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1.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(1): e656, ene.-abr. 2021. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156370

RESUMEN

Introducción: La hipertensión arterial pulmonar es una enfermedad con una baja incidencia en la gestante, aunque trae consigo una alta mortalidad una vez presentada. Un diagnóstico oportuno y un manejo perioperatorio adecuado minimizan el riesgo de desenlace fatal tanto para la madre como el feto. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de la hipertensión arterial pulmonar en la gestante a término y su conducción anestésica. Presentación del caso: Paciente de 23 años, antecedentes de salud, edad gestacional de 35.2 semanas. Luego de presentar dolor de espalda y ardor en el pecho relacionado con el esfuerzo, palpitaciones, disnea y bloqueo de rama derecha en electrocardiograma, se ingresa en UTI con sospecha de tromboembolismo pulmonar, el cual queda descartado tras diagnóstico confirmatorio de hipertensión pulmonar después de realizar angio TAC y ecocardiografía. Se decide realizar cesárea programada bajo técnica regional peridural, sin complicaciones tanto para la madre como el niño. Después de 2 días bajo vigilancia intensiva se traslada a su centro hospitalario de cabecera. Conclusiones: La vía del parto, así como una elección adecuada de la técnica anestésica, puede ser la diferencia entre el éxito y la fatalidad. Las técnicas regionales suelen recomendarse por encima de la técnica de anestesia general siempre que no se presenten contraindicaciones(AU)


Introduction: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a disease with low incidence in the pregnant woman, although it brings about high mortality once presented. Timely diagnosis and adequate perioeprative management minimize the risk of fatal outcome for both mother and fetus. Objective: To describe pulmonary arterial hypertension and its anesthetic management in the term pregnant woman. Case presentation: 23-year-old female patient, with health history and gestational age of 35.2 weeks. After presenting back pain and chest burning associated with exertion, palpitations, dyspnea and right bundle branch block in the electrocardiogram, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism, which was ruled out due to the confirmatory diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension after performing computerized tomography angiography and echocardiography. Scheduled cesarean section was decided to be perform using the regional peridural technique, without complications for both the mother and the child. After two days under intensive surveillance, she was transferred to her primary hospital. Conclusions: The route of delivery, as well as an adequate choice of the anesthetic technique, can be the difference between success and fatality. Regional techniques are usually recommended over the general anesthesia technique, as long as there are no contraindications(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Adulto Joven , Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar/complicaciones , Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Anestesia General/métodos , Complicaciones del Embarazo/prevención & control , Cesárea/métodos
2.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.1): 29-45, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155311

RESUMEN

Abstract Objectives: to review the available literature on the general aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infec-tion. Methods: this is a narrative literature review carried out from March to September 2020. Results: COVID-19 caused by the new coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2, grows with devas-tating effects worldwide. The literature describes epidemiological data and mortality risk groups of the disease, which presents a high rate of transmission. Prevention is the most effective way to fight the disease, persisting the absence of strong evidence on the treatment. Vaccines are not yet available. Dexamethasone is effective in reducing mortality in severe forms. Conclusions: despite great efforts, as the number of confirmed cases increases, evidence on transmission, incidence, disease progression, lethality, effects and outcomes remain limited and without any high levels of evidence. Studies are still necessary for all aspects of the disease.


Resumo Objetivos: revisar a literatura disponível sobre os aspectos gerais dainfecção por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: trata-se de uma revisão narrativa de literatura realizada nos meses de março asetembro de 2020. Resultados: a COVID-19, causada pelo novo coronavírus ou SARS-CoV-2, cresce com efeitos devastadores em todo o mundo. A literetura descreve dados epidemiológicos e sobre grupos de riscos para mortalidade da doença, a qual apresenta uma alta velocidade de trans-missão. A prevenção é a forma mais eficaz de combate à doença, persistindo ausências de fortes evidências sobre o tratamento. Vacinas ainda não estão disponíveis A dexametasona é efetiva para redução da mortalidade nas formas graves. Conclusão: apesar dos grandes esforços, à medida que o número de casos confirmados aumenta, evidências sobre transmissão, incidência, evolução da doença, letalidade, efeitos e os desfechos permanecem limitados e sem grandes níveis de evidência. Estudos ainda são necessários sobre todos os aspectos da doença.

3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(1): 61-65, Jan. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156077

RESUMEN

Abstract Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a severe disorder that affects up to 8% of all pregnancies and represents an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The screening of the disease is a subject of studies, but the complexity and uncertainties regarding its etiology make this objective a difficult task. In addition, the costs related to screening protocols, the heterogeneity of the most affected populations and the lack of highly effective prevention methods reduce the potential of current available algorithms for screening. Thus, the National Specialized Commission of Hypertension in Pregnancy of the Brazilian Association of Gynecology and Obstetrics Federation (Febrasgo, in the Portuguese acronym) (NSC Hypertension in Pregnancy of the Febrasgo) considers that there are no screening algorithms to be implemented in the country to date and advocates that Aspirin and calcium should be widely used.


Resumo A Pré-eclâmpsia (PE) é uma doença grave que acomete ~ 8% das gestações e representa importante causa de morbimortalidade, tanto materna quanto perinatal. O rastreamento da doença émotivo de estudos, porém a complexidade e as incertezas quanto a sua etiologia tornam esse objetivo bastante difícil. Além disso, os custos relacionados com o rastreamento, a heterogeneidade das populações mais afetadas e ainda a falta de métodos de prevenção de grande eficácia reduzem o potencial dos algoritmos de rastreamento. Assim, a Comissão Nacional Especializada sobre Hipertensão na Gravidez da Federação Brasileira das Associações de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (CNE Hipertensão na Gravidez da FEBRASGO) considera que não há algoritmos de rastreamento que possam ser aplicados no país nesse momento e defende a utilização dos métodos de prevenção como ácido acetilsalicílico e cálcio de maneira ampla.

5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(4): e00093320, 2021. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249419

RESUMEN

Abstract: This paper describes the history, objectives and methods used by the nine Brazilian cohorts of the RPS Brazilian Birth Cohorts Consortium (Ribeirão Preto, Pelotas and São Luís) Common thematic axes are identified and the objectives, baseline periods, follow-up stages and representativity of the population studied are presented. The Consortium includes three birth cohorts from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State (1978/1979, 1994 and 2010), four from Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State (1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015), and two from São Luís, Maranhão State (1997 and 2010). The cohorts cover three regions of Brazil, from three distinct states, with marked socioeconomic, cultural and infrastructure differences. The cohorts were started at birth, except for the most recent one in each municipality, where mothers were recruited during pregnancy. The instruments for data collection have been refined in order to approach different exposures during the early phases of life and their long-term influence on the health-disease process. The investigators of the nine cohorts carried out perinatal studies and later studied human capital, mental health, nutrition and precursor signs of noncommunicable diseases. A total of 17,636 liveborns were recruited in Ribeirão Preto, 19,669 in Pelotas, and 7,659 in São Luís. In the studies starting during pregnancy, 1,400 pregnant women were interviewed in Ribeirão Preto, 3,199 in Pelotas, and 1,447 in São Luís. Different strategies were employed to reduce losses to follow-up. This research network allows the analysis of the incidence of diseases and the establishment of possible causal relations that might explain the health outcomes of these populations in order to contribute to the development of governmental actions and health policies more consistent with reality.


Resumo: O artigo descreve a história, objetivos e métodos utilizados pelas nove coortes do Consórcio RPS de Coortes de Nascimento. São identificados eixos temáticos comuns, com apresentação dos objetivos, anos de linha de base, fases de seguimento e representatividade das populações de estudo. O Consórcio inclui três coortes de nascimento de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo (1978/1979, 1994 e 2010), quatro de Pelotas, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (1982, 1993, 2004 e 2015) e duas de São Luís, Estado do Maranhão (1997 e 2010). As coortes provêm de três regiões do Brasil, de três estados diferentes, com importantes diferenças socioeconômicas, culturais e de infraestrutura. As coortes foram iniciadas ao nascer dos participantes, exceto a mais recente em cada município, onde as mães foram recrutadas durante a gestação. Os instrumentos para a coleta de dados foram refinados para aproximar diferentes exposições na primeira infância e a influência, a longo prazo, no processo saúde-doença. Os investigadores das nove coortes realizaram estudos perinatais e depois examinaram o capital humano, saúde mental, nutrição e sinais percursores de doenças crônicas. Um total de 17.636 nascidos vivos foram recrutados em Ribeirão Preto, 19.669 em Pelotas e 7.659 em São Luís. Nas coortes que foram iniciadas durante a gestação, foram entrevistadas 1.400 gestantes em Ribeirão Preto, 3.199 em Pelotas e 1.447 em São Luís. Foram utilizadas diferentes estratégias para reduzir as perdas de seguimento. A rede de pesquisa do Consórcio permite analisar a incidência de doenças e identificar possíveis relações causais que podem explicar os desfechos de saúde nessas populações e contribuir para o desenvolvimento de medidas públicas e políticas de saúde que estejam mais de acordo com as respectivas realidades.


Resumen: El trabajo describe la historia, objetivos y métodos usados por nueve cohortes brasileñas del RPS Consorcio de Cohortes de Nacimiento. Se identificaron los ejes temáticos comunes y los objetivos, así como los periodos de referencia, la presentación del estadio de seguimiento y representatividad de la población estudiada. El consorcio incluye tres cohortes de nacimiento de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo (1978/1979, 1994 y 2010), cuatro de Pelotas, Estado del Rio Grande do Sul (1982, 1993, 2004 y 2015), y dos de São Luís, Estado del Maranhão (1997 y 2010). Las cohortes cubren tres regiones de Brasil, de tres estados distintos, con marcadas diferencias socioeconómicas, culturales y de infraestructura. Las cohortes comenzaron con el nacimiento, excepto para la más reciente en cada municipio, donde las madres fueron reclutadas durante la gestación. Los instrumentos para la recogida de datos han sido depurados, con el fin de realizar una aproximación a diferentes exposiciones durante las fases tempranas de la vida y su influencia a largo plazo en el proceso de salud-enfermedad. Se incluyeron a los investigadores de las nueve cohortes, donde se llevaron a cabo estudios perinatales, así como los recursos humanos analizados posteriormente, al igual que la salud mental, nutrición y signos precursores de enfermedades no comunicables. Un total de 17.636 nacidos vivos fueron reclutados en Ribeirão Preto, 19.669 en Pelotas, y 7.659 en São Luís. En los estudios que comenzaron durante el embarazo, 1.400 mujeres embarazadas fueron entrevistadas en Ribeirão Preto, 3.199 en Pelotas, y 1.447 en São Luís. Se usaron diferentes estrategias para reducir pérdidas, con el fin de realizar el seguimiento. Esta red de investigación permite el análisis de la incidencia de enfermedades y el establecimiento de posibles relaciones causales que podrían explicar los resultados de salud de estas poblaciones, con el fin de contribuir al desarrollo de acciones gubernamentales y políticas de salud más consistentes con la realidad.

6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e11274, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153506

RESUMEN

This thematic issue consists of 14 articles derived from studies of the BRISA birth cohort (Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo and São Luís, State of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil, a socially and economically less developed region). In these more than 40 years of existence, these cohorts have been able to document the increase in women's education, the improvement of health conditions, the creation of a public Unified Health System (SUS) that provides universal and free access to health care, eradication of hunger, and transition of the nutritional status characterized by a decrease in malnutrition rates and an increase in obesity in Brazil. Particularly in reproductive health, the country experienced a significant drop in fertility, a decrease in maternal and child mortality, and an increase in breastfeeding rates. Universal access to prenatal care and hospital delivery was accompanied by an excessive number of cesareans without clinical indication and early-term births and premature births, largely due to scheduled cesareans. Articles with a longitudinal and transversal methodological approach are presented, using structural equation analysis and propensity score, together with multivariate regressions, which gave a robust analytical treatment to articles in this thematic issue.

7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10465, 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153508

RESUMEN

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality, minor cognitive deficit, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In previous studies, genetic variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) genes have been associated with metabolic disease, body mass index, and obesity among other outcomes. We studied the association of selected FTO (rs1421085, rs55682395, rs17817449, rs8043757, rs9926289, and rs9939609) and PPARγ (rs10865710, rs17036263, rs35206526, rs1801282, rs28763894, rs41516544, rs62243567, rs3856806, and rs1805151) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with IUGR, through a case-control study in a cohort of live births that occurred from June 1978 to May 1979 in a Brazilian city. We selected 280 IUGR cases and 256 controls for analysis. Logistic regression was used to jointly analyze the SNPs as well as factors such as maternal smoking, age, and schooling. We found that the PPARγ rs41516544 increased the risk of IUGR for male offspring (OR 27.83, 95%CI 3.65-212.32) as well as for female offspring (OR=8.94, 95%CI: 1.96-40.88). The FTO rs9939609 TA genotype resulted in a reduced susceptibility to IUGR for male offspring only (OR=0.47, 95%CI: 0.26-0.86). In conclusion, we demonstrated that PPARγ SNP had a positive effect and FTO SNP had a negative effect on IUGR occurrence, and these effects were gender-specific.

8.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(5): 179-186, dez. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1177655

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Analisar os eventos adversos e fatores associados em maternidades de alto risco, deinstituições ensino de Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil. Método: Estudo transversal, retrospectivo e analítico, no qual foram avaliados 480 prontuários de mulheres internadas nas maternidades, em 2016, com desfecho de parto cirúrgico. Foi utilizado um instrumento de revisão retrospectiva de prontuários, adaptado e validado para maternidades no Brasil. A busca de critérios rastreadores foi empregada para a análise da ocorrência de eventos adversos, processo avaliado em duas etapas, com a verificação do evento e do dano decorrente. Resultados: Evidenciaram a presença de 1051 critérios rastreadores, representando 163 eventos adversos, os quais se localizaram em 26,8% prontuários. Os danos foram temporários, com necessidade de intervenção em 28,8% e com aumento do tempo de internação em 60,1% dos casos. Conclusão: A frequência de eventos adversos mostrou-se elevada, com o perfil e tipos de incidentes semelhantes às causas já estabelecidas de morbimortalidade materna, sendo mais relacionados às desordens hipertensivas, hemorrágicas e infecções, associando-se ao controle deficiente das situações clínicas na gestação, parto e puerpério, o que perpassa toda a rede de cuidado materno-infantil. (AU)


Objective: To analyze adverse events and associated factors in high-risk maternity hospitals in educational institutions in Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil. Methods: Cross-sectional, retrospective and analytical study, in which 480 medical records of women hospitalized in maternity hospitals were evaluated in 2016, with the outcome of surgical delivery. A retrospective chart review instrument was used, adapted and validated for maternity hospitals in Brazil. The search for tracking criteria was used to analyze the occurrence of adverse events, a process evaluated in two stages, with the verification of the event and the resulting damage. Results: The presence of 1051 tracking criteria was evidenced, representing 163 adverse events, which were located in 26.8% of medical records. The damage was temporary, requiring intervention in 28.8% and an increase in hospital stay in 60.1% of cases. Conclusion: The frequency of adverse events proved to be high, with the profile and types of incidents similar to the already established causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, being more related to hypertensive disorders, hemorrhages and infections, associated with the poor control of clinical situations during pregnancy , childbirth and the puerperium, which runs through the entire network of maternal and child care. (AU)


Objetivo: Analizar eventos adversos y factoresasociadosen maternidades de alto riesgoeninstituciones educativas de Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil. Métodos: Estudio transversal, retrospectivo y analítico, enel que se evaluaron 480 historias clínicas de mujeres hospitalizadas en maternidades en 2016, conel resultado de parto quirúrgico. Se utilizó, adaptó y validóun instrumento de revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas para maternidades en Brasil. Se utilizólabúsqueda de criterios de seguimiento para analizarlaocurrencia de eventos adversos, procesoevaluadoen dos etapas, conlaverificacióndel evento y eldaño resultante. Resultados: Se evidencióla presencia de 1051 criterios de seguimiento, que representan 163 eventos adversos, loscuales se localizaronenel 26,8% de las historias clínicas. El dañofuetransitorio, requiriendointervenciónenel 28,8% y aumento de la estancia hospitalariaenel 60,1% de los casos. Conclusión: La frecuencia de eventos adversos resultó ser alta, con perfil y tipos de incidentes similares a las causas yaestablecidas de morbimortalidad materna, estando más relacionados contrastornos hipertensivos, hemorragias e infecciones, asociados al mal control de situaciones clínicas durante elembarazo. , parto y puerperio, que recorre toda lared de atenciónmaternoinfantil. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Calidad, Acceso y Evaluación de la Atención de Salud , Recién Nacido , Seguridad del Paciente , Maternidades
9.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177975

RESUMEN

Introducción. La hipoglucemia neonatal es el trastorno metabólico más frecuente y precoz del recién nacido, que puede causar desde irritabilidad transitoria hasta estados de convulsión, apnea y muerte. Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a hipoglucemia en neonatos a término en un hospital público del norte del Perú mediante la creación de un modelo predictivo utilizando regresión logística. Material y métodos: El estudio presentó un diseño de casos y controles pareado por sexo 1:1, con una muestra de 58 casos y 58 controles, según la presencia o no de hipoglucemia neonatal. Se analizaron variables maternas y neonatales: edad gestacional, peso del recién nacido, sexo del recién nacido, tipo de parto, uso de corticoides, inducción del parto, ser hijo de madre diabética, retraso en el crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU), madre con trastorno hidroelectrolítico previo al parto, síndrome de aspiración meconial y estrés perinatal. Resultados: En el análisis multivariado, se observó que el ser hijo de madre diabética es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de hipoglucemia neonatal (OR 4,08, IC95% 1,31-14,18, p=0,02). Conclusión: Existe una asociación significativa entre ser hijo de madre diabética y desarrollar hipoglucemia neonatal


Introduction. Neonatal hypoglycemia is the most common and early metabolic disorder of the newborn, which can cause everything from transient irritability to states of seizure, apnea and death. The objective was to determine the risk factors associated with hypoglycemia in term newborns in a public hospital in northern Peru by creating a predictive model using logistic regression. Material and methods: The study presented a 1:1 paired case-control design, with a sample of 58 cases and 58 controls, based on the presence or absence of neonatal hypoglycemia. Maternal and neonatal variables were analyzed: gestational age, weight of the newborn, sex of the newborn, type of delivery, use of steroids, induction of labor, being the child of a diabetic mother, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), mother with pre-birth hydroelectrolytic disorder, meconium aspiration syndrome, and perinatal stress. Results: In multivariate analysis, child born to a diabetic mother was observed to be a risk factor for the development of neonatal hypoglycemia (OR 4.08, 95% CI 1.31-14.18, p=0.02). Conclusion: There is a significant association between being a child of a diabetic mother and developing neonatal hypoglycemia.

10.
Appl. cancer res ; 40: [1-13], Oct. 13, 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129225

RESUMEN

Background: Cervical cancer is a prominently diagnosed form of cancer in several resource-constrained settings particularly within the sub-Saharan African region. Globally, Africa region has the highest incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer. The high prevalence has been attributed to several factors including lack of awareness of the disease. The aim of this paper is to explore the prevalence and factors associated with awareness of cervical cancer among women of reproductive age in Republic of Benin and Zimbabwe, sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We used population-based cross-sectional data from Benin Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) and Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) respectively. BDHS 2017­18 and ZDHS - 2015 are the 5th and 6th rounds of the surveys respectively. About 15,928 and 9955 women aged 15­49 years were included in this study respectively. The awareness of cervical cancer among women of reproductive age in Benin and Zimbabwe was measured dichotomously; yes (if a woman heard of cervical cancer) vs. no (if a woman has not heard of cervical cancer). All significant variables from the bivariate analysis were included in the multivariable logistic regression model to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval. Results: While majority (79.2%) of women from Zimbabwe have heard about cervical cancer, only about one-tenth (10.2%) of their Beninese counterparts have heard about the disease. Advanced maternal age, having formal education, use of internet, having professional/technical/managerial occupation significantly increased the odds of awareness of cervical cancer after adjusting for other confounders. However, in Benin, women who resided in the rural area and those of Islamic belief had 20% (AOR = 0.80; 95%CI: 0.64, 0.99) and 35% (AOR = 0.65; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.86) reduction in the odds of awareness of cervical cancer respectively, when compared with women from urban residence and Christianity. Results from the predictive marginal effects showed that, assuming the distribution of all factors remained the same among women, but every woman is an urban dweller, we would expect 11.0 and 81.0% level of awareness of cervical cancer; If everywoman had higher education, we would expect 20.0 and 90% level of awareness of cervical cancer and if instead the distribution of other maternal factors were as observed and other covariates remained the same among women, but all women were in the richest household wealth quintile, we would expect about 11.0 and 83.0% level of awareness of cervical cancer, among women of reproductive age from Benin and Zimbabwe respectively. Conclusion: The study has revealed that socio-demographical factors including geographical location and selected economic factors explained the inequality in distribution of women's awareness on cervical cancer in both countries. Designing an effective population-based health education and promotion intervention programs on cervical cancer will be a great way forward to improving women's awareness level on cervical cancer.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , África del Sur del Sahara , Educación en Salud
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1250-1257, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134433

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: Residential heating with wood is an important source of ambient air pollution. Evidence links air pollution to serious health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to wood smoke pollution causes morphological changes in the development of the rat lung, leading to altered lung structure and function during later life. We presumed that analysis of the fetal lung stereology provides novel insights into the underlying processes mediating particulate matter associated developmental changes and damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure during gestational period to wood smoke pollution on lung fetal morphology. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution. Complete lungs samples were obtained from 24 fetus from healthy female G3 rats subjected to cesarean at 19 days post-fecundation. The lungs were prepared for histological and stereological analysis. The volume fraction of terminal bronchioles VV [tb, lung] and volume fraction of parenchyma VV [par, lung], surface density of terminal bronchioles SV [tb, lung] as well as numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung] were calculated by light microscopy. Statistical analysis detected significant differences between groups in volume density VV [tb, lung; %] (p=0.0012) and surface density SV [tb, lung; mm2/mm3] (p<0.0001) of the terminal bronchioles. However, it did not show differences between groups in the stereological parameter volume density VV [par, lung; %] (p=0.0838) and numerical density of bronchiolar exocrinocytes NA [ec,lung; nº/mm2] (p=0.0705). The analysis of the evidence obtained indicates that exposure to environmental pollution was affects lung maturation, and particularly the proportion and area of terminal bronchioles in the fetal lung. In conclusion, maternal exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in the lower conducting airways of lungs, which, according to urban pollution studies, could be related to early childhood lower respiratory illness. The public health implications of this study are that reducing or avoiding exposure to wood smoke is important before and during pregnancy.


RESUMEN: La calefacción residencial con leña es una fuente importante de contaminación ambiental. La evidencia vincula la contaminación del aire con graves efectos sobre la salud, como la mortalidad y la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular. Hipotetizamos que la exposición prenatal a la contaminación por humo de leña causa cambios en el desarrollo del pulmón de rata, lo que conduce a una morfo-función pulmonar alteradas durante la vida posterior, creemos que el análisis de la estereología pulmonar fetal proporcionará nuevos conocimientos sobre los procesos subyacentes que median esos cambios. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos de la exposición prenatal a la contaminación ambiental por humo de leña sobre la morfología pulmonar fetal. Ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña. En fetos de 19 días post-fecundación fue obtenido el pulmón para análisis histológico y estereológico. Fue determinado la fracción de volumen de bronquiolos terminales VV [tb, pulmón], fracción de volumen del parénquima VV [par, pulmón], densidad superficial de los bronquiolos terminales SV [tb, pulmón] así como la densidad numérica de exocrinocitos NA [ec, pulmón]. El análisis estadístico detectó diferencias significativas entre grupos en la densidad de volumen V [tb, pulmón; %] (p=0,0012) y densidad superficial SV [tb, pulmón; mm2/mm3] (p<0,0001) de los bronquiolos terminales. Sin embargo, no demostró diferencias entre grupos en la densidad de volumen VV [par, pulmón; %] (p=0,0838) y numérica de exocrinocitos bronquiolares NA [ec, pulmón; nº / mm ] (p=0,0705). El análisis de la evidencia obtenida indica que la exposición a la contaminación ambiental afectó la maduración pulmonar, y particularmente la proporción y área de bronquiolos terminales en el pulmón fetal. En conclusión, la exposición materna a la contaminación por humo de leña durante la gestación se asoció a una disminución de las vías respiratorias conductoras de aire en pulmón, lo que, según estudios de contaminación urbana, podría estar relacionado con enfermedades de las vías respiratorias inferiores en la primera infancia. Las implicaciones para la salud pública de este estudio son que reducir o evitar la exposición al humo de leña es importante previo y durante la gestación. Por otro lado, la contaminación por humo de leña tiene un gran impacto en la salud pública que, en teoría, es posible prevenir.

12.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(9): 562-568, Sept. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137873

RESUMEN

Abstract Objective The present comprehensive review aims to show the full extent of what is known to date and provide a more thorough view on the effects of SARS-CoV2 in pregnancy. Methods Between March 29 and May, 2020, the words COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, COVID- 19 and pregnancy, SARS-CoV2 and pregnancy, and SARS and pregnancy were searched in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases; the guidelines from well-known societies and institutions (Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists [RCOG], American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG], International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology [ISUOG], Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO]) were also included. Conclusion The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in a pandemic with > 3.3 million cases and 230 thousand deaths until May 2nd. It is caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus and may lead to severe pulmonary infection and multi-organ failure. Past experiences show that unique characteristics in pregnancy make pregnant women more susceptible to complications from viral infections. Yet, this has not been reported with this new virus. There are risk factors that seem to increase morbidity in pregnancy, such as obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 35), asthma and cardiovascular disease. Current reports describe an increased rate of pretermbirth and C-section. Vertical transmission


Resumo Objetivo A presente revisão detalhada busca fornecer dados objetivos para avaliar o que se sabe até o momento e possibilitar uma visãomais ampla dos efeitos do SARSCoV2 na gravidez. Métodos Entre 29 demarço e 2 de maio de 2020, foi realizada uma busca nos bancos de dados PubMed e Google Scholar com as palavras COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, COVID-19 e gravidez, SARS-CoV2 e gravidez, e SARS e gravidez. As recomendações dos principais órgãos sobre o tema também foram acessadas. Conclusão O surto de COVID-19 resultou em uma pandemia com> 3.3 milhões de casos e 230 mil mortes até 2 de maio. É uma condição causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV2 e pode levar ao acometimento pulmonar difuso e à falência de múltiplos órgãos. Características únicas da gestante tornam essa população mais propensas a complicações de infecções virais. Até o momento, essa tendência não foi observada para esse novo vírus. Os fatores que parecem estar associados à maior morbidade materno-fetal são obesidade (índice demassa corporal [IMC] > 35), asma e doença cardiovascular. Há descrição de aumento de parto prematuro e parto cesáreo. Não se pode descartar a possibilidade de transmissão vertical da doença, devido a relatos de positividade de reação em cadeia de polimerase (RT-PCR) de swab nasal, RT-PCR de líquido amniótico e imunoglobulina M (IgM) de recém-nascidos. Tratamentos devem ser analisados caso a caso, dada a falta de qualidade de estudos que comprovem a sua eficácia e segurança na gravidez. O corpo clínico deve utilizar equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) ao manusear pacientes suspeitos ou confirmados e ficar atento aos sinais de descompensação respiratória.

13.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 280-286, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223750

RESUMEN

Las vacunas han sido una de las herramientas más útiles para lograr disminuir la mortalidad infantil. Sin embargo, los beneficios de las vacunas para menores de un año son dispares, debido a que son muy pequeños para ser vacunados. Otro grupo vulnerable son las embarazadas, quienes presentan mayor morbimortalidad por enfermedades como la influenza. La inmunización materna puede proteger a la madre contra las infecciones prevenibles por vacuna y al recién nacido mediante el traspaso de anticuerpos específicos al feto. No hay evidencia de resultados adversos en el embarazo o el feto/recién nacido por la vacunación de mujeres gestantes con vacuna inactivada contra virus, bacterias o toxoides. Por lo tanto, el embarazo no debe impedir que las mujeres reciban las vacunas que están médicamente indicadas. En Chile, se recomienda la vacunación de las mujeres gestantes, antes o durante la temporada de influenza. A fines de 2017 se implementó la vacunación con dTpa de las embarazadas con más de 28 semanas de gestación, con el objetivo de proteger al recién nacido contra el coqueluche y sus complicaciones. En el presente artículo, se hace una revisión de la literatura disponible sobre la vacunación de las embarazadas, principalmente enfocado en inmunización contra la influenza, el coqueluche y los beneficios en sus hijos.


Vaccines have been one of the most useful tools to reduce infant mortality. However, the benefits of vaccines for children under one year are disparate, because they are too small to be vaccinated. Another vulnerable group are pregnant women, who have a higher morbidity and mortality due to diseases such as influenza. Maternal immunization can protect the mother against vaccine-preventable infections and the newborn by transferring specific antibodies to the fetus. There is no evidence of adverse outcomes in pregnancy or the fetus / newborn by vaccination of pregnant women with inactivated vaccine against viruses, bacteria or toxoids. Therefore, pregnancy should not prevent women from receiving vaccines that are medically indicated. In Chile, vaccination is recommended for pregnant women, before or during the influenza season. In addition to the end of 2017, vaccination with Tdap of pregnant women with more than 28 weeks of gestation was implemented, with the aim of protecting the newly born against pertussis and its complications. In this article, we review the available literature on the vaccination of pregnant women, mainly focused on immunization against influenza, pertussis and benefits in their children.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/métodos , Tos Ferina/prevención & control , Inmunización/métodos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control
14.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 217, ago. 2020. ilus, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103536

RESUMEN

Los primeros mil días de vida son parte del Curso de Vida, al tomar en consideración la Epigenética, término postulado por Waddington en 1942: modifica la expresión genética SIN cambiar la secuencia de las bases de ADN. El proyecto internacional llamado DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) u ODSE (Orígenes del Desarrollo de la Salud y Enfermedad), está inserto dentro de la Transición Alimentaria y Nutricional (TAN), que, en países en desarrollo­ocurre en forma muy rápida ­produce tanto la malnutrición por déficit como por exceso; es decir la doble carga nutricional. La TAN es producto en nuestro país, de una urbanización acelerada y anárquica, y de cambios socioculturales, como la incorporación de la mujer al mercado de trabajo con menos tiempo para cocinar; está acompañada de una transición epidemiológica con la emergencia y prevalencia de la obesidad y de las enfermedades crónicas como morbiletalidad. Esta doble carga nutricional se modificó, por la situación país, y prevalece más el déficit que el exceso. Se presenta el PROYECTO FUNDACIÓN BENGOA ­ SVPP ­ SOGV ­ CANIA, cuya meta es: Elaborar una agenda preventiva común contra la malnutrición tanto por déficit como por exceso y sus comorbilidades, bajo el enfoque de los primeros mil días de vida y su efecto sobre todo el curso de vida. Se realizó el diseño y aplicación de tres cuestionarios digitales, que se utilizaran para la elaboración de esta meta. Se consolidó un CONSENSO NACIONAL formado por profesionales de la salud involucrados en los primeros mil días de vida(AU)


The first 1000 days of life is the new paradigm that determines health and nutrition during the life course, based on epidemiological models that incorporate the concept of Epigenetics, term introduced by Waddington, that refers to changes that affect the genetic expression without changing the DNA sequence, within the international program DOHaD/ODSE as well as the Food and Nutrition Transition(FNT). This FNT, product of an accelerated and anarchic urbanization that led to sedentary activities, plus the incorporation of women to the work media, with less time for cooking, with the substitution of the traditional diet for one much more practical and efficient in time and effort. It is accompanied by demographic and epidemiologic changes and transitions. The Double Burden of Nutrition in VENEZUELA has changed due to the effect of the recent crisis with a rise in malnutrition and a fall in obesity/overweight. The current project: Fundación Bengoa- Pediatric Society Venezuela (SVPP) ­ CANIA - Obstetric Society of Venezuela (SOGV) is called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in Venezuela (DOHaD Venezuela): and by means of a national consensus of medical societies and institutions, its goal is "To elaborate a Preventive Agenda both for Malnutrition and for Overweight and Obesity and its comorbidities, considering the First 1000 Days of life and its effect over the life course"


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Características de la Población , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Mortalidad Materna , Epigenómica , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Epidemiología , Desnutrición , Transición Nutricional
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): s118-s129, agosto 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118605

RESUMEN

En las últimas décadas, las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ENT) se han convertido en la principal causa de mortalidad global y han aumentado en América Latina. La contribución de recursos de la ciencia del desarrollo, la epigenética, las neurociencias, las ciencias ambientales, la epidemiología y la investigación ha generado evidencia del origen de las ENT desde la programación fetal. Los resultados de salud y enfermedad devienen de una trayectoria dinámica en la que se agregan factores protectores para una vida saludable o factores de riesgo para enfermedades del individuo y las comunidades.El concepto de Developmental Origins of Health and Disease redimensiona el papel del equipo de salud materno-infantil y debe guiar las políticas públicas para priorizar los primeros mil días de vida para un desarrollo saludable y la prevención de ENT. Se presenta una actualización sobre las principales condiciones ambientales adversas que pueden alterar la programación del desarrollo y predisponer a ENT en el curso de la vida.


In recent decades, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of global mortality and increased in Latin America. The contribution of the resources from development science, epigenetics, neurosciences, environmental sciences, epidemiology and research has generated evidence of the origin of NCDs since fetal programming. The healt and disease outcomes result from a dynamic trajectory where protective factors are added for a healthy life or risk factors for diseases of the individual and the communities. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept resizes the role of the maternal and child health team and should guide public policies by prioritizing the first 1000 days of life for healthy development and NCDs prevention. We present an update on principal adverse environmental conditions that may alter development programming and predispose NCDs in life course


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Ambiente , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Desarrollo Infantil , Salud Pública , Salud Materno-Infantil , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Epigenómica , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control
16.
Arch. méd. Camaguey ; 24(4): e7571, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131147

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Fundamento: los trastornos hipertensivos son considerados como la principal causa de morbimortalidad materna y fetal a nivel mundial y en Ecuador. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento clínico epidemiológico de los trastornos hipertensivos de la gestación en adolescentes. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo que incluyó las 59 de gestantes adolescentes que presentaron preeclampsia o eclampsias atendidas en el contexto de la investigación durante el periodo comprendido entre mayo y diciembre de 2017. Se aplicó un cuestionario de investigación para obtener la información relacionada con las variables de investigación definidas. Resultados: promedio de edad de 16,32 años, predominio de gestantes con color de la piel no blanco y nulíparas. Elevado número de comorbilidades asociadas con predominio del sobrepeso e hipertensión arterial; predominio de pacientes que no habían recibido tratamiento preventivo con calcio y aspirina. La cefalea y el edema en miembros inferiores fueron las complicaciones maternas más frecuentes. El sufrimiento fetal, el crecimiento intrauterino retardado y la prematuridad fueron las complicaciones fetales con mayor frecuencia de presentación. Conclusiones: el patrón clínico y epidemiológico de las adolescentes con preeclampsia y eclampsia coincide con lo reportado en la literatura universal. Se evidencian falencias en el programa de control de riesgo preconcepcional y en la calidad del seguimiento de las gestantes que motiva un aumento de la incidencia de eclampsia y preeclampsia.


ABSTRACT Background: hypertensive disorders are considered as the main cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide and in Ecuador. Objective: to describe the epidemiological clinical behavior of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in adolescents. Methods: a descriptive study was carried out which included the 59 of pregnant teenagers who presented preeclampsia and/or eclampsia attended in the context of the research during the period from May to December 2017. A research questionnaire was applied to obtain information related to the variables of defined research. Results: average age of 16.32 years, predominance of pregnant women with non-white skin color and nulliparous. High number of comorbidities associated with a predominance of overweight and arterial hypertension; predominance of patients who had not received preventive treatment with calcium and aspirin. Headache and edema in the lower limbs were the most frequent maternal complications. Fetal distress, delayed intrauterine growth and prematurity were the fetal complications with the highest frequency of presentation. Conclusions: the clinical and epidemiological pattern of adolescents with preeclampsia and eclampsia coincides with that reported in the universal literature. Failures are evident in the preconception risk control program and in the quality of the follow-up of pregnant women that motivates an increase in the incidence of eclampsia and preeclampsia.

17.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 529-535, ago. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138667

RESUMEN

Resumen: Introducción: La Academia Americana de Pediatría recomienda que los lactantes menores de un año duerman en posición supina para prevenir el síndrome de muerte súbita en lactantes (SMSL). Objetivo: Describir la posición en que duermen un grupo de lactantes y factores de riesgo asociados al SMSL. Sujetos y Método: Estudio piloto, prospectivo concurrente, de lactantes < 45 días de vida en control sano en Centro Médico San Joaquín UC Christus. Criterios de exclusión: prematurez (edad gestacional < 37 semanas) y patología de base (respiratorias, metabólicas, cardiológicas). Se aplicó encuesta al cuidador principal respecto a datos demográficos y hábitos de sueño, basada en encuesta BISQ (Brief Screening Questionnaire for Infant Sleep Problems) validada en español, dado la inexistencia de instru mentos para < 3 meses. Resultados: Se obtuvo muestra de 100 lactantes de edad 16,78 ± 12,88 días de vida, siendo 57% mujeres. La madre fue el principal informante (84%). El 79% de los lactantes dor mían en decúbito supino, 19% lo hacía de lado y 2% en prono. El 66% dormía en cuna en habitación de los padres, 31% en la cama de los padres. El 74% se quedaban dormidos durante la alimentación. El 28% de los lactantes estaban expuestos a tabaquismo pasivo. El 91% cuidadores estaba informa do sobre la posición segura de sueño, siendo el principal informante el pediatra (54%). Conclusio nes: En esta muestra se encontró alto porcentaje de lactantes < 45 días que duermen en posición no segura, siendo frecuente el colecho. Es importante implementar campañas locales de prevención del SMSL que refuercen el hábito de dormir seguro.


Abstract: Introduction: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends, through the implementation of the "Back to Sleep (BTS)" campaign, the supine sleeping position for infant sleeping since it prevents to prevent Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Objective: To describe the sleeping position of a group of infants and the risk factors associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Subjects and Method: Prospective pilot study, including infants < 45 days of life in well-child care visits at a medical center. Exclusion criteria: Preterm-born infant (gestational age < 37 weeks) and/or comorbidities (pulmonary, metabolic, cardiologic). A brief parental questionnaire was conducted regarding general demographic data and sleep habits. The questioner was based on the BISQ - Spanish version, due to the lack of validated instruments for infants < 3-month-old. Results: We included a sample of 100 infants between 16.78 ± 12.88 days old (57% girls). Mothers were the main information source (84%). 79% of the infants slept in supine position, 19% slept on their sides, and 2% in prone position. Regarding the place where the infants slept, 66% did in their crib in the parents' room and 31% slept in parents' bed. 74% of infants fell asleep while being fed. 28% of infants were exposed to passive smoking at home. 91% of parents were informed about safe sleep positions, reporting that pediatricians were the main source of information (54%). Conclu sion: We found a high percentage of infants < 45 days of life who slept in an unsafe position, and frequently co-sleep with their parents. Thus, it is important to implement local SIDS prevention campaigns to reinforce safe infant sleep.

18.
Medisur ; 18(4): 665-674, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125249

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Fundamento: La preeclampsia es causa principal de morbimortalidad y discapacidad materna y perinatal, por lo que resulta importante su diagnóstico y prevención. Objetivo: constatar el valor predictivo del test angiogénico (ratio sFlt/PIGF) en los trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en el Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia, del Hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, de Cienfuegos, de enero de 2017 a diciembre de 2018. Se trabajó con 125 gestantes con sospecha de preeclampsia, del total de ingresadas con tensión arterial elevada. Se dividieron en dos grupos de acuerdo a los valores diagnósticos del test angiogénico de la Roche (ratio sFlt/PIGF), y se compararon los resultados perinatales y las complicaciones maternas. Se utilizó el estadígrafo Chi cuadrado (p <0,05) y se calculó la razón de riesgo (IC 95%). Resultados: el test angiogénico fue positivo con más frecuencia en aquellas gestantes que desarrollaron una preeclamsia eclampsia, con 90,7 % vs 9,3 % en las que no desarrollaron preeclamsia eclampsia (p=0,000); así como en las de menos de 34 semanas de edad gestacional que desarrollaron preclampsia (72 %), con una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad. El uso del test en el seguimiento de las pacientes se asoció a una tendencia a la prolongación del embarazo. Su positividad se relacionó más a complicaciones maternas, fetales y neonatales. Conclusión: un valor positivo del test implica un aumento del riesgo de desarrollo de la preeclamsia eclampsia y de complicaciones maternas, así como resultados adversos perinatales. El test angiogénico mostró utilidad en el diagnóstico y pronóstico de la enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Background: Preeclampsia is the main cause of morbidity, mortality, maternal and perinatal disability, making its diagnosis and prevention important. Objective: to validate the predictive value of the angiogenic test (sFlt / PIGF ratio) in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at the Gynecology and Obstetrics Service, Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital, Cienfuegos, from January 2017 to December 2018. 125 pregnant women with suspected pre-eclampsia, from the Total number of patients admitted with high blood pressure were studied. They were divided into two groups according to the diagnostic values of the Roche angiogenic test (sFlt / PIGF ratio), and perinatal results and maternal complications were compared. The Chi square statistic (p <0.05) was used and the risk ratio (95% CI) was calculated. Results: the angiogenic test was positive more frequently in those pregnant women who developed eclampsia preeclamsia, with 90.7% vs. 9.3% in those who did not develop eclampsia preeclamsia (p = 0.000); as well as those less than 34 weeks of gestational age who developed pre-eclampsia (72%), with high sensitivity and specificity. The use of the test in the follow-up of the patients was associated with a tendency to prolong the pregnancy. Its positivity was more related to maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Conclusion: a positive value of the test implies an increased risk of developing preeclamsia eclampsia and maternal complications, as well as adverse perinatal results. The angiogenic test showed utility in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.

19.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(4): 408-419, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138639

RESUMEN

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares representan la mayor causa de morbimortalidad a nivel mundial. Si bien presenta un descenso en la población general, en las mujeres tiende a mantenerse estable la prevalencia de enfermedad coronaria. Varios factores propios de la mujer predisponen a que esto ocurra, incluyendo el embarazo, mediado tanto por los cambios hematológicos y cardiovasculares característicos de la gestación; como por patologías asociadas, principalmente trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo y diabetes gestacional. Su presencia se ha asociado fuertemente a la aparición a futuro de otras patologías de alto riesgo cardiovascular como hipertensión crónica, dislipidemia y diabetes mellitus. Dado el impacto que esto representa, se hace imperante la identificación de grupos de alto riesgo y la implementación de medidas preventivas, así como de diagnóstico precoz y tratamientos adecuados con el fin de disminuir complicaciones materno-fetales en las etapas perinatal y posparto.


Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although there is a decrease in general population, the prevalence of coronary heart disease remains stable in women. Several factors typical of womenkind predispose to cardiovascular disease, including pregnancy, mediated by hematological and cardiovascular changes characteristic of it; and by associated pathologies, mainly hypertensive disorders and diabetes. The presence of these diseases has been strongly associated with future presence of other conditions of high cardiovascular risk such as chronic hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Given this impact, the identification of high-risk groups and the implementation of preventive measures, as well as early diagnosis and adequate treatment in order to reduce both maternal and fetal complications in perinatal and postpartum stages becomes imperative.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Preeclampsia , Complicaciones Cardiovasculares del Embarazo/etiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Diabetes Gestacional , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Preeclampsia/diagnóstico , Preeclampsia/terapia , Complicaciones Cardiovasculares del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Cardiovasculares del Embarazo/terapia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatología , Factores de Riesgo , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Enfermedades Metabólicas
20.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 12: 6-6, 1 de Julio 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155712

RESUMEN

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN Desde 2002 el Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Buenos Aires realiza acciones para disminuir la mortalidad infantil y las internaciones innecesarias por infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA). A 17 años de la implementación del respectivo Programa, se analizan los datos del Programa en 2019 con el objetivo de evaluar sus resultados. MÉTODOS Se reunieron los datos registrados durante 2019 en toda la Provincia y se analizaron utilizando un software ad hoc. RESULTADOS Se analizaron 161 101 episodios de IRA bajas atendidos entre junio y agosto de 2019, con los siguientes resultados: resolución de 93,7% (97,3% en primer nivel de atención y 92% en segundo nivel; uso de inhalador de dosis medida (IDM) en 87,3%, de nebulizador en 7,4% y mixto en 5,3%; 12,5% en edad de 0-4 meses; 24,5% en 4-6; 22,1% en 7-11 y 40,8% en 12 o más; diagnóstico de síndrome bronquial obstructivo en 94,9%, de neumonía en 3,6% y de ambos en 1,5%; derivación a segundo nivel con uso de IDM en 5,2% y con uso de nebulizador en 8,2%; riesgo de enfermedad de base: 5,2%; madre menor de 17 años: 5,2%; madre con primaria incompleta: 13%; peso de nacimiento menor a 2500 g: 6,3%; fumador en la casa: 33,7%. DISCUSIÓN Hubo mayor resolución de casos en el primer nivel que en el segundo, menor número de internaciones con IDM que con nebulizador, y la sumatoria de riesgos se asoció a incremento de derivaciones y de gravedad.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION The Ministry of Health of the Province of Buenos Aires has been carrying out actions since 2002 with the objective of reducing infant mortality and unnecessary hospitalizations due to acute respiratory infections (ARI). Seventeen years after the implementation of the ARI program, an analysis of the 2019 data was performed. METHODS The strategy was focused on nursing and primary care level, including therapeutic test according to clinical score, bronchodilator in a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) and spacer, oxygen according to score, and records since 2004. RESULTS A total of 161,101 episodes of low ARI treated from June to August 2019 were analyzed, with the following results: resolution of 93.7% (97.3% in first level and 92.0% in second level); MDI use in 87.3%, nebulizer in 7.4% and mixed in 5.3%; 12.5% under 4 months of age, 24.5% in 4-6 months, 22.1% in 7-11 months, and 40.8% in 12 months or more; diagnosis of bronchial obstructive syndrome in 94.9%, of pneumonia in 3.6% and of both in 1.5%; referral to Second Level with use of MDI in 5.2% and with use of nebulizer in 8.2%; risk of underlying disease: 5.2%; mother under 17 years old: 5.2%; mother who has not completed elementary school: 13.0%; birth weight less than 2,500 g: 6.3%; smoker in the household: 33.7%. DISCUSSION There was a higher number of cases solved in the first than in the second level of care, lower number of hospitalizations with MDI than with nebulizer, and the sum of risks was associated with a greater number of referrals and greater severity.

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