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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301808, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578746

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, undernutrition is the leading cause of mortality among under-five children. Bangladesh and India were in the top ten countries in the world for under-five mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the nutritional status of Bengali under-five children. METHODS: Data on 25938 under-five children were retrieved from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18 (BDHS) and the National Family Health Survey of India 2015-16 (NFHS-4). Stunting, wasting, underweight and thinness were considered to understand the nutritional status of under-five children. Binary logistic regression was used to identify associated factors of undernutrition among children. RESULTS: Over one-quarter of Bengali under-five children were found to be suffering from the problem of stunting (31.9%) and underweight (28.1%), while other nutritional indicators raised serious concern and revealed inter-country disparities. In the cases of wasting, underweight and thinness, the mean z-scores and frequency differences between Bangladesh and India were significant. The nutritional status of Bengali under-five children appeared to have improved in Bangladesh compared to India. Child undernutrition had significant relations with maternal undernutrition in both countries. Girls in Bangladesh had slightly better nutritional status than boys. In Bangladesh, lack of formal education among mothers was a leading cause of child undernutrition. Stunting and underweight coexist with low household wealth index in both counties. CONCLUSIONS: The research revealed that various factors were associated with child undernutrition in Bengalis. It has been proposed that programmes promoting maternal education and nutrition, along with household wealth index be prioritised. The study recommends that the Governments of Bangladesh and India should increase the budget for health of children so as to reach the sustainable development goals.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Personas del Sur de Asia , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Caquexia , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , India/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Prevalencia , Delgadez/epidemiología , Preescolar
2.
Iran J Med Sci ; 49(3): 137-146, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584649

RESUMEN

Background: Malnutrition in children is mainly caused by the lack of protein and fat intake which harms their ability to grow and survive. Accurate data on the benefits of fish-based foods on the nutritional status of children is limited. The present systematic review aimed to provide an overview of published articles on the nutritional value of fish-based foods for children. Methods: A systematic review was performed during 2000-2021 by searching Science Direct, Cochrane Library, PubMed, ProQuest, and Wiley Online Library databases. The full text of selected articles in English was screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included articles were all experimental studies (randomized control trial, quasi-randomized trial) or mixed methods studies involving malnourished children. The study was reported under the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool. Results: A total of 330,859 articles were screened, out of which eight articles were included in the systematic review. Interventions included fish-based foods and beverages such as wafer bars, Jemawut-tuna cookies, Amizate in chocolate drink, dried fish powder, flaxseed oil supplemented with fish oil capsules, and porridge fortified with fish powder. Primary or secondary outcomes were the determination of zinc level, height growth, erythrocyte n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, safety and acceptability, intestinal integrity, and cognitive development. The results showed that dried fish powder produced the most significant effect on body weight. Conclusion: The consumption of dried fish powder had positive effects on the recovery of malnourished children.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Dieta , Productos Pesqueros , Desnutrición , Niño , Humanos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Desnutrición/dietoterapia , Polvos , Valor Nutritivo
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1356918, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596519

RESUMEN

Malnutrition seriously affects children's health, survival, and future productivity. According to the literature, increasing the supply of health services should help reduce the spread of malnutrition. This article analyses the sources of changes in the decline of chronic malnutrition during the 2000s, where there was an increase in the supply of health services in Burkina Faso. We used data from demographic and health surveys conducted in 2003 and 2010 in Burkina Faso. Malnutrition was defined according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, while using standards of growth which are current and uniform for the two periods of study considered. We analyzed the source of temporal variation of chronic malnutrition through the Oaxaca-Blinder multivariate decomposition of the proportion of children suffering from chronic malnutrition. The analyses showed that the relative extent of chronic malnutrition in children decreased significantly, from 43.4% (CI 95%: 42.3-44.4) in 2003 to 34.7% (CI 95%: 33.6-35.9) in 2010. A quarter of this variation is due to a change in characteristics (composition effect), and the remaining 74.74% is due to a difference in coefficients (performance or behavior effect). Improved access to health services played a crucial role in reducing the scale of chronic malnutrition between 2003 and 2010. Other factors, such as educating mothers and urbanization, also contributed significantly. This study shows that improving access to health services is crucial for reducing chronic malnutrition. So, programs tackling child malnutrition must first and foremost ensure that children have access to health services.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Burkina Faso/epidemiología , Madres , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Atención a la Salud
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 680, 2024 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439029

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Continuum of care (CoC) for maternal and child health provides opportunities for mothers and children to improve their nutritional status, but many children remain undernourished in Angola. This study aimed to assess the achievement level of CoC and examine the association between the CoC achievement level and child nutritional status. METHODS: We used nationally representative data from the Angola 2015-2016 Multiple Indicator and Health Survey. Completion of CoC was defined as achieving at least four antenatal care visits (4 + ANC), delivery with a skilled birth attendant (SBA), child vaccination at birth, child postnatal check within 2 months (PNC), and a series of child vaccinations at 2, 4, 6, 9 and 15 months of child age. We included under 5 years old children who were eligible for child vaccination questionnaires and their mothers. The difference in CoC achievement level among different nutritional status were presented using the Kaplan-Meier method and examined using the Log-Lank test. Additionally, the multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the associations between child nutritional status and CoC achievement levels. RESULTS: The prevalence of child stunting, underweight and wasting was 48.3%, 23.2% and 5.9% respectively. The overall CoC completion level was 1.2%. The level of achieving CoC of mother-child pairs was 62.8% for 4 + ANC, 42.2% for SBA, 23.0% for child vaccination at birth, and 6.7% for PNC, and it continued to decline over 15 months. The Log-Lank test showed that there were significant differences in the CoC achievement level between children with no stunting and those with stunting (p < 0.001), those with no underweight and those with underweight (p < 0.001), those with no wasting and those with wasting (p = 0.003), and those with malnutrition and those with a normal nutritional status (p < 0.001). Achieving 4 + ANC (CoC1), 4 + ANC and SBA (CoC 2), and 4 + ANC, SBA, and child vaccination at birth (CoC 3) were associated with reduction in child stunting and underweight. CONCLUSIONS: The completion of CoC is low in Angola and many children miss their opportunity of nutritional intervention. According to our result, improving care utilization and its continuity could improve child nutritional status.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Preescolar , Salud Infantil , Delgadez/epidemiología , Angola/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Madres
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 848, 2024 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504221

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multidimensional factors such as socioeconomic or environmental factors influence malnutrition. Several studies have strongly linked malnutrition to poverty. Some international studies point to the worse nutritional status of urban slum children than rural children. Limited data is available regarding the nutritional status of slum children in Karachi. This study aimed to determine characteristics of malnourished children in an urban squatter settlement in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: A case- control study was carried out at the primary healthcare center of a squatter settlement in Karachi, Pakistan. All children under five years of age visiting the primary healthcare center were recruited consecutively. Cases were defined as children with z scores < -2 SD of WHO reference measurements of WFA, HFA, WFH and OFC. The controls were similar in terms of age group but had z scores between - 2SD and + 2SD. A self- structured risk factor questionnaire that included information about sociodemographic, economic and environmental factors as well as child- related characteristics was researcher administered via face-to-face interviews with the mothers of children. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: A total of 280 participants including 140 cases and 140 controls participated in the study. A larger proportion of the sample originated from individuals with low household income. After adjusting for the confounders, childhood malnutrition was significantly associated with a low education level of father (aOR 4.86, 95% CI 2.23-10.60), a monthly income less than 25,000 PKR (89 USD) per month (aOR 7.13, 95% CI 1.67-30.54), pour pit latrine type of toilet (aOR 4.41, 95% CI 2.67-7.3), less than six months of exclusive breast feeding (aOR 3.578, CI 1.58-8.08), inappropriate weaning age (aOR 3.71, 95% CI 1.53-9). CONCLUSION: Malnutrition in children under five years of age in the community is associated with low family income, low paternal education, poor toilet facilities, lack of exclusive breastfeeding and inappropriate weaning age. The implementation of poverty reduction programs, sanitation provision at affordable rates, community-based breast feeding and weaning education intervention are urgently required to efficiently improve children's nutritional status.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Migrantes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Pobreza
6.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499349

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the effects of short birth spacing (SBS), which is defined as a period of less than 33 months between two successive births, on multiple concurrent forms of child malnutrition (MCFCM) and at least one form of child malnutrition (ALOFCM) using propensity score matching (PSM). METHODS: This study used data extracted from the 2017-18 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. PSM with four different distance functions, including logistic regression, classification and regression tree, single hidden layer neural network and random forest, were performed to evaluate the effects of SBS on MCFCM and ALOFCM. We also explored how the effects were modified in different subsamples, including women's empowerment, education and economic status (women's 3E index)-constructed based on women's decision-making autonomy, education level, and wealth index, and age at marriage, and place of residence. RESULTS: The prevalence of SBS was 22.16% among the 4652 complete cases. The matched samples of size 2062 generated by PSM showed higher odds of MCFCM (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.25, 95% CI=1.02 to 1.56, p=0.038) and ALOFCM (AOR=1.20, 95% CI=1.01 to 1.42, p=0.045) for the SBS children compared with their counterparts. In the subsample of women with 3E index≥50% coverage, the SBS children showed higher odds of MCFCM (AOR: 1.43, 95% CI=1.03 to 2.00, p=0.041] and ALOFCM (AOR: 1.33, 95% CI=1.02 to 1.74, p=0.036). Higher odds of MCFCM (AOR=1.27, 95% CI=1.02 to 1.58, p=0.036) and ALOFCM (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02 to 1.51, p=0.032) for SBS children than normal children were also evident for the subsample of mothers married at age≤18 years. CONCLUSION: SBS was significantly associated with child malnutrition, and the effect was modified by factors such as women's autonomy and age at marriage.


Asunto(s)
Intervalo entre Nacimientos , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Puntaje de Propensión , Madres
8.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296774, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300944

RESUMEN

In low-to-middle-income countries (LMICs), enteric pathogens contribute to child malnutrition, affecting nutrient absorption, inducing inflammation, and causing diarrhoea. This is a substantial problem in LMICs due to high disease burden, poor sanitation and nutritional status, and the cyclical nature of pathogen infection and malnutrition. This relationship remains understudied in Timor-Leste. In our pilot study of enteric pathogens and malnutrition in Dili, Timor-Leste (July 2019-October 2020), we recruited 60 infants in a birth cohort from Hospital Nacional Guido Valadares (HNGV) with up to four home visits. We collected faecal samples and details of demographics, anthropometrics, diet and food practices, and animal husbandry. Additionally, we collected faecal samples, diagnostics, and anthropometrics from 160 children admitted to HNGV with a clinical diagnosis of severe diarrhoea or severe acute malnutrition (SAM). We tested faeces using the BioFire® FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel. We detected high prevalence of enteric pathogens in 68.8% (95%CI 60.4-76.2%) of infants at home, 88.6% of SAM cases (95%CI 81.7-93.3%) and 93.8% of severe diarrhoea cases (95%CI 67.7-99.7%). Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter spp. were most frequently detected. Pathogen presence did not significantly differ in birth cohort diarrhoeal stool, but hospital data indicated associations between Salmonella and Shigella and diarrhoea. We observed wasting in 18.4% (95%CI 9.2-32.5%) to 30.8% (95%CI 17.5-47.7%) of infants across home visits, 57.9% (95%CI 34.0-78.9%) of severe diarrhoea cases, and 92.5% (95%CI 86.4-96.2%) of SAM cases. We associated bottle feeding with increased odds of pathogen detection when compared with exclusive breastfeeding at home (OR 8.3, 95%CI 1.1-62.7). We detected high prevalence of enteric pathogens and signs of malnutrition in children in Dili. Our pilot is proof of concept for a study to fully explore the risk factors and associations between enteric pathogens and malnutrition in Timor-Leste.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Desnutrición Aguda Severa , Lactante , Niño , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/complicaciones , Cohorte de Nacimiento , Timor Oriental/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Desnutrición/complicaciones , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/etiología , Desnutrición Aguda Severa/complicaciones , Hospitales
9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 40(1): e00180022, 2024.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359276

RESUMEN

This study aimed to analyze the temporal trend of malnutrition in children aged under five years assisted by the Brazilian Income Transfer Program from 2008 to 2019, by exploring regional inequalities and seeking to determine the impact of the economic and political crises aggravated in 2014, and the government's adherence to fiscal austerity policies on the trend. The analyses were performed using aggregated data from infants (0-23 months) and preschoolers (24-59 months), extracted from the Brazilian Food and Nutritional Surveillance System (SISVAN) assisted by the Brazilian Income Transfer Program (n = 34,272,024). Trends were analyzed using generalized linear models with age-specific mixed effects (negative binomial distribution and log linkage function). The regional inequalities were analyzed based on the grouping of Federative Units according to the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) and the influence of crises and austerity policies on the prevalence of malnutrition by the interaction between "year" and "crisis" (2008-2013 vs. 2014-2019). There was a reduction in the prevalence of child malnutrition until mid-2013, when the trends became stationary for preschoolers and upward for infants. There was also a higher risk of malnutrition in Federative Units with medium- and high-social vulnerability, when compared to those with low-social vulnerability. The inflection points in the trends corroborate the hypothesis that the political and economic crises, and the governmental responses to these crises, negatively impacted the nutritional status of children in poverty and extreme poverty in Brazil.


O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a tendência temporal da desnutrição em crianças menores de 5 anos de idade assistidas pelo Programa Bolsa Família entre 2008 e 2019, explorando desigualdades regionais e buscando determinar o impacto das crises econômica e política agravadas em 2014 e da adesão governamental às políticas de austeridade fiscal na tendência. As análises foram realizadas utilizando dados agregados de lactentes (0-23 meses) e pré-escolares (24-59 meses), extraídos do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional (SISVAN) assistidas pelo Programa Bolsa Família (n = 34.272.024). As tendências foram analisadas por meio de modelos lineares generalizados, com efeitos mistos específicos para as faixas etárias (distribuição binomial negativa e função de ligação log). As desigualdades regionais foram analisadas a partir do agrupamento das Unidades Federativas segundo o Índice de Vulnerabilidade Social (IVS) e a influência das crises e das políticas de austeridade na prevalência de desnutrição por meio da interação entre "ano" e "crise" (2008-2013 vs. 2014-2019). Houve redução na prevalência de desnutrição infantil até meados de 2013, quando as tendências passaram a ser estacionárias para pré-escolares e ascendentes para lactentes. Observou-se, também, maior risco de desnutrição nos estados com média e alta vulnerabilidade social, quando comparadas àqueles com baixa vulnerabilidade social. Os pontos de inflexão nas tendências corroboram a hipótese de que as crises política e econômica, e as respostas governamentais a essas crises, provocaram impacto negativo sobre o estado nutricional de crianças em situação de pobreza e extrema pobreza no Brasil.


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la tendencia temporal de la desnutrición en niños menores de cinco años atendidos por el Programa Bolsa Familia entre los años 2008 y 2019, explorando desigualdades regionales y buscando determinar el impacto de las crisis económica y política que se intensificaron en 2014, así como la adhesión del gobierno a políticas de austeridad fiscal en esta tendencia. Los análisis se realizaron utilizando datos agregados de lactantes (0-23 meses) y preescolares (24-59 meses), extraídos del Sistema de Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional (SISVAN) atendidos por el Programa Bolsa Familia (n = 34.272.024). Se analizaron las tendencias a través de modelos lineales generalizados con efectos mixtos específicos para los grupos de edad (distribución binomial negativa y función de enlace de logaritmo). Se analizaron las desigualdades regionales a partir del agrupamiento de las unidades federativas conforme el Índice de Vulnerabilidad Social (IVS) y la influencia de las crisis y de las políticas de austeridad en la prevalencia de desnutrición a través de la interacción entre "año" y "crisis" (2008-2013 vs. 2014-2019). Hubo una disminución en la prevalencia de desnutrición infantil hasta mediados de 2013, cuando las tendencias se volvieron estacionarias para preescolares y ascendentes para lactantes. También se observó un riesgo más alto de desnutrición en estados con vulnerabilidad social media y alta, en comparación con aquellos con vulnerabilidad social baja. Los puntos de inflexión en las tendencias corroboran la hipótesis de que las crisis política y económica, y las respuestas del gobierno para estas crisis, tuvieron un impacto negativo en el estado nutricional de niños en situación de pobreza y extrema pobreza en Brasil.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Niño , Lactante , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Renta , Factores Socioeconómicos
11.
Nutrition ; 120: 112346, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320385

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Child malnutrition, comprising of undernutrition and obesity, is a global concern with severe implications for survival, leading to acute and chronic diseases that adversely affect the productivity of individuals and society. Asia shoulders the greatest burden, with 7 out of 10 undernourished children residing in the region. Despite the decline in global child stunting, particularly in Asia, its prevalence remains significant. In 2017, an estimated 151 million children under five experienced stunting, and an additional 38 million were overweight, with Africa and Asia accounting for 25% and 46% of the global figures, respectively. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the geospatial and environmental determinants of undernutrition in rural South and Southeast Asia. METHODS: To explore the geospatial and environmental determinants of undernutrition (stunting, wasting, and underweight), we use Poisson regression and the data from recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Cambodia, and Timor-Leste. RESULTS: This study found a high prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight among children aged 0 to 59 months in rural areas of South and Southeast Asia, with considerable variation between countries and clusters/primary sampling units. Results show a positive association between child malnutrition and factors such as maternal illiteracy, unsafe drinking water, and dirty cooking fuel in South and Southeast Asia. Children from impoverished households in India, Pakistan, and Cambodia were disproportionately affected. In addition to socio-economic factors, climatic risks such as temperature increase and rainfall variations also emerged as important determinants of child malnutrition in India, Bangladesh, and Timor-Leste. CONCLUSIONS: This paper emphasizes the role of environmental and climatic factors on child nutrition, underscoring their significance regardless of socio-economic conditions. As the impacts of climate change continue to intensify, and agrarian societies bear the brunt, these factors will play a critical role in shaping child nutritional outcomes. Thus, amid growing climate change, nutritional security should be prioritized, considering the spatial domain and targeting climate distress areas along with other socio-economic and demographic aspects.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Niño , Humanos , Lactante , Delgadez/epidemiología , Delgadez/etiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Caquexia , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/etiología , Prevalencia , Asia Sudoriental/epidemiología , Pakistán
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3326, 2024 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336795

RESUMEN

Undernourishment is a persistent public health problem contributing to increased mortality in children under five in low-income countries, likely exacerbated by socio-economic disparities within communities. This paper aimed to examine the effect of wealth-related inequality on undernutrition in children under five in low, lower-middle, and upper-middle-income countries (LMICs). We analyzed cross-sectional data from the demographic and health survey program collected between 2017 and 2022 from 24 LMICs. Children born within 5 years preceding the survey were included in the analysis. Child undernutrition was the dependent variable (measured by stunting, wasting, and underweight) and country-level wealth-based inequality was the independent variable assessed by concentration index values stratified by the World Bank's income categories. Within country inequality of child undernutrition was determined by concentration index (C) values with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and sub-group analysis by place of residence and sex of the child. We then fit bootstrapped meta-regression to check the variation in inequality of child undernutrition across different income category countries. The analysis was controlled by potential confounding variables. From the total sample size of 334,502 children included in the study, 35% were undernourished. Wealth-related inequality in child undernutrition was observed in 11 countries, consistently across income categories. Child undernutrition was highly concentrated among the poor households of Türkiye [C: - 0.26, 95% CI - 0.31 to - 0.20], and Cameroon [C: - 0.19, 95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.17], and relatively it was less concentrated among the poor in Liberia [C: - 0.07, 95% CI - 0.11 to - 0.04], and Gambia [C: - 0.07, 95% CI - 0.11 to - 0.04]. There is no difference in undernutrition associated with inequality between the three broad LMIC categories. The wealth-related inequality in child undernutrition within many of the included countries is still very significant. However, the economic category of countries made no difference in explaining wealth-related inequality in child undernutrition. Inter-sectoral collaboration to fight poverty and render special attention to the disadvantaged population segments would potentially help to address the observed inequity.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Niño , Humanos , Lactante , Países en Desarrollo , Estudios Transversales , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Renta , Delgadez/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos
13.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e29, 2024 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38253537

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the trend of effect estimates of the key risk factors of childhood stunting and anaemia between 2003 and 2017. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for the Ghanaian population between 2003 and 2017. Associations of selected socio-demographic (child age and gender; maternal age and education), economic (household wealth), environmental, dietary (minimum dietary diversity and iodine use) and health system (place of delivery and vaccination) factors were explored using the Poisson regression model. Trend analysis was explored using a fitted linear regression line on a time series plot. SETTING: Ghana. PARTICIPANTS: Children under 5 years. RESULTS: The results showed a reduction in the prevalence of stunting and anaemia over the 15-year duration. These health outcomes were found to be negatively associated with a wide array of socio-demographic (child age and gender, maternal age and education, residency), economic (household wealth), dietary (iodised salt use) and health service (place of delivery and vaccination) factors; however, the most consistent statistically significant association was observed between child's age and belonging to the poor wealth quintile. CONCLUSION: In order to prevent these indicators of child malnutrition, key consideration must be given to the early developmental stages of life. Child health policies must focus on addressing the key contextual factors of child malnutrition.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Niño , Humanos , Preescolar , Ghana/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Factores de Riesgo , Anemia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/etiología , Demografía
14.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0295810, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215079

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While child undernutrition has been eliminated in some middle-income countries, it remains highly prevalent in sub-Sahara African (SSA) and South Asian regions, and is disproportionately concentrated among the poor. In this study, we estimated trends in child undernutrition by social determinants and related risks from wealth inequality in Ethiopia, from 2005 to 2016. METHOD: We analyzed data from three consecutive surveys (2005, 2011, and 2016) from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. First, we estimated trends in the prevalence of childhood undernutrition variables (stunting, underweight, and wasting) and social determinants (household wealth status, education level, place of residence, and administrative regions). Then we assessed evidence of undernutrition by wealth-related inequality with concentration curves (visual) and concentration indeces (quantitative). A multilevel mixed-effect Poisson regression model was used to identify predictors of undernutrition variables expressed as covariate-adjusted rate ratios, with 95% confidence intervals (RRs, 95%CI). RESULT: A total of 23,934 mother-child pairs were obtained from the three surveys. The average prevalence decreased by 12.4 percentage points for stunting (from 50.8 to 38.4%, P<0.01), 9.5 percentage points for underweight (33.2% to23.7%, P<0.01), and 2.1 percentage points for wasting (12.2% to10.1%, P<0.01). There was persistent and statistically evidence of wealth inequality in stunting, underweight, and wasting (concentration indeces of -0.2 to -0.04, all P values <0.05). Stunting, underweight, and wasting variables were associated with male sex of the child (RR 0.94, 0.95, 0.85, all P-values <0.01) recent diarrhea (RR 1.18, 1.27, 1.37, all P-values <0.01), secondary education status of the mother (RR 0.66, 0.57, 0.61, all P-values < 0.057), increasing wealth index (richest) (RR 0.73, 0.70, 0.50, all P-values < 0.05), and having no toilet facility (RR 1.16, 1.22, 1.18, all P-values < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Despite the decreased burden of stunting and underweight, the prevalence of wasting remained relatively unchanged in Ethiopia from 2005 to 2016. Moreover, wealth-related inequality in child undernutrition increased for most of the child undernutrition indicators during this period. Social determinants of child undernutrition warrant urgent implementation of strategies to reduce their health impacts in SSA.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Síndrome Debilitante , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Lactante , Delgadez/epidemiología , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Síndrome Debilitante/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Caquexia , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Encuestas Epidemiológicas
15.
Matern Child Nutr ; 20(1): e13569, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37781871

RESUMEN

Adolescent pregnancy is associated with poor fetal growth and development which, in turn, increases the risk of childhood wasting and underweight. However, evidence on how young maternal age affects childhood anthropometry beyond the neonatal period is limited. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined associations between adolescent pregnancy and child wasting and underweight and explored potential underlying social and biological factors. Peer-reviewed literature published in English since 1990 was systematically searched. Eligible studies presented data on wasting and/or underweight in children (≤59 months) born to adolescent mothers (10-19, or ≤24 years where applicable) from low- and middle-income countries. Data extraction used a predefined extraction sheet. Both meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis were performed. Of 92 identified studies, 57 were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that children born to adolescent versus adult mothers were at a higher risk of moderate (odds ratio [OR]: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.26 p = 0.04) and severe underweight (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.08-1.35 p < 0.01). Associated risk of wasting was not statistically significant: (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.98-1.12 p = 0.17); severe wasting (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.68-1.96 p = 0.59). These findings were supported by the qualitative synthesis. Evidence on the potential role of biological/social factors was limited, but suggested an intermediary role of maternal nutritional status which warrants further exploration. Particularly in contexts where adolescent pregnancy remains common, interventions to both delay adolescent pregnancy and improve adolescent nutritional status could help reduce the risk of undernutrition in children and contribute to breaking the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Niño , Adulto , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Embarazo , Adolescente , Humanos , Lactante , Delgadez/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Madres , Prevalencia
16.
Nutrition ; 119: 112300, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141569

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Although there is some evidence that flood exposure in Bangladesh and other developing countries increases the risk of chronic undernutrition in children, the underlying mechanisms are, to our knowledge, unknown. The objectives of this research are to examine the association between recurrent flood exposure and the likelihood of chronic undernutrition in children and to investigate the mediators of this association. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Naogaon District in northern Bangladesh. Purposive sampling was used to choose 800 children between the ages of 12 and 59 mo in equal numbers in the specified flood-affected and flood-unaffected areas: 400 children from the flood-affected area and 400 from the flood-unaffected area. The nutrition indicator height for age, expressed as z scores, was used to define child chronic undernutrition. Our study focused on children who have been exposed to multiple floods in the past 5 y. RESULTS: In our sample data, children who had experienced flooding had a 1.74-times higher chance of having chronic undernutrition (95% CI, 1.53-2.28) than children who had not experienced flooding. The mediation analyses found inadequate minimum dietary diversity, history of diarrhea, not being fully vaccinated, not using clean cooking fuel, and not having a separate kitchen contributed 19.5%, 10%, 9.8%, 14.8%, and 10%, respectively, to the flood exposure-child undernutrition association. CONCLUSIONS: Flood exposure was found associated with the likelihood of child chronic undernutrition, and this relationship was mediated through lack of having a separate kitchen, history of diarrhea, insufficient vaccination, use of unclean cooking fuel, and poor minimum dietary diversity. Interventions to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors could contribute to reducing the disparities in child undernourishment brought on by exposure to flooding.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Inundaciones , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Diarrea/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/etiología
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 21573, 2023 12 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38062092

RESUMEN

Childhood chronic undernutrition, known as stunting, remains a critical public health problem globally. Unfortunately while the global stunting prevalence has been declining over time, as a result of concerted public health efforts, there are areas (notably in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia) where progress has stagnated. These regions are also resource-poor, and monitoring progress in the fight against chronic undernutrition can be problematic. We propose geostatistical modelling using data from existing demographic surveys supplemented by remote-sensed information to provide improved estimates of childhood stunting, accounting for spatial and non-spatial differences across regions. We use two study areas-Bangladesh and Ghana-and our results, in the form of prevalence maps, identify communities for targeted intervention. For Bangladesh, the maps show that all districts in the south-eastern region are identified to have greater risk of stunting, while in Ghana the greater northern region had the highest prevalence of stunting. In countries like Bangladesh and Ghana with limited resources, these maps can be useful diagnostic tools for health planning, decision making and implementation.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Niño , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Ghana/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Prevalencia
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 630, 2023 12 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38093230

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the association between inclusion to Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), a CCT program in the Philippines, and malnutrition in children and adolescents and examine the perceptions and experiences of parents and other stakeholders on how 4Ps influenced child nutrition. METHODS: A concurrent mixed-method study was conducted in the Caraga Region, Philippines. Quantitative data from 5541 children and adolescents aged 3 to 19 were analyzed using multilevel mixed-effect logistic models. To allow in-depth understanding of the programmatic components that support the findings from the quantitative study, eight focused group discussions (FGDs) were concurrently conducted, cumulating 33 participants, including 4Ps parents, school coordinators/teachers, and school nurses. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used for analysis, and joint displays were employed to integrate quantitative and qualitative results. RESULTS: Quantitative findings revealed high rates of malnutrition, with significant rates of stunting (12.0%), wasting/thinness (9.4%), and overweight/obesity (16.4%) among children and adolescents. 4Ps beneficiaries had higher odds of stunting and overweight/obesity compared to non-4Ps beneficiaries (AOR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.08-1.91; AOR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.01-1.45, respectively). However, no significant association was observed between inclusion to 4Ps and concurrent stunting and wasting/thinness or overweight/obesity (AOR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.72-1.55). Geographic variations were observed, with 4Ps children in Agusan del Sur having lower odds of stunting than those in Agusan del Norte (AOR = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.23-0.71). Age and gender also showed significant associations with malnutrition. The qualitative analysis provided insights into the challenges contributing to malnutrition, including child labor, sickness, long distances to school, limited access to healthy food, and larger families. Unintended consequences such as cash card mismanagement, inappropriate cash grant allocation, and falsification of school attendance were identified. However, teachers and parents demonstrated resilience by implementing adaptive approaches to enhance child nutrition. CONCLUSIONS: While 4Ps beneficiaries exhibit higher odds of stunting and overweight/obesity, the program's association with malnutrition was significantly influenced by geographic variations. It is crucial for social protection programs to prioritize comprehensive support strategies that effectively counter unintended consequences and challenges faced by beneficiaries and other stakeholders and address malnutrition in children and adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Niño , Humanos , Adolescente , Delgadez , Sobrepeso , Filipinas/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Obesidad , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/etiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/prevención & control , Prevalencia
19.
Cult. cuid ; 27(67): 455-468, Dic 11, 2023. tab, ilus
Artículo en Portugués | IBECS | ID: ibc-228596

RESUMEN

Objective: To identify in the literature the scientific evidence about the dermatological manifestations presented by children with nutritional disorders. Methods: This is an integrative literature review carried out in March 2022 with a bibliographic survey through the following databases: Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS), PubMed and Scopus. Results: Twelve (12) studies were selected and organized into four thematic axes: skin manifestations related to macronutrient deficiency - protein-energy malnutrition; micronutrient deficiency, subgroup of fat-soluble vitamins: vitamin D; mineral deficiency: zinc and obesity. Final considerations: Cutaneous dermatoses caused by nutritional deficiencies in children are clinical findings still little explored in the literature; however, the analyzed studies demonstrate the importance of knowledge on the subject so that health professionals can identify and provide timely treatment, thus offering quality care and ensuring healthy children growth and development.(AU)


Objetivo: identificar en la literatura las evidencias científicassobre las manifestaciones dermatológicas que presentan los niños con trastornos nutricionales. Métodos: Se trata de una revisión integrativa de la literatura realizada en marzo de 2022, con levantamiento bibliográfico a través de las siguientes bases de datos: Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS), PubMed y Scopus. Resultados: fueron seleccionados 12 estudios organizados en cuatro ejes temáticos: manifestaciones cutáneas relacionadas con la deficiencia de macronutrientes desnutrición proteiconergética; deficiencia de micronutrientes, subgrupo de vitaminas liposolubles: vitamina D; carencia de minerales: zinc y obesidad. Consideraciones finales: Las dermatosis cutáneas causadas por deficiencias nutricionales en niños son hallazgos clínicos aún poco explorados en la literatura, sin embargo, los estudios encontrados demuestran la importancia del conocimiento sobre el tema para que los profesionales de la salud puedan identificar y tratar tempranamente las alteraciones, ofreciendo así una atención de calidad y asegurar el crecimiento y desarrollo saludable del niño.(AU)


Objetivo: identificar na literatura as evidências científicas acerca das manifestações dermatológicas apresentadas por crianças com desordens nutricionais. Métodos: Tratae de uma revisão integrativa da literatura realizada no mês de março de 2022, com levantamento bibliográfico por meio das bases de dados: Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), PubMed e Scopus. Resultados: Dos 12 estudos selecionados e organizados em quatro eixos temáticos: manifestações cutâneas relacionadas a deficiência de macronutrientes - desnutrição proteico-energética; deficiência de micronutrientes, subgrupo das vitaminas lipossolúveis: vitamina D; deficiência de minerais: zinco e obesidade. Considerações finais: As dermatoses cutâneas causadas por deficiências nutricionais em crianças são achados clínicos ainda pouco explorados na literatura, porém, os estudos encontrados demonstram a importância do conhecimento acerca do tema para que os profissionais de saúde possam identificar e tratar precocemente as alterações, ofertando assim uma assistência de qualidade e garantindo um crescimento e desenvolvimento infantil saudável.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Salud Infantil , Ciencias de la Nutrición , Enfermedades de la Piel
20.
BMJ Open ; 13(12): e073349, 2023 12 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110392

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Chronic malnutrition is a serious problem in southern Angola with a prevalence of 49.9% and 37.2% in the provinces of Huila and Cunene, respectively. The MuCCUA (Mother and Child Chronic Undernutrition in Angola) trial is a community-based randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition supplementation plus standard of care intervention and a cash transfer plus standard of care intervention in preventing stunting, and to compare them with a standard of care alone intervention in southern Angola. This protocol describes the planned economic evaluation associated with the c-RCT. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness analysis nested within the MuCCUA trial with a societal perspective, measuring programme, provider, participant and household costs. We will collect programme costs prospectively using a combined calculation method including quantitative and qualitative data. Financial costs will be estimated by applying activity-based costing methods to accounting records using time allocation sheets. We will estimate costs not included in accounting records by the ingredients approach, and indirect costs incurred by beneficiaries through interviews, household surveys and focus group discussions. Cost-efficiency will be estimated as cost per output achieved by combining activity-specific cost data with routine data on programme outputs. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed as cost per stunting case prevented. We will calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios comparing the additional cost per improved outcome of the different intervention arms and the standard of care. We will perform sensitivity analyses to assess robustness of results. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This economic evaluation will provide useful information to the Angolan Government and other policymakers on the most cost-effective intervention to prevent stunting in this and other comparable contexts. The protocol was approved by the República de Angola Ministério da Saúde Comité de Ética (27C.E/MINSA.INIS/2022). The findings of this study will be disseminated within academia and the wider policy sphere. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT05571280).


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño , Desnutrición , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Angola , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/prevención & control , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/prevención & control , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
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