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1.
; IBFAN.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46901

RESUMEN

Relatório do UNICEF examina a questão das crianças, alimentação e nutrição, fornecendo uma nova perspectiva sobre um desafio em rápida evolução. Apesar do progresso nas últimas duas décadas, um terço das crianças com menos de 5 anos está desnutrido – atrofiado, desnutrido ou com sobrepeso – enquanto dois terços correm risco de desnutrição e fome devido à má qualidade de suas dietas. Este relatório também fornece novos dados e análises de desnutrição no século 21 e esboça recomendações para colocar os direitos das crianças no centro dos sistemas alimentares.


Asunto(s)
Nutrición del Lactante , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Sobrepeso , Obesidad Pediátrica , Nutrición, Alimentación y Dieta , Naciones Unidas , Hambre , Defensa del Niño , Conducta Alimentaria
2.
Asunción; s.n; Nov 2019. (1-67) p.
Tesis en Español | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1021733

RESUMEN

La infancia es considerada como una etapa trascendental en el proceso evolutivo del hombre, caracterizada por dos fenómenos: crecimiento y desarrollo, por tanto es fundamental una adecuada nutrición. Con relación a este aspecto, el programa de complementación nutricional denominado PANI (Programa Ampliado Nutricional Integral), se implementa, para garantizar la atención oportuna de niños desnutridos y en riesgo de desnutrición y evitar otros factores de riesgo que puedan poner en peligro a esta población vulnerable. Objetivo: Analizar el impacto de la implementación del programa PANI en niños menores de 5 años desnutridos y con riesgo de desnutrición en la Unidad de Salud Familiar ItáKa´aguy, durante el periodo 2015 a 2017. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, transversal, en donde se evaluó a 74 niños menores de 5 años desnutridos y con riesgos de desnutrición, que fueron atendidos en la Unidad de Salud Familiar ItáKa´aguy, (Fernando de la Mora, XIa Región Sanitaria - Central). Se implementó con ellos el Programa de Asistencia Nutricional y luego de 2 años se compararon los resultados de la evaluación inicial, con las actuales. Resultados: Se resalta que, previo a la intervención sólo 4 niños tuvieron un peso adecuado; 19 niños se encontraban en estado de desnutrición; 6 niños se encontraban en el nivel de peso no adecuado y 40 niños se encontraban en "Riesgo de desnutrición". Mientras que posterior a la implementación del programa, 62 niños obtuvieron el peso adecuado a su edad; 3 niños se mantuvieron con signos clínicos de desnutrición y 4 niños manifestaron riesgo de desnutrición. Conclusión: se encontró que el PANI ha contribuido a mejorar de la desnutrición en los niños y niñas, como en el peso acorde con la edad, pero no así en aspectos como talla y el edema, por lo que se concluye que el impacto ha sido medio. Palabras Clave: Nutrición de los Grupos de Riesgo, Programas y Políticas de Nutrición y Alimentación,


The childhood is considered as a transcendental stage in the evolutionary process of man, characterized by two phenomena: growth and development, therefore proper nutrition is essential. In relation to this aspect, the nutritional complementation program called PANI (Comprehensive Nutritional Extended Program), is implemented to ensure timely care of malnourished children at risk of malnutrition and avoid other risk factors that may endanger this population vulnerable. Objective: To analyze the impact of the implementation of the PANI program in children under 5 years of age undernourished and at risk of malnutrition in the ItáKa'aguy Family Health Unit, during the period 2015 to 2017. Methodology: A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted, cross-sectional, in which 74 under-5 undernourished children with risk of malnutrition were evaluated, who were attended in the ItáKa'aguy Family Health Unit (Fernando de la Mora, XIa Sanitary - Central Region). The Nutritional Assistance Program was implemented with them and after 2 years the results of the initial evaluation were compared with the current ones. Results: It is highlighted that, prior to the intervention, only 4 children had an adequate weight, 19 children were in malnutrition, 6 children were at the unsuitable weight level and 40 children were at risk of malnutrition; while after the implementation of the program, 62 children obtained the appropriate weight at their age, 3 children remained with clinical signs of malnutrition and 4 children showed risk of malnutrition. Conclusion: it was found that PANI has contributed to improve malnutrition in boys and girls, as in weight according to age, but not in aspects such as height and edema, so it is concluded that the impact has been medium.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Programas de Nutrición , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Lactante/epidemiología , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Paraguay/epidemiología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Nutrición del Niño , Nutrición del Lactante , Clasificación Internacional de la Atención Primaria
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 195, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692657

RESUMEN

Pellagra is a nutritional disorder of niacin deficiency which is characterized by triad of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. It is often seen in a state of poor nutrition among alcoholics, homeless and patients suffering from malabsorption. Though seldom occurs in children, its re-emerging is seen as a result of worsening food security in vulnerable population during conflict or insurgency. We report the case of 12-year-old female pastoralist who presented darkening and thickening of the hands, feet, ankles, neck and her upper trunk. Conflicts and insurgency usually occur in resource constraint settings where health workers are few and overworked. Therefore, continuously educating health workers and the general public regarding nutrition and its disorders like pellagra is a priority. Public Health authorities and policy makers also ought to take pediatric nutrition serious in order to avoid its escalation in internally displaced persons or children orphaned by insurgency.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/diagnóstico , Niacina/deficiencia , Pelagra/diagnóstico , Niño , Femenino , Humanos
4.
ABCS health sci ; 44(2): 85-91, 11 out 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022335

RESUMEN

INTRODUÇÃO: A prevalência da desnutrição infantil vem diminuindo em todo o mundo, mas ainda acomete milhões de crianças, especialmente indígenas. Devido ao elevado número de doenças infecciosas associadas à desnutrição, a antibioticoterapia faz parte da terapêutica recomendada. OBJETIVO: Observar os casos de desnutrição entre crianças indígenas e não indígenas hospitalizadas e a terapêutica empregada durante o tratamento. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo, farmacoepidemiológico, realizado com informações extraídas de prontuários arquivados do período de janeiro de 2012 a dezembro de 2014 de um hospital público. RESULTADOS: Participaram 166 crianças, sendo o número de crianças indígenas aproximadamente seis vezes maior do que não indígenas. Houve maior prevalência entre lactentes e crianças com idade inferior a um ano apresentaram mais chances de serem internadas por desnutrição. Os diagnósticos de desnutrição mais vistos foram os inespecíficos, com uma proporção significativa de óbitos relacionados ao diagnóstico E43. As infecções mais comuns foram do sistema digestório e respiratório. Crianças indígenas tiveram quase cinco vezes mais chances de apresentarem infecção respiratória. A maior proporção recebeu até três antibióticos, havendo crianças que receberam mais que sete antibióticos diferentes durante o período de internação. CONCLUSÃO: A população infantil deve ser acompanhada por meio de inquéritos que possam subsidiar políticas de saúde que atendam suas necessidades. É necessária a capacitação dos profissionais envolvidos no cuidado da criança desnutrida, recursos materiais e financeiros, a fim diminuir o número de diagnósticos inespecíficos e evitar o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos, sendo imprescindível uma política de controle efetiva no uso da politerapia antimicrobiana.


INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of child malnutrition is declining worldwide, but still affects millions of children, especially indigenous people. Due to the high number of infectious diseases associated with malnutrition, antibiotic therapy is part of the recommended therapy. OBJECTIVE: To observe the cases of malnutrition among hospitalized indigenous and non-indigenous children and the therapy used during treatment. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, pharmacoepidemiological, carried out with information extracted from medical records filed from January 2012 to December 2014 of a public hospital. RESULTS: 166 children participated, with the number of indigenous children being approximately six times higher than that of nonindigenous children. There was a higher prevalence among infants and children under one year of age who were more likely to be hospitalized for malnutrition. The most frequent diagnoses of malnutrition were nonspecific, with a significant proportion of deaths related to diagnosis E43. The most common infections were of the digestive and respiratory system. Indigenous children were almost five times more likely to have respiratory infection. The highest proportion received up to three antibiotics, with children receiving more than seven different antibiotics during the hospitalization period. CONCLUSION: The child population must be accompanied by surveys that can subsidize health policies that meet their needs. It is necessary to train the professionals involved in the care of malnourished children, material and financial resources, in order to reduce the number of non-specific diagnoses and to avoid the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, a policy of effective control in the use of antimicrobial polytherapy is essential.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Indios Sudamericanos , Desarrollo Infantil/efectos de los fármacos , Desnutrición , Salud de Poblaciones Indígenas , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/tratamiento farmacológico , Salud del Niño , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos
5.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1897-1909, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656473

RESUMEN

Background: One of the public health problems in developing countries is child malnutrition. An important factor for children's well-being is good nutrition. Therefore, the malnutrition status of children under the age of five is an important outcome measure for children's health. This study uses the proportional odds model to identify risk factors associated with child malnutrition in Ethiopia using the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data. Methods: This study uses the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey results. Based on weight-for-height anthropometric index (Z-score) child nutrition status is categorized into four levels namely- underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Since this leads to an ordinal variable for nutrition status, an ordinal logistic regression (OLR)proportional odds model (POM) is an obvious choice for analysis. Results: The findings and comparison of results using the cumulative logit model with and without complex survey design are presented. The study results revealed that to produce the appropriate estimates and standard errors for data that were obtained from complex survey design, model fitting based on taking the survey sampling design into account is better. It has also been found that for children under the age of five, weight of a child at birth, mother's age, mother's Body Mass Index (BMI), marital status of mother and region (Affar, Dire Dawa, Gambela, Harari and Somali) were influential variables significantly associated with underfive children's nutritional status in Ethiopia. Conclusion: This child's age of a child, sex, weight of child at birth, mother's BMI and region of residence were significant determinants of malnutrition of children under five years in Ethiopia. The effect of these determinants can be used to develop strategies for reducing child malnutrition in Ethiopia. Moreover, these findings show that OLR proportional odds model is appropriate assessing thedeterminants of malnutrition for ordinal nutritional status of underfive children in Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Antropometría , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Niño , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/diagnóstico , Preescolar , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrición/etiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Características de la Residencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Delgadez/epidemiología
7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(3): 307-308, 2019 09 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513768

RESUMEN

Studies of the intestinal microbial environment largely focus on microbial taxonomy, without clarifying their health benefits. Two recent studies (Raman et al. and Gehrig et al.) classify microbial environments into "ecogroups" that provide insight into their metabolic and/or nutritional pathways and how this can be used for interventions in malnourished children.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Microbiota , Desnutrición Aguda Severa , Animales , Niño , Alimentos , Vida Libre de Gérmenes , Humanos
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 34, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384349

RESUMEN

Introduction: A cross-sectional study was conducted between the months of April to October 2015, to determine the effects of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) on nutritional status of school age children in Owerri and Orlu geographical zones, in Imo State, Nigeria. Methods: Faecal samples were examined using Kato Katz method and formol-ether concentration techniques, while blood samples were examined using cyamethahaemoglobin method. Anthropometric indices were used as indicators of nutritional status, children whose Height-for-Age, Weight-for-Age and Weight-for-Height were <-2 standard deviation (SD) were classified as stunted, wasted, and underweight respectively. Results: Total prevalence rate of 16.6% was recorded in the study areas with Ascaris lumbricoides (4.0%), Trichuris trichiura (0.6%), Hookworm (1.0%) Taenia sp (0.3%), Entaomeba histolytica (5.3%), Entamoeba coli (2.7%) and Giardia lambia (2.7) Majority (73.4%) of the children had light intensity. Anthropometric study results showed that 79(31.3%) of the children were malnourished. The prevalence of stunting, under-weight and wasting were higher in uninfected (86.1%, 90.0% and 10%) respectively than in infected children (13.9%, 10.0% and 0.0%) respectively, although not significant at p = 0.857, 0.587 and 0.368 respectively. Prevalence of anaemia was 17.4%, anaemia was insignificantly (p = 0.09) higher in infected (21.1%) than in uninfected (16.5%) children. Children that had co-infection recorded higher prevalence (2.2%) of severe anaemia. There was an association (p = 0.002) between anaemia and intensity of helminth infection. Malnutrition was insignificantly (p = 0.319) higher in children with heavy (100.0%) and moderate (75.0%) intensity of helminth infection than children that had light intensity (41.7%) of helminth infection. Conclusion: When compared with previous study, there were decline in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and anaemia among school age children. Low intensity parasitemia with intestinal parasites had no significant effect on the malnutrition and haemoglobin profile of the children in the study areas. Therefore, improved sanitation and more deworming efforts should be intensified to ensure further decline in prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.


Asunto(s)
Anemia/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Anemia/parasitología , Niño , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/parasitología , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Heces/parasitología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/parasitología , Humanos , Parasitosis Intestinales/complicaciones , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Delgadez/epidemiología , Delgadez/parasitología , Síndrome Debilitante/epidemiología , Síndrome Debilitante/parasitología
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1132, 2019 Aug 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420035

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The mortality rate in children under 5 years old (U5MR) has decreased considerably in Ecuador in the last decade; however, thousands of children continue to die from causes related to poverty. A social program known as Bono de Desarrollo Humano (BDH) was created to guarantee a minimum level of consumption for families and to reduce chronic malnutrition and preventable childhood diseases. We sought to evaluate the effect of the BDH program on mortality of children younger than 5 years, particularly from malnutrition, diarrheal diseases, and lower respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Mortality rates and BDH coverage from 2009 to 2014 were evaluated from the 144 (of 222) Ecuadorian counties with intermediate and high quality of vital information. A multivariable regression analyses for panel data was conducted by using a negative binomial regression model with fixed effects, adjusted for all relevant demographic and socioeconomic covariates. RESULTS: Our research shows that for each 1% increase in BDH county coverage there would be a decrease in U5MR from malnutrition of 3% (RR 0.971, 95% CI 0.953-0.989). An effect of BDH county coverage on mortality resulting from respiratory infections was also observed (RR 0.992, 95% CI 0.984-0.999). The BDH also reduced hospitalization rates in children younger than 5 years, overall and for diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: A conditional cash transfer program such as BDH could contribute to the reduction of mortality due to causes related to poverty, such as malnutrition and respiratory infections. The coverage should be maintained -or increased in a period of economic crisis- and its implementation strengthened.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño/economía , Mortalidad del Niño/tendencias , Pobreza/economía , Asistencia Pública/economía , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/economía , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/mortalidad , Preescolar , Diarrea/economía , Diarrea/mortalidad , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitalización/tendencias , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/economía , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/mortalidad
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 962, 2019 Jul 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: India faces a high burden of child undernutrition. We evaluated the effects of two community strategies to reduce undernutrition among children under 3 years in rural Jharkhand and Odisha, eastern India: (1) monthly Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) meetings with women's groups followed by home visits; (2) crèches for children aged 6 months to 3 years combined with monthly PLA meetings and home visits. METHODS: We tested these strategies in a non-randomised, controlled study with baseline and endline cross-sectional surveys. We purposively selected five blocks of Jharkhand and Odisha, and divided each block into three areas. Area 1 served as control. In Area 2, trained local female workers facilitated PLA meetings and offered counselling to mothers of children under three at home. In Area 3, workers facilitated PLA meetings, did home visits, and crèches with food and growth monitoring were opened for children aged 6 months to 3 years. We did a census across all study areas and randomly sampled 4668 children under three and their mothers for interview and anthropometry at baseline and endline. The evaluation's primary outcome was wasting among children under three in areas 2 and 3 compared with area 1, adjusted for baseline differences between areas. Other outcomes included underweight, stunting, preventive and care-seeking practices for children. RESULTS: We interviewed 83% (3868/4668) of mothers of children under three sampled at baseline, and 76% (3563/4668) at endline. In area 2 (PLA and home visits), wasting among children under three was reduced by 34% (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 0.66, 95%: 0.51-0.88) and underweight by 25% (aOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.95), with no change in stunting (aOR: 1.23, 95% CI: 0.96-1.57). In area 3, (PLA, home visits, crèches), wasting was reduced by 27% (aOR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.97), underweight by 40% (aOR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.47-0.75), and stunting by 27% (aOR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Crèches, PLA meetings and home visits reduced undernutrition among children under three in rural eastern India. These interventions could be scaled up through government plans to strengthen home visits and community mobilisation with Accredited Social Health Activists, and through efforts to promote crèches. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The evaluation was registered retrospectively with Current Controlled Trials as ISCRTN89911047 on 30/01/2019.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/terapia , Consejo/métodos , Desnutrición/terapia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Mujeres/psicología , Adulto , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/psicología , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Visita Domiciliaria , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Masculino , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Desnutrición/psicología , Madres/psicología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados no Aleatorios como Asunto , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Población Rural
13.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 52(2)abr.-jun., 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024990

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Verificar o perfil sociodemográfico de crianças moradoras de um bairro de periferia de Porto Alegre/RS - Brasil, com desnutrição ou com suspeita de desnutrição e se há uma associação do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor com essas variáveis sociodemográficas. Métodos: Pesquisa retrospectiva, baseada em um estudo prévio na Unidade Básica de Saúde do Morro da Cruz na cidade de Porto Alegre/RS, com 169 crianças. Realizou-se uma avaliação antropométrica do peso/idade, estatura/idade e peso/estatura para o perfil nutricional; as variáveis das crianças no que se refere a sexo, idade, desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor pelo teste de triagem do Desenvolvimento de Denver II (TTDD-II) e, para as variáveis sociodemográficas, o número de moradores na casa, idade e escolaridade do cuidador, se a criança morava com a mãe ou com o pai, número de pessoas na casa que viviam com a criança, idade gestacional, prematuridade, peso ao nascimento, amamentação e o peso atual. Resultados: 45 apresentaram risco ou alto risco de desnutrição. As características demográficas e antropométricas, segundo sexo não apresentaram diferenças significativas quanto à idade, peso ao nascer e peso atual. Não houve associação significativa entre sexo e o desenvolvimento motor e linguagem. A escolaridade do cuidador e prematuridade não teve significância com o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. O desenvolvimento social apresentou associação significativa com o sexo masculino. Conclusões: o desenvolvimento social parece ser o mais acometido nas crianças com desnutrição ou alto risco de desnutrição e os meninos apresentam maior risco. Para esta amostra, parece não haver associação como prematuridade, peso ao nascer, idade gestacional, número de pessoas na casa, idade e escolaridade do cuidado (AU)


Objectives: Verifying the sociodemographic profile of children living in a suburban neighborhood of Porto Alegre with malnutrition or suspected malnutrition and whether there was an association of neuropsychomotor development with these sociodemographic variables. Methods: Retrospective study, based on a previous study in the Basic Health Unit of Morro da Cruz ­ Porto Alegre/RS - Brazil, with 169 children. An anthropometric evaluation of weight/age, height /age and weight/height for the nutritional profile was carried out; age, neuropsychomotor development by the Denver Developmen-tal Screening Test II (DDST-II) and, for sociodemographic variables, the number of residents in the house, age and schooling age and schooling of the legal guardian of the child, whether the child lived with the mother or father, number of people in the house who lived with the child, gestational age, prematurity, birth weight, breastfeeding, and current weight. Results: 45 children presented a risk/high or risk of malnutrition. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, according to gen-der, did not present significant differences regarding age, birth weight, and current weight. There was no significant association between sex and motor development and language. Caregiver education and prematurity were not significant with neuropsychomotor development. Social development was significantly associated with males. Conclusions: social development seems to be the most affected in children with malnutrition or high risk of malnutrition, and boys are at greater risk. For this sample, there seems to be no association such as prematurity, birth weight, gestational age, number of people in the house, age, and schooling of the caregiver (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Factores Socioeconómicos , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 111, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223401

RESUMEN

Introduction: Anaemia and malnutrition are common health problems in developing countries with children being the most vulnerable. They have negative impacts on human performance, growth and development, in children, both as cause and consequences of disease. Although annual mass deworming and nutrition supplement strategies have been implemented in the Tiko Health District (THD), no study has been carried out to determine the prevalence of anaemia and malnutrition. The aim of this study was therefore designed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and malnutrition among primary school children aged 5-15 years in the Tiko Health District. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 10 randomly selected schools in the THD and a total of 400 school children were enrolled in the study. Body weight and height were measured using an electronic weighing scale and stadiometer respectively. Anthropometric indices: Height-for-Age Z scores (HAZ), Weight-for-Age Z scores (WAZ) and Body Mass Index-for-Age Z scores (BMIAZ) were analyzed and compared with WHO Growth Reference Standards using WHO Anthroplus software. Hemoglobin levels were determined using Urit-12 Haemoglobinometer and anaemia defined as Hemoglobin (Hb) < 11g/dl. Data analysis was done using the SPSS software. Results: The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.25%, prevalence of stunting 7.5% with 0.8% being severely stunted. The prevalence of wasting was 1% and underweight 0.7%. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 5%. Parents occupation and the absence of toilet were statistically associated with anaemia (P = 0.04 and P = 0.003). Age, floor type, absence of toilet and BMI were significantly associated with malnutrition (P = 0.00, P = 0.01, P = 0.02 and P = 0.003). Conclusion: This study revealed a low prevalence of malnutrition and anaemia which could be attributed to the deworming and nutrition supplement strategies which have been implemented.


Asunto(s)
Anemia/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Delgadez/epidemiología , Adolescente , Antropometría , Estatura/fisiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Camerún/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas
15.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1556572, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154991

RESUMEN

Background: Child undernutrition is a prevalent health problem and poses various short and long-term consequences. Objective: This study seeks to investigate the burden of child undernutrition and its drivers in Kilte Awlaelo-Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods: In 2015, cross-sectional data were collected from 1,525 children aged 6-23 months. Maternal and child nutritional status was assessed using the mid upper arm circumference. Child's dietary diversity score was calculated using 24-hours dietary recall method. Log-binomial regression and partial proportional odds model were fitted to examine the drivers of poor child nutrition and child dietary diversity (CDD), respectively. Results: The burden of undernutrition and inadequate CDD was 13.7% (95% CI: 12.1-15.5%) and 81.3% (95%CI: 79.2-83.1%), respectively. Maternal undernutrition (adjusted prevalence ratio, adjPR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.14-1.89), low CDD (adjPR = 1.90; 95%CI: 1.22-2.97), and morbidity (adjPR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.15-2.92) were the nutrition-specific drivers of child undernutrition. The nutrition-sensitive drivers were poverty (compared to the poorest, adjPR poor = 0.65 [95%CI:0.45-0.93], adjPR medium = 0.64 [95%CI: 0.44-0.93], adjPR wealthy = 0.46 [95%CI: 0.30-0.70], and adjPR wealthiest = 0.53 [95%CI: 0.34-0.82]), larger family size (adjPR = 1.10; 95%CI: 1.02-1.18), household head's employment insecurity (adjPR = 2.10; 95%CI: 1.43-3.09), and residing in highlands (adjPR = 1.93; 95%CI: 1.36-2.75). The data show that higher CDD was positively associated with wealth (OR wealthy = 3.06 [95%CI: 1.88-4.99], OR wealthiest = 2.57 [95%CI: 1.53-4.31]), but it was inversely associated with lack of diverse food crops production in highlands (OR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.10-0.57]). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the burden of poor child nutrition is very high in the study area. Multi-sectoral collaboration and cross-disciplinary interventions between agriculture, nutrition and health sectors are recommended to address child undernutrition in resource poor and food insecure rural communities of similar settings.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Vigilancia de la Población , Prevalencia
16.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1626184, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232215

RESUMEN

Background: Little is known about the long-term effects of early childhood undernutrition on adolescent cardiovascular disease risk and educational performance in low-income countries. We examined this in a rural Ugandan population. Objective: To investigate if stunting or wasting among children aged 2-5 years is associated with cardiovascular disease risk or educational achievement during adolescence. Methods: We conducted analyses using data from a cohort of children followed from early childhood to adolescence. Weight and height were measured in 1999-2000 when the children were 2-5 years of age and repeated in 2004/2005 and 2011. We compared cardiovascular disease risk parameters (mean blood pressure, lipids, HbA1c) and schooling years achieved in 2011 among 1054 adolescents categorised into four groups: those who experienced stunting or wasting throughout follow-up; those who recovered from stunting or wasting; those who were normal but later became stunted or wasted; and those who never experienced stunting or wasting from childhood up to adolescence. We controlled for possible confounding using multiple generalised linear regression models along with Generalised Estimating Equations to account for clustering of children within households. Results: Wasting was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (-7.90 95%CI [-14.52,-1.28], p = 0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (-3.92, 95%CI [-7.42, -0.38], p = 0.03). Stunting had borderline negative association with systolic blood pressure (-2.90, 95%CI [-6.41, 0.61] p = 0.10). Recovery from wasting was positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (1.93, 95%CI [0.11, 3.74] p = 0.04). Stunting or wasting was associated with fewer schooling years. Conclusion: Recovery from wasting rather than just an episode in early childhood is associated with a rise in blood pressure while educational achievement is compromised regardless of whether recovery from undernutrition happens. These findings are relevant to children exposed to undernutrition in low-income settings.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/complicaciones , Escolaridad , Trastornos del Crecimiento/complicaciones , Estado de Salud , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Uganda
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 773, 2019 Jun 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208397

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For over 20 years, Madagascar has been challenged by continued high prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among children under 5 years of age. Yet, nutritional status of post-under-five age group has never been assessed in the country, despite its importance in relation not only to physical health but also to cognitive capacity and educational achievements of children. This study aims to estimate prevalence of malnutrition among schoolchildren aged 5-14 years in Madagascar. It further attempts to identify the possible risk factors for their malnutrition. This is the first study that estimates prevalence of malnutrition among school-aged children in Madagascar. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Antananarivo-Avaradrano district, Analamanga region, Madagascar. The study targeted 393 first and second graders 5-14 years of age enrolled at 10 primary schools, where school-feeding was implemented. Data were collected from anthropometric measurements, their subsequent household structured interviews and observations. Bivariate (Chi-square test or Mann-Whitney's U test) and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses were performed, to identify the possible risk factors associated with malnutrition. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of stunting, underweight and thinness were 34.9%, 36.9% and 11.2%, respectively. Nineteen children (4.8%) suffered from all the three forms of undernutrition. Older schoolchildren had a significantly greater likelihood of being stunted, underweight and thin. The greater number of members a household had, the higher likelihood of being stunted and thin its schoolchild had. Children having lower Household Dietary Diversity Score were more likely to be underweight. Yet, 'Had lunch at school yesterday' was associated neither with being stunted nor with being underweight and thin. This implies room for improvement of the current school feeding program. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rates of stunting and underweight among 393 children examined were as high as the national averages among children under 5 years of age. Adequate food availability and dietary diversity over a sufficient period (incl. 5-14 years of age) are necessary for increasing likelihood of catch-up in height-for-age and weight-for-age, which are expectable during adolescence. To supplement inadequate household dietary diversity practices, school-feeding program may need to use more animal-protein ingredients.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Madagascar/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 764, 2019 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200695

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Child undernutrition is a global health concern. Many studies have focused on the association of childhood undernutrition indicators with their predictors. A few studies have looked at relationship between the undernutrition indicators. This study aimed at investigating the possible association structures of childhood undernutrition indicators. METHODS: A log-linear model of cell counts of a three way table of stunting, wasting, and underweight was fitted based on the 2016 Ethiopia demographic health survey data. The variables of interest were generated based on the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards as: stunted, wasted and underweight if z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for age are below-2, respectively; otherwise not stunted, wasted and underweight. RESULTS: This study showed that 36.34, 12.09 and 24.87% were stunted, wasted and underweight out of sampled children respectively and the prevalence of total undernutrition in children was about 45.96%.The fitted log-linear model showed that underweight was associated with both stunting (P-value< 0.001), and wasting (P-value< 0.001). There was no association between stunting and wasting (P-value = 0.999). Furthermore, the model showed that there is no a three way interaction among stunting, wasting, and underweight (P-value = 1.000). CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that there is lack of three way association of stunting, wasting, and underweight. This confirms that the three anthropometric indicators of children have multi-dimensional nature. Thus, the concerned body should consider the three undernutrition indicators simultaneously to estimate the actual burden of childhood undernourishment as they are not redundant of each other.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Indicadores de Salud , Preescolar , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Delgadez/epidemiología , Síndrome Debilitante/epidemiología
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 446, 2019 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035984

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) diagnoses often lack microbiologic confirmation and require empiric treatment. Barriers to empiric treatment include concern for poor outcomes and adverse effects. We thus determined the outcomes of empiric TB treatment from a retrospective cohort of children at a national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: Children were diagnosed clinically and followed through treatment. Demographics, clinical data, outcome and any adverse events were extracted from patient charts. A favorable outcome was defined as a child completing treatment with clinical improvement. We performed logistic regression to assess factors associated with loss to follow up and death. RESULTS: Of 516 children, median age was 36 months (IQR 15-73), 55% (95% CI 51-60%) were male, and HIV prevalence was 6% (95% CI 4-9%). The majority (n = 422, 82, 95% CI 78-85%) had a favorable outcome, with no adverse events that required treatment discontinuation. The most common unfavorable outcomes were loss to follow-up (57/94, 61%) and death (35/94, 37%; overall mortality 7%). In regression analysis, loss to follow up was associated with age 10-14 years (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.15-4.93, p = 0.02), HIV positivity (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.41-7.92, p = 0.01), hospitalization (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.08-8.25, p < 0.001), and living outside of Kampala (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.47-4.71, p = 0.001). Death was associated with hospitalization (OR 4.57, 95% CI 2.0-10.46, p < 0.001), severe malnutrition (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.07-8.27, p = 0.04), baseline hepatomegaly (OR 4.11, 95% CI 2.09-8.09, p < 0.001), and living outside of Kampala (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.17-4.96, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Empiric treatment of child TB was effective and safe, but treatment success remained below the 90% target. Addressing co-morbidities and improving retention in care may reduce unfavorable outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Niño , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tuberculosis/mortalidad , Uganda/epidemiología
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