grupos não tratado e tratado. Consequentemente, a suplementação de flúor é considerada um estresse prejudicial que pode afetar permanentemente o eixo HPT.

4.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2)mayo.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1252326

RESUMEN

Este reporte corresponde al análisis de la calidad de vida de los pacientes que se incluyeron en el ensayo clínico fase III de evaluación de la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF® en cáncer de pulmón de células no pequeñas. La calidad de vida se evaluó empleando los cuestionarios EORTC QLQ-C30 y QLQ-C13, al inicio y cada 3 meses hasta el fallecimiento del paciente a criterio del investigador. Para comparar las medianas entre los dos grupos se utilizó la prueba no paramétrica de Mann-Whitney. Las comparaciones entre el nivel basal y los diferentes tiempos de seguimiento se realizaron a través de la prueba no paramétrica de Wilcoxon. El cuestionario QLQ-C30 evidenció un beneficio en cuanto a calidad de vida para el grupo vacunado con la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF® en las escalas funcionales (global, rol y social), en las escalas de síntomas de la enfermedad y del tratamiento (dolor) se observó que mejora la calidad de los mismos a favor de los pacientes tratados con la vacuna CIMAvaxEGF®. El cuestionario QLQ-C13, también evidenció ventajas para el grupo vacunado desde el punto de vista de beneficio clínico en los síntomas (disnea, disfagia, alopecia y dolor en el pecho). Se señala como significativo que disminuye la hemoptisis y la tos en el grupo vacunado, observándose un empeoramiento en el grupo control(AU)


This report corresponds to quality of life analysis of patient with non-small cell lung cancer included in the phase III clinical trials Evaluation of CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine in lung cancer. The quality of life was evaluate using the EORTC questionnaires QLQ-C30 y QLQ-C13, at the beginning and every 3 months. To compare the median between two groups the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test was used. To compare the baseline and different follows times the Wilcoxon non-parametric test was used. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire showed a benefit in terms of the quality of life for the CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine group on the functional scores (global, role and social) and symptoms of the disease (pain). The QLQ-LC13 questionnaire showed a benefit in terms of the quality of life for the CIMAvaxEGF® vaccine group on the symptoms scores (dyspnea, dysphagia, alopecia and chest pain). It is noted as significant that the hemoptysis decreases in the group vaccinated as well as the dysphagia, the cough and the dyspnea observing a worsening in the control group(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Ensayos Clínicos Fase III como Asunto , Carcinoma de Pulmón de Células no Pequeñas/epidemiología , Vacunas contra el Cáncer
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 596-609, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154501

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Background: Many medical therapies have been tested to deal with urinary stent-related symptoms (USRS). Several preventive and pharmaceutical methods have been already used for better compatibility of stents. However, the existing evidence for pharmacological treatment is still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the effects of pregabalin, solifenacin, and combination therapy on ureteral double-J stent-related symptoms following ureteroscopy and transureteral lithotripsy (TUL). Materials and methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, from November 2017 to March 2019, 256 patients who underwent ureteroscopy were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into four groups including: group A received pregabalin 75mg BID (twice daily), group B received solifenacin 5mg orally once daily, group C received combination of pregabalin and solifenacin and the group D (control) given no drugs. Results: One hundred and fifty-one (58.9%) males and 101 (41.1%) females were enrolled in this study with a mean age of 43.47±7 (p=0.32, p=0.67). USSQ domains score such as urinary symptoms, pain, general condition, work performance, sexual matters and additional problems were significantly differenced during second and fourth week of follow-up among study groups (p <0.0001). In Tukey's multiple comparison test, urinary symptoms (p=0.735), pain (p=0.954) and sexual matters (p=0.080) in second week and work performance in forth week in group B was not significantly better than group D. Only group C in all indexes of USSQ showed significantly beneficial effects over group D (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Combination therapy of pregabalin and solifenacin has a significant effect on stent-related symptoms and is preferred over monotherapy of the respected medications.

6.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e200, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251497

RESUMEN

Abstract Introduction Patient reported outcomes establish the patient's own perception about his/her health and enable the development of policies designed to improve health/disease processes. These are particularly helpful in the case of diseases with a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. Objective To compare the quality of life scores assessed using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire in patients undergoing cephalic duodenopancreatectomy (Whipple procedure) and laparoscopic cholecystectomies in the same hospital. Methodology Retrospective cohort trial between July 2018 and February 2020. Patients programmed for cephalic duodenopancreatectomy were included, regardless of the type of pathology, and over 18 years old. Patients with carcinomatosis or vascular infiltration were excluded. The EQ-5D-5L was administered following Whipple surgery and compared against a control group (laparoscopic cholecystectomy). The demographic characteristics, the diagnosis, hospital stay and 60-day mortality were assessed. Results A total of 68 patients were included. The most frequent diagnosis was pancreatic cancer (30 %) in the Whipple group and lithiasis (100 %) in the control group. In the five dimensions assessed, there were no differences in terms of mobility (OR: 0.41, 95 % CI [0.30-0.57], p = 0.103) and in terms of personal care (OR: 0.42, 95 % CI [0.32-0.58], p = 0.254). There was a difference in daily life activities (OR: 0.38, 95 % CI [0.27-0.54], p = 0.017), pain/malaise (OR: 2.33, 95 % CI [0.99-5.48]), p = 0.013 and anxiety/depression (OR: 0.39, 95 % CI [0.28-0.55], p = 0.019). The overall health perception was 80 points for Whipple (IQR 60-90) vs. 100 points for the control group (IQR 90-100). Conclusions Patients undergoing a Whipple procedure experience a health perception slightly lower than patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This difference may be associated with increased pain, anxiety/depression and a reduction in their activities of daily life. The administration of the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire to measure quality of life is a friendly tool that used be used routinely to plan activities aimed at improving medical care.


Resumen Introducción Los desenlaces informados por el paciente permiten establecer cuál es la percepción que tiene de su salud y crear políticas que mejoren procesos en salud/enfermedad. Son particularmente útiles en enfermedad que afectan la calidad de vida de forma importante. Objetivo Comparar las puntuaciones de calidad de vida evaluadas mediante el cuestionario EQ-5D-5L en pacientes sometidos a duodenopancreatectomía cefálica (procedimiento de Whipple) y colecistectomías laparoscópicas en el mismo centro hospitalario. Metodología Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo entre julio de 2018 y febrero de 2020. Se incluyeron pacientes programados para duodenopancreatectomía cefálica independientemente del tipo de patología y mayor de 18 años de edad; se excluyeron pacientes con carcinomatosis o infiltración vascular. Se aplicó el cuestionario EQ-5D-5L después de cirugía Whipple y se comparó con un grupo control (colecistectomía laparoscópica). Se evaluaron características demográficas, diagnóstico, estancia hospitalaria y mortalidad a 60 días. Resultados Se incluyeron 68 pacientes. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue cáncer de páncreas (30 %) en el grupo Whipple y litiasis (100 %) en el grupo control. En las 5 dimensiones evaluadas no hubo diferencias en movilidad (OR: 0,41, IC 95 % [0,30-0,57], p = 0,103) y en cuidado personal (OR: 0,42, IC 95 % [0,32-0,58], p = 0,254). Se encontró diferencia en actividades cotidianas (OR: 0,38, IC 95 % [0,270,54], p = 0,017), dolor/malestar (OR: 2,33, IC 95 % [0,99-5,48]), p = 0,013 y angustia/depresión (OR: 0,39, IC 95 % [0,28-0,55], p = 0,019). La percepción general de salud fue 80 puntos para Whipple (RIQ60-90) vs. 100 puntos para el grupo control (RIC 90-100). Conclusiones Los pacientes sometidos a Whipple presentan una percepción de salud ligeramente menor que los pacientes de colecistectomía laparoscópica. Esta diferencia puede estar relacionada con el aumento en dolor, angustia/depresión y disminución en actividades cotidianas. La aplicación del cuestionario EQ-5D-5L para medición de calidad de vida es una herramienta fácil de aplicar que debería realizarse rutinariamente para planear intervenciones dirigidas a mejorar la atención médica.

7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(3): 279-284, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252247

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has relationships with pathogenesis and inflammation pathways in many diseases. Its deficiency may make clinicians think not only of supplementation but also of presence of other diseases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between vitamin D levels and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), given that reduced levels are related to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case-control study conducted in the cardiovascular surgery and family medicine departments of a hospital in Turkey. METHODS: A total of 280 participants were included: 140 each in the DVT and control groups. Basic clinical characteristics, comorbidities and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were recorded and then compared between the groups. Serum 25(OH)D levels were also evaluated separately in three subgroups (sufficient, insufficient and deficient). RESULTS: Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in the DVT group than in the controls (P < 0.001). Females in the DVT group had lower 25(OH)D levels than those in the control group (P = 0.002). Nonetheless, the median 25(OH)D level (16.41 ng/ml) of the control group was still below the reference value. Logistic regression analysis showed that 25(OH)D was a significant predictor of DVT. Weight, height and body mass index, which all presented interaction, were significant in the logistic regression analysis but not in individual analyses. CONCLUSION: The serum vitamin D levels of DVT patients were lower than those of controls. If the results obtained from our study are supported by further large-scale randomized controlled trials, vitamin D replacement may be brought into the agenda for protection against DVT.

8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(3): 269-278, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252249

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity is a worldwide public health concern. The New Moves program aims to change eating behavior (EB) and physical activity (PA). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention and predictors of better outcomes relating to EB and PA levels. DESIGN AND SETTING: Secondary data from a cluster randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 270 female adolescents, aged 12 to 14 years, were analyzed. Participation levels were categorized as presence in 1 to 9 sessions or 10 to 17 sessions, or control. Effectiveness was evaluated through improvement in disordered EB (DEB) and EB. Predictors of better outcomes relating to PA levels were evaluated through clustering of individual characteristics that affected changes in PA scores. RESULTS: Participation level was not significantly associated with changes in DEB or EB. Girls with higher body mass index percentile (BMI-P) percentile tended to have increases in sedentary lifestyles through the program. Girls with less body image dissatisfaction presented higher increases in daily PA. Girls with higher BMI-P percentile and higher self-esteem showed reductions in sedentary lifestyles. The program seemed to have more effect on daily PA among older girls than among younger girls. CONCLUSIONS: This program could be used as a structured action plan in schools, with the aims of improving eating behaviors and physical activity, in addition to promoting self-acceptance. The results indicate the importance of evaluating determinants of adherence, as these metrics might influence the effectiveness and future design of lifestyle programs.

9.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(2): 127-131, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249653

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate a new treatment for split fractures through fatigue tests on a swine model. Methods: Thirty lumbar spine samples (L2-L3-L4) from swine models were divided into three test groups. The first was the control group (intact vertebrae). In the second group, a bone defect was created, similar to a coronal split fracture of the vertebral body. For this, a bone defect (osteotomy) was performed in the coronal axis of the middle third of the middle lumbar vertebral body (L3), keeping the disc-ligament structures intact. In the third group, the same procedure was performed to cause bone failure, but was associated with the use of synthesis material, with pedicular fixation using 3.5 mm cannulated screws with partial thread, in order to apply compression at the fracture site, giving resistance and support to the vertebra. The groups were submitted to biomechanical fatigue tests. The number of cycles required to failure in the specimen was analyzed. Results: The use of the synthesis material increased the resistance of the fractured vertebrae to levels equal to those of the intact vertebra for low cycles with loads of 40% of the failure load, possibly losing up to 20% of their resistance for higher cycles. Conclusions: In the vertebrae in which synthetic material was used, greater resistance to a greater number of cycles for a longer period of time was observed when compared with the fractured vertebrae, suggesting that this is an interesting method for the fixation of split-type spinal fractures. Level of evidence III; Experimental Study.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar um novo tratamento de fraturas do tipo separação (split) através de ensaios de fadiga em modelo suíno. Métodos: Trinta amostras de coluna lombar (L2-L3-L4) de modelos suínos foram divididas em três grupos para testes. O primeiro constituiu o grupo controle (vértebras intactas). No segundo grupo, foi criado um defeito ósseo semelhante a uma fratura split coronal do corpo vertebral. Para tanto, criou-se um defeito ósseo (osteotomia) no eixo coronal do terço médio do corpo vertebral intermediário lombar (L3), mantendo as estruturas disco-ligamentares íntegras. No terceiro grupo, foi realizado o mesmo procedimento para causar a falha óssea, sendo associado o uso de material de síntese, com a fixação pedicular com parafuso canulado de 3,5 mm com rosca parcial, com objetivo de realizar compressão no foco da fratura e dar resistência e sustentação à vertebra. Os grupos foram submetidos a testes biomecânicos de fadiga. Foi analisado o número de ciclos necessários para que ocorresse a falha no corpo de prova. Resultados: O material de síntese aumenta a resistência da vértebra fraturada em níveis iguais aos da vértebra intacta para baixos ciclos e com cargas de 40% da tensão de ruptura, podendo perder até 20% de sua resistência para ciclos mais altos. Conclusões: Nas vértebras em que foi utilizado material de síntese observou-se maior resistência ao maior número de ciclos por um período mais prolongado em comparação com as vértebras apenas fraturadas, sugerindo que este é um método interessante para a fixação de fraturas do tipo split na coluna vertebral. Nível de evidência III; Estudo experimental.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar un nuevo tratamiento de fracturas lumbares del tipo separación (split) a través de ensayos de fatiga en modelo porcino. Métodos: Treinta muestras de columna lumbar (L2-L3-L4) de modelos porcinos fueron divididas en tres grupos para tests. El primero constituyó el grupo control (vértebras intactas). En el segundo grupo, fue creado un defecto óseo semejante a una fractura split coronal del cuerpo vertebral. Para tanto, se creó un defecto óseo (osteotomía) en el eje coronal del tercio medio del cuerpo vertebral intermedio lumbar (L3), manteniendo las estructuras disco-ligamentarias íntegras. En el tercer grupo, fue realizado el mismo procedimiento para causar la falla ósea, siendo asociado el uso de material de síntesis, con fijación pedicular con tornillo canulado de 3,5 mm con rosca parcial, con el objetivo de realizar compresión en el foco de la fractura y dar resistencia y sustentación a la vértebra. Los grupos fueron sometidos a tests biomecánicos de fatiga. Fue analizado el número de ciclos necesarios para que ocurriese la falla en el cuerpo de prueba. Resultados: El material de síntesis aumenta la resistencia de la vértebra fracturada en niveles iguales a los de la vértebra intacta para bajos ciclos y con cargas de 40% de la tensión de ruptura, pudiendo perder hasta 20% de su resistencia para ciclos más altos. Conclusiones: En las vértebras en que fue utilizado material de síntesis se observó mayor resistencia al mayor número de ciclos por un período más prolongado en comparación con las vértebras solamente fracturadas, sugiriendo que este es un método interesante para la fijación de fracturas de tipo split en columna vertebral. Nivel de evidencia III; Estudio experimental.

11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 214-219, May-June 2021. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248961

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the influence of pupil dynamics on the defocus profile and area-of-focus of eyes implanted with a diffractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL). Methods: This prospective randomized trial was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive the multifocal SN6AD1 (n=20) or the aspheric monofocal SN60WF (aIOL) (n=18) IOLs bilaterally. Dynamic pupillometry, visual acuity for distance and near, corrected and uncorrected, and a defocus profile were assessed postoperatively. The area-of-focus was calculated using an empirical polynomial model of the defocus profile. Results: Sixteen patients (32 eyes) in the multifocal SN6AD1 group and 17 patients (34 eyes) in the aspheric monofocal SN60WF group completed the 1-year follow-up. There were no significant between-group differences in monocular uncorrected distance or near visual acuity. The defocus profiles of the mfIOL group showed a double peak, whereas those of the aspheric monofocal SN60WF group showed only one peak, which is typical for a monofocal intraocular lens. The area-of-focus of the aIOL group (4.66 ± 1.51 logMARxD) was significantly different from that of the multifocal SN6AD1 (1.99 ± 1.31 logMARxD). Pupil size at maximum contraction after exposure to a flash of 30 cd/m2 for 1 second was significantly correlated with a better area-of-focus in the multifocal SN6AD1 group (r=0.54; p=0.0017), whereas this was not the case in the aspheric monofocal SN60WF group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that in eyes implanted with an multifocal SN6AD1, the smaller the pupil size, the better is the area-of-focus and hence the better is the visual performance. This correlation was not found for the aspheric monofocal SN60WF.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a influência da dinâmica pupilar na curva de desfoco de olhos implantados com lente intraoculares multifocais difrativas. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo e randomizado realizado na Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - Universidade de São Paulo - Departamento de Oftalmologia. Trinta e oito pacientes foram aleatoriamente designados para receber bilateralmente lentes intraoculares SN6AD1 (n=20) (mfIOL) ou SN60WF (n=18) (aIOL). Além da acuidade visual para longe e perto, corrigida e não corrigida, e curva de desfoco, foi ainda realizada pupilometria dinâmica. A área sob a curva de desfoco foi calculada usando um modelo polinomial empírico. Resultados: Um total de 16 e 17 pacientes (n=32 e 34 olhos) completaram 1 ano de seguimento nos grupos mfIOL e aIOL, respectivamente. Não houve diferenças significativas entre grupos para as acuidades visuais seja para longe ou perto. As curvas de desfoco do grupo mfIOL mostraram um pico duplo; enquanto o SN60WF mostrou apenas um pico, típico para uma lente intraoculares monofocal. A média da área sob a curva de desfoco do grupo aIOL foi (4,66 ± 1,51 logMAR.dp), e essa é estatisticamente significante diferente da métrica do grupo mfIOL (1,99 ± 1,31 logMAR.dp). A pupila na contração máxima após a exposição a um flash de 30 cd/m2 por 1 segundo foi significativamente correlacionada com uma melhor área de foco no grupo mfIOL (r=0,54; p=0,0017), essa relação não foi observada para o grupo aIOL. Conclusão: Estes dados indicam que quanto menor a pupila durante contração, melhor é a área sob a curva de desfoco e, portanto, o desempenho visual dos olhos implantados com essa mfIOL. Esta correlação não foi encontrada para lentes intraoculares monofocais.

12.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(3): 324-336, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249184

RESUMEN

Objective: Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a third-wave psychological intervention that has attracted considerable clinical and research attention. A previous meta-analysis of ACT trials in psychosis reported a large effect size of ACT against overall psychotic symptomatology. However, there were critical methodological issues in the review that justify replication. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing ACT vs. any comparator condition in a sample of adults with psychosis. The outcome of interest was overall psychotic symptomatology. Results: The search identified seven published and eight unpublished trials (of which we were able to obtain data from one). Data on symptomatology were extracted from six trials that involved 274 participants. The summary effect size (Hedge's G) for overall symptomatology was small and not significant (-0.21, 95%CI -0.60-0.18). Trials were generally rated as having a high risk of bias. Safety reporting was inadequate across included trials. Conclusions: Our observed effect size contrasted with that reported in a previous meta-analysis; differences were likely explained by errors in data extraction. The findings of this review suggest that there is currently inadequate evidence to conclude that ACT is a safe and effective treatment against psychotic symptomatology. Systematic review registration: CRD42018097200

13.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(3): 306-313, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249200

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Morinda officinalis oligosaccharide (MOO) capsules for depressive disorder. Methods: Eight electronic databases were searched for relevant studies from inception to April 19, 2020. Randomized controlled trials comparing MOO capsules with antidepressants were included. Data analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3 software. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool, and the quality of the studies was evaluated by two researchers using the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) software. Results: Seven studies involving 1,384 participants were included in this study. The effect of MOO capsules for moderate depressive disorder was not different from that of antidepressants (risk ratio [RR] = 0.99, 95%CI 0.92-1.06). Regarding adverse events, no significant difference was found between MOO capsules and antidepressants (RR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.65-1.07). In addition, the quality of evidence related to these adverse events was rated as low. Conclusion: This systematic review suggests that the efficacy of MOO capsules in the treatment of mild to moderate depression is not inferior to that of conventional antidepressants, which may provide a new direction for clinical alternative selection of antidepressants. However, more high-quality research and detailed assessments are needed.

14.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 351-360, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153372

RESUMEN

Abstract Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most common infection among hospitalized patients, associated with increased levels of morbidity, mortality and attributable health care costs. Increased resistant Pseudomonas worldwide has been quite meaningful to patients, especially in intensive care unit (ICUs). Different species of Pseudomonas exhibit different genetic profile and varied drug resistance. The present study determines the molecular epidemiology through DNA fingerprinting method and drug resistance of P. aeruginosa isolated from patients with LTRIs admitted in ICU. A total of 79 P. aeruginosa isolated from patients with LRTIs admitted in ICU were characterized by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Repetitive Extrapalindromic PCR (REP-PCR). Antibiotic resistance was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay while MDR genes, viz, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaVIM, blaCTX-M-15 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 137 Pseudomonas sp isolated from ICU patients, 57.7% of the isolates were reported to be P. aeruginosa. The overall prevalence of P. aeruginosa among the all included patients was 34.5%. The RAPD analysis yielded 45 different patterns with 72 clusters with 57% to 100% similarity level. The RFLP analysis yielded 8 different patterns with 14 clusters with 76% to 100% similarity level. The REP PCR analysis yielded 37 different patterns with 65 clusters with 56% to 100% similarity level. There was no correlation among the different DNA patterns observed between the three different methods. Predominant of the isolates (46.8%) were resistant to amikacin. Of the 79 isolates, 60.8% were positive for blaTEM gene and 39.2% were positive for blaOXA gene. P. aeruginosa was predominantly isolated from patients with LRTIs admitted in ICU. The difference in the similarity level observed between the three DNA fingerprinting methods indicates that there is high inter-strain variability. The high genetic variability and resistance patterns indicates that we should continuously monitor the trend in the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa especially in patients with LRTIs admitted in ICU.


Resumo Infecções do trato respiratório inferior (ITRIs) são as infecções mais comuns entre pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Pseudomonas aeruginosa é a causa mais comum de ITRIs e está associada ao aumento da mortalidade. Diferentes espécies de Pseudomonas exibem diferentes perfis genéticos e resistência variada as drogas. O presente estudo determina a epidemiologia molecular através do método de fingerprinting de DNA e resistência as drogas de P. aeruginosa isoladas de pacientes com LTRIs internados em UTI. Um total de 79 P. aeruginosa isoladas de pacientes com ITRIs internados em UTI foram caracterizados por Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos de Restrição (RFLP), DNA Polimórfico Amplificado ao Acaso (RAPD) e PCR Extrapalindrômico Repetitivo (REP-PCR). A resistência aos antibióticos foram determinadas pelos ensaios de concentrações inibitória mínima (MIC), enquanto os genes MDR, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaVIM, blaCTX-M-15 foram detectados pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Das 137 Pseudomonas sp isoladas de pacientes de UTI, 57,7% dos isolados foram relatados como P. aeruginosa. A prevalência geral de P. aeruginosa entre os pacientes incluídos foram de 34,5%. A análise RAPD renderam 45 padrões diferentes com 72 clusters com nível de similaridade de 57% a 100%. A análise RFLP renderam 8 padrões diferentes com 14 clusters com 76% a 100% de similaridade. A análise de PCR do REP produziram 37 padrões diferentes com 65 clusters com nível de similaridade de 56% a 100%. Não houveram correlações entre os diferentes padrões de DNA observados entre os três diferentes métodos. Predominantes dos isolados (46,8%) eram resistentes à amicacina. Dos 79 isolados, 60,8% foram positivos para o gene blaTEM e 39,2% foram positivos para o gene blaOXA. P. aeruginosa foi predominantemente isolado de pacientes com ITRIs internados em UTI. A diferença no nível de similaridade observado entre os três métodos de fingerprinting do DNA indica que há alta variabilidade inter-strain. A alta variabilidade genética e os padrões de resistência indicam que devemos monitorar continuamente a tendência na prevalência e resistência a antibióticos de P. aeruginosa, especialmente em pacientes com ITRIs internados em UTI.

15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 188-196, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154556

RESUMEN

Abstract Background Patients with heart failure often experience depression, anxiety, and impacts on quality of life. Psychotherapeutic interventions have been used for chronic conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, showing improvement in mental health. However, no studies have assessed the effects of a psychological intervention using psychoanalysis on patients with heart failure. Objective To assess the effect of short-term psychotherapy on depressive symptoms, anxiety, and quality of life of patients seen at a specialty clinic. Method A randomized clinical trial with scales to assess outcomes before and after psychotherapy, under the perspective of psychoanalysis, with 12 weekly sessions. The Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire were used. The mean initial and final scores for quality of life, anxiety, and depression were compared using Student's t-test for independent samples when distribution was normal, or Mann-Whitney test when distribution was non-normal. A bivariate p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analyses. Results This study involved 32 patients, 50% were female, mean age was 64.3±11.6, and most participants were New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I (56.3%). For anxiety (p = 0.196), there was no statistically significant difference between groups. For quality of life and depression, there was a statistical difference (p = 0.009 and 0.035, respectively), with a medium effect (Cohen's d = 0.593) on quality of life. Conclusion Short-term psychotherapy in outpatients with heart failure showed an impact on depression and quality of life but did not improve anxiety. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

16.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3759, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251799

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: La colonización nasofaríngea por neumococo se define como el momento inicial en el que la bacteria se aloja en la nasofaringe del individuo. Objetivo: Estimar la proporción de factores de riesgo asociados a la colonización nasofaríngea por neumococo en niños vacunados con vacunas conjugadas antineumocócicas (PCV). Material y Métodos: Un año después de la vacunación antineumócocica mediante un ensayo clínico fase II/III, controlado, aleatorizado y doble ciego en niños de 1 a 5 años, se ejecutó un estudio de seguimiento con un diseño casos y controles, tipo caso-caso. El horizonte temporal fue desde noviembre de 2015 hasta abril de 2016. Se incluyó 50 % del total de vacunados en el estudio experimental. El universo lo constituyó los 1 135 niños vacunados en el ensayo clínico. Se siguió un muestreo aleatorio simple y se incluyeron 555 sujetos. Se realizó una encuesta y una toma de muestra de exudado nasofaríngeo. Se presentaron tablas de frecuencias. Se utilizó la razón de prevalencia como medida de asociación. Se calcularon los intervalos de confianza a 95 % para cada proporción. Resultados: Tener entre 2 y 5 años actúa como factor protector para la colonización nasofaríngea con respecto al niño pequeño. Convivir con personas mayores de 65 años constituye un factor de riesgo significativamente relacionado con la colonización nasofaríngea. Conclusiones: La introducción de vacunas antineumocócicas en niños preescolares puede impactar de manera significativa la carga de colonización y en la trasmisión de la enfermedad neumocócica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Nasopharyngeal colonization by pneumococci is defined as the initial moment when the bacterium lodges in the nasopharynx of the person. Objective: To estimate the proportion of risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal colonization by pneumococci in children vaccinated with conjugate pneumococcal vaccines (CPV). Material and Methods: One year after pneumococcal vaccination, a follow-up case-case-control study was conducted in children aged 1-5 years by means of a phase II/III controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. The time horizon was from November 2015 to April 2016. The study included 50 % of the total of children vaccinated during the experimental study. The universe consisted of 1135 children who were vaccinated during the clinical trial. A simple random sampling that included 555 persons was applied. A survey was conducted and nasopharyngeal exudate samples were taken. Tables of frequencies were presented. Prevalence ratio was used as a measure of association. Also, 95 % confidence intervals were calculated for each proportion. Results: Being between the ages of 2-5 years acts as protective factor against nasopharyngeal colonization with respect to the young child. Living with persons older than 65 years is a significantly associated risk factor with nasopharyngeal colonization. Conclusions: The introduction of pneumococcal vaccines in pre-school children can have a significant impact on colonization burden and the transmission of pneumococcal diseases.

17.
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(2): 100-110, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251870

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Background: Recently, studies had shown that incretin-based therapies could reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory markers. The data on the effects of incretin-based therapies on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were inconsistent. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the effects of incretin-based therapies on hs-CRP in patients with T2DM by meta-analysis. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library, and Web of Science to identify the eligible randomized clinical trials until August 2019. The pooled standard mean differences (SMD) were calculated by random-effects model using STATA 11.0. Results: Twenty-five studies with 28 randomized controlled trials were finally included into the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in hs-CRP following treatment with incretin-based regimens compared to controls (SMD = −0.452, p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis of different class of incretin-based drugs showed that therapy with both dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is, SMD = −0.338, p = 0.026) and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs, SMD = −0.544, p = 0.003) caused significant reductions in hs-CRP. Besides, there was a significant reduction in hs-CRP with an intervention duration more than 24 weeks (SMD = −0.465, p = 0.001), while no significant difference with <24 weeks. Meta-regression analyses showed that better glycemic control and more body mass index (BMI) decline were associated with hs-CRP reduction after incretin-based therapies. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that incretin-based therapies, both GLP-1 RAs and DPP-4Is, can cause a significant reduction in hs-CRP in patients with T2DM, which is related to long intervention duration, better glycemic control, and more BMI decline.

18.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 23(1): 56-65, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250006

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Fundamento: La proteína C reactiva es uno de los mejores marcadores para la valoración y seguimiento de enfermedades inflamatorias; los valores de referencias recomendados para su concentración en suero no están ajustados según género. Objetivo: Determinar si la concentración de proteína C reactiva difiere según el género. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio exploratorio en 3199 muestras de pacientes procedentes del Hospital General Provincial Camilo Cienfuegos y en un grupo control de 76 muestras de sueros de donantes de sangre para cada género, procedentes del Banco de Sangre de Sancti Spíritus. Los niveles se midieron a través un ensayo semicuantitativo de aglutinación con partículas de látex para la muestra supuestamente enferma y uno cuantitativo inmunoturbidimétrico para la supuestamente sana. Se compararon los niveles medios entre género en cada una mediante la prueba t de Student para muestras independientes. Resultados: La media de los niveles de proteína C reactiva en el género masculino y femenino de la muestra supuestamente enferma fue de 3.49 mg/L y 3.41 mg/L respectivamente. En el grupo control la comparación de medias de los niveles de proteína C reactiva entre género fue para los hombres de 1.38 mg/L y para las mujeres de 1.94 mg/L. Conclusión: No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre género en la muestra supuestamente enferma, ni en el grupo control.


ABSTRACT Background: C-reactive protein is one of the best marker for the assessment and monitoring of inflammatory diseases; the recommended reference values for its serum concentration are not gender-adjusted. Objective: To determine whether C-reactive protein concentration differs by gender. Methodology: An exploratory study was conducted on 3199 patient samples from Camilo Cienfuegos General Provincial Hospital and a control group of 76 serum samples from blood donors of each gender from the Sancti Spíritus Blood Bank. Levels were measured by a semi-quantitative latex particle agglutination assay for the presumed diseased sample and a quantitative immunoturbidimetric assay for the presumed healthy sample. Mean levels were compared between genders in each using Student's t-test for independent samples. Results: The mean of C-reactive protein levels in the male and female gender of the supposedly diseased sample was 3.49 mg/L and 3.41 mg/L respectively. In the control group the mean comparison of C-reactive protein levels between genders was 1.38 mg/L for males and 1.94 mg/L for females. Conclusion: No significant gender differences were found in the presumed ill sample, nor in the control group.

19.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 14 abr. 2021. 1-5 p. fig.
No convencional en Portugués | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1247403

RESUMEN

Desde os primeiros surtos da doença provocada pelo novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2), que se disseminou rapidamente pelo mundo, há um interesse crescente em encontrar um potencial agente terapêutico para a doença. A prática atual para tratar COVID-19 é variável, o que reflete a incerteza em grande escala e, para tentar sanar essa incerteza, numerosos ensaios clínicos randomizados de diferentes medicamentos estão em andamento com o intuito de melhor orientar a clínica (WHO,2020). Até o momento os trabalhos acerca do uso do ganciclovir para tratar pacientes que contraíram a doença são escassos e ainda não foram realizados ensaios clínicos com este fármaco, apenas relatos e séries de caso foram localizados na literatura. Considerando os estudos analisados e a pirâmide de evidência proposta pelo Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (figura 02), ainda não existe evidência robusta para sustentar a utilização deste fármaco, em larga escala, no tratamento da COVID-19.


Since the first outbreaks of the disease caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which has spread rapidly around the world, there is a growing interest in finding a potential therapeutic agent for the disease. The current practice to treat COVID-19 is variable, which reflects large-scale uncertainty and, to try to address this uncertainty, numerous randomized clinical trials of different drugs are underway in order to better guide the clinic (WHO,2020). To date, studies on the use of ganciclovir to treat patients who contracted the disease are scarce and no clinical trials have been conducted with this drug, only reports and case series have been found in the literature. Considering the studies analyzed and the pyramid of evidence proposed by the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (figure 02), there is still no robust evidence to support the use of this drug, on a large scale, in the treatment of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Adulto Joven , Ganciclovir/administración & dosificación , Ganciclovir/efectos adversos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico
20.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 48(2): 117-122, Mar.-Apr. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248776

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Background: The importance of foods or food constituents in mental health is increasingly recognized, and "nutritional psychiatry" is a growing discipline. Objective: This narrative review aims to present work supporting associations between food or food constituents and mental health, specifically depressive disorders. Methods: The data presented is derived from preclinical and clinical work, including in vitro and in vivo assays, as well as observational studies and randomized clinical trials of dietary interventions. The focus of the review is the mediation of inflammatory processes and oxidative stress by dietary constituents that are an integral part of a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean diet and similar. Results and Discussion: We present evidence for the role of the diet in prevention and management of depressive disorders, beyond the effect of individual nutrients. The findings indicate that among the dietary components with higher degree of evidence to influence depressive disorders are long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA), and various dietary bioactive compounds, especially plant-derived secondary metabolites represented by polyphenols such as flavonoids and resveratrol. Conclusion: Diet exerts an important role on mental health, and evidence indicates that some dietary constituents contribute to the prevention of depressive disorders.

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