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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813115

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Information technology (IT) interventions provide physicians with easy and quick access to information at the point of care provision and they can play a major role in clinical decision-making for antibiotic prescribing. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effects and characteristics of IT interventions on improving antibiotic prescribing for patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI). DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive search was performed in Medline (through PubMed), ISI web of science, Embase, and Cochrane databases from inception to 31 August 2020. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) and cluster RCT (CRCT) studies examining the effectiveness of IT interventions on improving antibiotic prescribing for patients with ARI were included. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with acute respiratory infection. INTERVENTIONS: IT interventions were used for improving antibiotic prescribing. METHODS: Two researchers independently extracted data from studies on methods, characteristics of interventions, and results. The characteristics of interventions were extracted based on three dimensions of IT design, data entry source, and implementation characteristics. RESULTS: Eighteen studies (15 CRCTs and three RCTs) were included. The majority of included studies (n=11) were conducted in the US. In 12 studies (66.7%), IT interventions improved the level of antibiotic prescribing, in eight of the 12 studies, the effect was statistically significant. In two studies, the intervention had a statistically significant negative effect, and in two studies the level of antibiotic prescribing was not changed. Seventeen studies (94.4%) used clinical decision support systems (CDSS) for the intervention. In 12 studies (66.7%), CDSSs were integrated with electronic health record (EHR). CONCLUSIONS: Information technology interventions have the potential to improve prescription of antibiotics for patients with acute respiratory infection and change physicians' behaviors in this regard. Factors affecting the acceptance of IT-based interventions to improve prescription of antibiotics should be investigated in future studies.

2.
Comput Biol Med ; 132: 104335, 2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812263

RESUMEN

The sudden outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) revealed the need for fast and reliable automatic tools to help health teams. This paper aims to present understandable solutions based on Machine Learning (ML) techniques to deal with COVID-19 screening in routine blood tests. We tested different ML classifiers in a public dataset from the Hospital Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil. After cleaning and pre-processing the data has 608 patients, of which 84 are positive for COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR. To understand the model decisions, we introduce (i) a local Decision Tree Explainer (DTX) for local explanation and (ii) a Criteria Graph to aggregate these explanations and portrait a global picture of the results. Random Forest (RF) classifier achieved the best results (accuracy 0.88, F1-score 0.76, sensitivity 0.66, specificity 0.91, and AUROC 0.86). By using DTX and Criteria Graph for cases confirmed by the RF, it was possible to find some patterns among the individuals able to aid the clinicians to understand the interconnection among the blood parameters either globally or on a case-by-case basis. The results are in accordance with the literature and the proposed methodology may be embedded in an electronic health record system.

3.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 51: 102909, 2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813094

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Geographical information system (GIS) and spatial analysis have an emerging role in the understanding and management of health-related outcomes. However, there is a knowledge gap about the extent to which GIS has supported multiple Sclerosis (MS) research. Therefore, this review aimed to explore the types of GIS applications and the complexity of their visualisation in MS research. METHODS: A systematic scoping review was conducted based on York's five-stage framework. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies published between 2000 and 2020 using a comprehensive search strategy based on the main concepts related to GIS and MS. Grounded, inductive analysis was conducted to organize studies into meaningful application areas. Further, we developed a tool to assess the visualisation complexity of the selected papers. RESULTS: Of 3,723 identified unique citations, 42 papers met our inclusion criteria for the final review. One or more of the following types of GIS applications were reported by these studies: (a) thematic mapping (37 papers); (b) spatial cluster detection (16 papers); (c) risk factors detection (16 papers); and (d) health access and planning (two papers). In the majority of studies (88%), the score of visualisation complexity was relatively low: three or less from the range of zero to six. CONCLUSIONS: Although the number of studies using GIS techniques has dramatically increased in the last decade, the use of GIS in the areas of MS access and planning is still under-researched. Additionally, the capacity of GIS in visualising complex nature of MS care system is not yet fully investigated.

4.
Adv Ther ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837497

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: To compare all-cause and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related healthcare costs and resource use in patients with RA who do not achieve remission versus those who achieve remission, using clinical practice data. METHODS: Data were derived from Optum electronic health records linked to claims from commercial and Medicare Advantage health plans. Two cohorts were created: remission and non-remission. Remission was defined as Disease Activity Score 28-joint count with the C-reactive protein level or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-CRP/ESR) < 2.6 or Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3 ≤ 3.0). Outcomes were all-cause and RA-related costs and resource use during a 1-year follow-up period. A weighted generalized linear regression and negative binomial regression were used to estimate adjusted annual costs and resource use, respectively, controlling for confounding factors, including patient and socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Data from 335 patients (remission: 125; non-remission: 210) were analyzed. Annual all-cause total costs were significantly less in the remission versus non-remission cohort ($30,427 vs. $38,645, respectively; cost ratio [CR] = 0.79; 95% CI 0.63, 0.99). All-cause resource use (mean number of visits) was less in the remission versus non-remission cohort: inpatient (0.23 vs. 0.63; visit ratio [VR] = 0.36; 95% CI 0.19, 0.70), emergency department (0.36 vs. 0.77; VR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.30, 0.74), and outpatient visits (20.7 vs. 28.5; VR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.62, 0.86). Annual RA-related total costs were similar in both cohorts; however, RA-related medical costs were numerically lower in the remission versus non-remission cohort ($8,594 vs. $10,002, respectively; CR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.59, 1.25). RA-related resource use was less in the remission versus non-remission cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Significant economic burden was associated with patients who did not achieve remission compared with those who did achieve remission.

5.
Oncologist ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823082

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: NCCN guidelines recommend biomarker testing as the first step in the management of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). We assessed ALK testing rates and factors related to underutilization in community medical systems between 2012 and 2019 to understand guideline adoption. METHODS: A retrospective observational study utilizing a nationwide electronic health record (EHR)-derived de-identified database was conducted. Patients with aNSCLC diagnosed in community medical centers from January 2012 to May 2019 were included to describe the ALK testing trend. This cohort was further restricted to patients diagnosed after 2015 to understand factors associated with testing underutilization, using mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Trends for increased ALK testing rates by year were observed in both NCCN guideline eligible patients (59.5% in 2012 to 84.1% in 2019) and ineligible patients (15.6% to 50.8%) in a cohort of 41,728 patients. Histology type and smoking status had the greatest impact on test utilization. Compared to patients with non-squamous histology and no smoking history, patients with squamous histology and no smoking history (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 7.6, 5.6-10.4), NSCLC histology not otherwise specified (NOS) with smoking history (3.4, 2.8-4.2); NSCLC NOS/nonsmoker (1.8, 1.1-3.2), and non-squamous/smoker (1.5, 1.3-1.7) were less likely to be tested. Factors related to underutilization also included ECOG performance status, stage at initial diagnosis and demographics. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of real-world data shows increasing test utilization by year; however, one fifth of patients eligible for ALK testing still remain untested and potentially missing therapeutic options. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Advancement in treatment of lung cancer is accompanied by an increasing number of tests that should be run to determine potential therapy options for each patient. We assessed adoption of testing recommendations for ALK rearrangements in a national database. While test utilization increased over the time period studied (2012-2019), there is still room for improvement. Efforts are needed to increase test utilization in under-tested groups, thus enabling eligible patients to benefit from novel lung cancer therapies.

6.
Fertil Steril ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823992

RESUMEN

The prevalence and ease of electronic communication, specifically email through patient portals associated with electronic medical records or via traditional enterprise email clients (e.g., Outlook) and video, have resulted in increased use for rapid communication between practitioners and their patients. Concerns regarding patient privacy and compliance with the regulations of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act remain a barrier to routine incorporation of electronic communication into practice. Furthermore, capital investment, implementation, and maintenance costs may provide additional barriers. These long-standing concerns have been heightened and tested by the COVID-19 pandemic. Best-practice guidelines for the secure and safe use of electronic communication with reproductive care patients are provided.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825349

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Smoking increases cardiopulmonary and rheumatic disease risk, yet tobacco cessation intervention is rare in rheumatology clinics. This study aimed to implement a rheumatology staff-driven protocol, Quit Connect, to increase the rate of electronic referrals (e-referrals) to free, state-run tobacco quit lines (TQL). METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental cohort study of Quit Connect at three rheumatology clinics comparing TQL referrals from four baseline years to referrals during a six-month intervention period. Nurses and medical assistants were trained to use two standardized electronic health record (EHR) prompts to Check readiness to quit smoking within 30 days, Advise cessation, and Connect patients using TQL e-referral orders. We used EHR data to examine the primary outcome of TQL referrals using pre-post design. RESULTS: Across 54,090 pre- and post-protocol rheumatology clinic visits, 4,601 were with current smokers. We compared outcomes between 4,078 eligible pre-implementation visits and 523 intervention period visits. Post-implementation, the odds of TQL referral were 26-fold higher compared to our pre-implementation rate (unadjusted OR 26, CI 6-106). Adjusted odds of checking readiness to quit in the next 30 days increased over 100-fold compared to pre-implementation (adjusted OR 132, CI 99-177). Intervention led to e-referrals for 71% of quit-ready patients in <90 seconds; 24% of referred patients reported a quit attempt. CONCLUSION: Implementing Quit Connect in rheumatology clinics was feasible and improved referrals to a state-run TQL. Given the importance of smoking cessation to reduce cardiopulmonary and rheumatic disease risk, future studies should investigate disseminating cessation protocols like Quit Connect that leverage TQLs.

8.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826060

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2015, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) revised clinical recommendations to more broadly recommend abnormal blood glucose screening and more clearly recommend referral to behavioral interventions for adults with prediabetes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of the 2015 USPSTF recommendation changes on abnormal blood glucose screening and referral to behavioral interventions, and to examine physicians' perceptions of the revised recommendation. DESIGN: We utilized a sequential, dependent mixed-methods triangulation design. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 33,444 patients meeting USPSTF abnormal blood glucose screening criteria within 15 health system-affiliated primary care practices and 20 primary care physicians in North Carolina. MAIN MEASURES: We assessed monthly abnormal blood glucose screening rate and monthly referral rate to behavioral interventions. To estimate trend changes in outcomes, we used segmented linear regression analysis of interrupted time-series data. We gathered physicians' perspectives on the 2015 USPSTF abnormal blood glucose recommendation including awareness of, agreement with, adoption of, and adherence to the recommendation. To analyze qualitative data, we used directed content analysis. KEY RESULTS: There was a slight significant change in trend in abnormal blood glucose screening rates post-recommendation. There was a slight, statistically significant decrease in referral rates to behavioral interventions post-recommendation. Physicians were generally unaware of the revisions to the 2015 USPSTF abnormal blood glucose recommendation; however, once the recommendations were described, physicians agreed with the screening recommendation but felt that the behavioral intervention referral recommendation was hard to implement. CONCLUSION: The 2015 USPSTF abnormal blood glucose guideline had little to no effect on abnormal blood glucose screening or referral to behavioral interventions in North Carolina practices. Potential interventions to improve these rates could include clinical decision tools embedded in the electronic health record and better referral systems for community-based diabetes prevention programs.

9.
PLoS Med ; 18(4): e1003389, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826617

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) emphasizes the use of technology to facilitate coordination of comprehensive care for people with HIV. We examined cost-effectiveness from the health system perspective of 6 health information technology (HIT) interventions implemented during 2008 to 2012 in a Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP) Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) Program demonstration project. METHODS/FINDINGS: HIT interventions were implemented at 6 sites: Bronx, New York; Durham, North Carolina; Long Beach, California; New Orleans, Louisiana; New York, New York (2 sites); and Paterson, New Jersey. These interventions included: (1) use of HIV surveillance data to identify out-of-care individuals; (2) extension of access to electronic health records (EHRs) to support service providers; (3) use of electronic laboratory ordering and prescribing; and (4) development of a patient portal. We employed standard microcosting techniques to estimate costs (in 2018 US dollars) associated with intervention implementation. Data from a sample of electronic patient records from each demonstration site were analyzed to compare prescription of antiretroviral therapy (ART), CD4 cell counts, and suppression of viral load, before and after implementation of interventions. Markov models were used to estimate additional healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life-years saved as a result of each intervention. Overall, demonstration site interventions cost $3,913,313 (range = $287,682 to $998,201) among 3,110 individuals (range = 258 to 1,181) over 3 years. Changes in the proportion of patients prescribed ART ranged from a decrease from 87.0% to 72.7% at Site 4 to an increase from 74.6% to 94.2% at Site 6; changes in the proportion of patients with 0 to 200 CD4 cells/mm3 ranged from a decrease from 20.2% to 11.0% in Site 6 to an increase from 16.7% to 30.2% in Site 2; and changes in the proportion of patients with undetectable viral load ranged from a decrease from 84.6% to 46.0% in Site 1 to an increase from 67.0% to 69.9% in Site 5. Four of the 6 interventions-including use of HIV surveillance data to identify out-of-care individuals, use of electronic laboratory ordering and prescribing, and development of a patient portal-were not only cost-effective but also cost saving ($6.87 to $14.91 saved per dollar invested). In contrast, the 2 interventions that extended access to EHRs to support service providers were not effective and, therefore, not cost-effective. Most interventions remained either cost-saving or not cost-effective under all sensitivity analysis scenarios. The intervention that used HIV surveillance data to identify out-of-care individuals was no longer cost-saving when the effect of HIV on an individual's health status was reduced and when the natural progression of HIV was increased. The results of this study are limited in that we did not have contemporaneous controls for each intervention; thus, we are only able to assess sites against themselves at baseline and not against standard of care during the same time period. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide additional support for the use of HIT as a tool to enhance rapid and effective treatment of HIV to achieve sustained viral suppression. HIT has the potential to increase utilization of services, improve health outcomes, and reduce subsequent transmission of HIV.

10.
Health Informatics J ; 27(2): 14604582211007534, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840302

RESUMEN

This cross sectional study examines how patient characteristics, doctor characteristics, and doctors' education and attitudes affect the extent to which doctors link progress notes to clinical problems. The independent effects of patient characteristics on the linking of notes was examined with a mixed model logistic regression. The effects of doctor characteristics and doctors' education and attitudes on the link ratio was analyzed with univariate analysis of variance. A survey was used to obtain arguments and attitudes on linking notes. For "patient characteristics", the odds of linking increased with an increase in the number of problems or hospital days, decreased, with an increase in the number of involved doctors, medical specialties or the number of notes. For "doctor characteristics", the link ratio increased with more work experience. For "doctors' education and attitudes", the link ratio increased with more familiarity in linking notes and belief in the added value of problem oriented charting. "Overview" was the most cited reason for linking; "I don't know how" the most cited reason for not linking. There is a huge variation within and between all disciplines. Important arguments, for and against, are found. Recommendations for policymakers and medical leadership are given to maximize the benefits.

11.
Inform Health Soc Care ; : 1-13, 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840342

RESUMEN

Patient access to their own electronic health records (EHRs) is likely to become an integral part of healthcare systems worldwide. It has the potential to decrease the healthcare provision costs, improve access to healthcare data, self-care, quality of care, and health and patient-centered outcomes. This systematic literature review is aimed at identifying the impact in terms of benefits and issues that have so far been demonstrated by providing patients access to their own EHRs, via providers' secure patient portals from primary healthcare centers and hospitals. Searches were conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, CINHAL, and Google scholar. Over 2000 papers were screened and were filtered based on duplicates, then by reading the titles and finally based on their abstracts or full text. In total, 74 papers were retained, analyzed, and summarized. Papers were included if providing patient access to their own EHRs was the primary intervention used in the study and its impact or outcome was evaluated. The search technique used to identify relevant literature for this paper involved input from five experts. While findings from 54 of the 74 papers showed positive outcome or benefits of patient access to their EHRs via patient portals, 10 papers have highlighted concerns, 8 papers have highlighted both and 2 have highlighted absence of negative outcomes. The benefits range from re-assurance, reduced anxiety, positive impact on consultations, better doctor-patient relationship, increased awareness and adherence to medication, and improved patient outcomes (e.g., improving blood pressure and glycemic control in a range of study populations). In addition, patient access to their health information was found to improve self-reported levels of engagement or activation related to self-management, enhanced knowledge, and improve recovery scores, and organizational efficiencies in a tertiary level mental health care facility. However, three studies did not find any statistically significant effect of patient portals on health outcomes. The main concerns have been around security, privacy and confidentiality of the health records, and the anxiety it may cause amongst patients. This literature review identified some benefits, concerns, and attitudes demonstrated by providing patients' access to their own EHRs. This access is often part of government strategies when developing patient-centric self-management elements of a sustainable healthcare system. The findings of this review will give healthcare providers a framework to analyze the benefits offered by promoting patient access to EHRs and decide on the best approach for their own specialties and clinical setup. A robust cost-benefit evaluation of such initiatives along with its impact on major stakeholders within the healthcare system would be essential in understanding the overall impact of such initiatives. Implementation of patient access to their EHRs could help governments to appropriately prioritize the development or adoption of national standards, whilst taking care of local variations and fulfilling the healthcare needs of the population, e.g., UK Government is aiming to make full primary care records available online to every patient. Ultimately, increasing transparency and promoting personal responsibility are key elements of a sustainable healthcare system for future generations.

12.
Radiol Imaging Cancer ; 3(2): e200075, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817649

RESUMEN

Radiation oncology practices use a suite of dedicated software and hardware that are not common to other medical subspecialties, making radiation treatment history inaccessible to colleagues. A radiation dose distribution map is generated for each patient internally that allows for visualization of the dose given to each anatomic structure volumetrically; however, this crucial information is not shared systematically to multidisciplinary medical, surgery, and radiology colleagues. A framework was developed in which dose distribution volumes are uploaded onto the medical center's picture archiving and communication system (PACS) to rapidly retrieve and review exactly where, when, and to what dose a lesion or structure was treated. The ability to easily visualize radiation therapy information allows radiology clinics to incorporate radiation dose into image interpretation without direct access to radiation oncology planning software and data. Tumor board discussions are simplified by incorporating radiation therapy information collectively in real time, and daily onboard imaging can also be uploaded while a patient is still undergoing radiation therapy. Placing dose distribution information into PACS facilitates central access into the electronic medical record and provides a succinct visual summary of a patient's radiation history for all medical providers. More broadly, the radiation dose map provides greater visibility and facilitates incorporation of a patient's radiation history to improve oncologic decision making and patient outcomes. Keywords: Brain/Brain Stem, CNS, MRI, Neuro-Oncology, Radiation Effects, Radiation Therapy, Radiation Therapy/Oncology, Radiosurgery, Skull Base, Spine, Technology Assessment Supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2021 See also commentary by Khandelwal and Scarboro in this issue.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e27275, 2021 04 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847586

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the potential of big data analytics for health care is well recognized, evidence is lacking on its effects on public health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the use of big data analytics on people's health based on the health indicators and core priorities in the World Health Organization (WHO) General Programme of Work 2019/2023 and the European Programme of Work (EPW), approved and adopted by its Member States, in addition to SARS-CoV-2-related studies. Furthermore, we sought to identify the most relevant challenges and opportunities of these tools with respect to people's health. METHODS: Six databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews via Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and Epistemonikos) were searched from the inception date to September 21, 2020. Systematic reviews assessing the effects of big data analytics on health indicators were included. Two authors independently performed screening, selection, data extraction, and quality assessment using the AMSTAR-2 (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2) checklist. RESULTS: The literature search initially yielded 185 records, 35 of which met the inclusion criteria, involving more than 5,000,000 patients. Most of the included studies used patient data collected from electronic health records, hospital information systems, private patient databases, and imaging datasets, and involved the use of big data analytics for noncommunicable diseases. "Probability of dying from any of cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes or chronic renal disease" and "suicide mortality rate" were the most commonly assessed health indicators and core priorities within the WHO General Programme of Work 2019/2023 and the EPW 2020/2025. Big data analytics have shown moderate to high accuracy for the diagnosis and prediction of complications of diabetes mellitus as well as for the diagnosis and classification of mental disorders; prediction of suicide attempts and behaviors; and the diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of important clinical outcomes of several chronic diseases. Confidence in the results was rated as "critically low" for 25 reviews, as "low" for 7 reviews, and as "moderate" for 3 reviews. The most frequently identified challenges were establishment of a well-designed and structured data source, and a secure, transparent, and standardized database for patient data. CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall quality of included studies was limited, big data analytics has shown moderate to high accuracy for the diagnosis of certain diseases, improvement in managing chronic diseases, and support for prompt and real-time analyses of large sets of varied input data to diagnose and predict disease outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42020214048; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=214048.

14.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812809

RESUMEN

The postpartum period represents a critical window of opportunity to improve maternal short- and long-term health, including optimizing postpartum recovery, providing effective contraception, caring for mood disorders, managing weight, supporting lactation, initiating preventive care, and promoting cardiometabolic health. However, inadequate postpartum care, especially for individuals facing social and structural barriers, is common in the United States and contributes to suboptimal health outcomes with lasting consequences. Patient navigation is a patient-centered intervention that uses trained personnel to identify financial, cultural, logistical, and educational obstacles to effective health care, and to mitigate these barriers in order to facilitate comprehensive and timely access to needed health services. Given emerging evidence suggesting patient navigation may be a promising method to improve health among postpartum individuals, our team developed a postpartum patient navigator training guide to be used in the Navigating New Motherhood 2 (NNM2) and other obstetric navigation programs. NNM2 is a randomized trial exploring whether patient navigation by a trained, lay postpartum navigator for low-income individuals can improve health and patient-reported outcomes during and after the postpartum period. Hiring and training patient navigators without health professional degrees are integral components of initiating a navigation program. Yet, patient navigator training is highly variable, and no guidelines regarding key elements in such a training program exist for obstetrics specifically. Thus, this paper aims to describe the core principles, content, and rationale for each element in a comprehensive postpartum patient navigator training program. Training should be centered around six core elements: 1) principles of patient navigation, 2) knowledge of pregnancy and postpartum care, 3) health education and health promotion principles, 4) cultural sensitivity and health equity, 5) care coordination and community resources, and 6) electronic medical record systems. These core elements can serve as a basis for the development of adaptable curricula for a variety of institutions and contexts. We also offer recommendations for the implementation of a navigator training program. A curriculum such as this, with built-in flexibility to meet community and institutional needs, may promote the effective and sustainable use of patient navigation in the postpartum context.

15.
Cardiol Young ; : 1-27, 2021 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866987

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Targeted drug development efforts in patients with CHD are needed to standardise care, improve outcomes, and limit adverse events in the post-operative period. To identify major gaps in knowledge that can be addressed by drug development efforts and provide a rationale for current clinical practice, this review evaluates the evidence behind the most common medication classes used in the post-operative care of children with CHD undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE from 2000 to 2019 using a controlled vocabulary and keywords related to diuretics, vasoactives, sedatives, analgesics, pulmonary vasodilators, coagulation system medications, antiarrhythmics, steroids, and other endocrine drugs. We included studies of drugs given post-operatively to children with CHD undergoing repair or palliation with cardiopulmonary bypass. RESULTS: We identified a total of 127 studies with 51,573 total children across medication classes. Most studies were retrospective cohorts at single centres. There is significant age- and disease-related variability in drug disposition, efficacy, and safety. CONCLUSION: In this study, we discovered major gaps in knowledge for each medication class and identified areas for future research. Advances in data collection through electronic health records, novel trial methods, and collaboration can aid drug development efforts in standardising care, improving outcomes, and limiting adverse events in the post-operative period.

16.
Edumecentro ; 13(1): 149-166, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149238

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Fundamento: la hipertensión arterial es una enfermedad de elevada prevalencia a nivel mundial, a menudo con graves consecuencias para la vida de las personas que la padecen. Objetivo: valorar la efectividad de un programa de intervención educativa para modificar conocimientos sobre estilos de vida saludables en pacientes hipertensos. Métodos: se realizó una investigación acción en el consultorio médico de familia 17-5 del Policlínico Universitario "Chiqui Gómez-Lubián" de Santa Clara, Villa Clara, entre enero-marzo de 2020. Se emplearon métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis, inducción-deducción e histórico-lógico; empíricos: análisis documental y encuesta en forma de cuestionario a los pacientes antes y después de aplicado el programa; para valorar su efectividad se realizó un análisis estadístico. Resultados: el diagnóstico aplicado demostró que la mayoría de los pacientes tenían desconocimiento sobre su enfermedad y estilos de vida saludables relacionados con los beneficios de sus medicamentos para controlar la hipertensión, la educación nutricional, ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas, el hábito de fumar, el ejercicio físico, el estrés, la obesidad y el consumo de café, por lo que se aplicó una programa de intervención educativa que fue valorado por especialistas. Conclusiones: su efectividad se evidenció porque se modificaron de forma significativa los conocimientos sobre la enfermedad y las prácticas inadecuadas de estilos de vida de los pacientes muestreados.


ABSTRACT Background: hypertension is a highly prevalent disease worldwide, often with serious consequences for the live of people who suffer from it. Objective: to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention program to modify knowledge about healthy lifestyles in hypertensive patients. Methods: an action research was carried out in the family doctor's office 17-5 of the "Chiqui Gómez-Lubián" University Polyclinic of Santa Clara, Villa Clara, from January toMarch 2020. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis, induction- deduction and historical-logical; empirical ones: documentary analysis and survey in the form of a questionnaire to patients before and after applying the program; to assess its effectiveness, a statistical analysis was carried out. Results: the applied diagnosis showed that most of the patients had ignorance about their disease and healthy lifestyles related to drug benefits to control hypertension, nutritional education, ingestion of alcoholic beverages, smoking, physical exercises, stress, obesity and coffee intake, for which an educational intervention program was applied that was assessed by specialists. Conclusions: its effectiveness was evidenced because knowledge about the disease and inappropriate lifestyle practices of the sampled patients were significantly modified.


Asunto(s)
Proyectos de Investigación , Factores de Riesgo , Indicadores de Salud , Estrategias , Medición de Riesgo , Educación Médica , Promoción de la Salud
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e24363, 2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: eHealth applications are constantly increasing and are frequently considered to constitute a promising strategy for cost containment in health care, particularly if the applications aim to support older persons. Older persons are, however, not the only major eHealth stakeholder. eHealth suppliers, caregivers, funding bodies, and health authorities are also likely to attribute value to eHealth applications, but they can differ in their value attribution because they are affected differently by eHealth costs and benefits. Therefore, any assessment of the value of eHealth applications requires the consideration of multiple stakeholders in a holistic and integrated manner. Such a holistic and reliable value assessment requires a profound understanding of the application's costs and benefits. The first step in measuring costs and benefits is identifying the relevant costs and benefit categories that the eHealth application affects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to support the conceptual phase of an economic evaluation by providing an overview of the relevant direct and indirect costs and benefits incorporated in economic evaluations so far. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search covering papers published until December 2019 by using the Embase, Medline Ovid, Web of Science, and CINAHL EBSCOhost databases. We included papers on eHealth applications with web-based contact possibilities between clients and health care providers (mobile health apps) and applications for self-management, telehomecare, telemedicine, telemonitoring, telerehabilitation, and active healthy aging technologies for older persons. We included studies that focused on any type of economic evaluation, including costs and benefit measures. RESULTS: We identified 55 papers with economic evaluations. These studies considered a range of different types of costs and benefits. Costs pertained to implementation activities and operational activities related to eHealth applications. Benefits (or consequences) could be categorized according to stakeholder groups, that is, older persons, caregivers, and health care providers. These benefits can further be divided into stakeholder-specific outcomes and resource usage. Some cost and benefit types have received more attention than others. For instance, patient outcomes have been predominantly captured via quality-of-life considerations and various types of physical health status indicators. From the perspective of resource usage, a strong emphasis has been placed on home care visits and hospital usage. CONCLUSIONS: Economic evaluations of eHealth applications are gaining momentum, and studies have shown considerable variation regarding the costs and benefits that they include. We contribute to the body of literature by providing a detailed and up-to-date framework of cost and benefit categories that any interested stakeholder can use as a starting point to conduct an economic evaluation in the context of independent living of older persons.

18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 193, 2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663491

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is among the most common paediatric conditions managed in primary care. Most recent estimates of the cost of AOM date from a decade ago and lack a full societal perspective. We therefore explored the societal cost of childhood AOM in the Netherlands within the setting of a trial comparing the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at educating general practitioners (GPs) about pain management in AOM compared to usual care. METHODS: Economic analysis alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial conducted between February 2015 and May 2018 in 37 practices (94 GPs). In total, 224 children with AOM were included of which 223 (99%) completed the trial (intervention: n = 94; control: n = 129). The cost of AOM due to health care costs, patient and family costs, and productivity losses by parent caregivers were retrieved from study diaries and primary care electronic health records, during 28-day follow-up. We calculated mean cost (€ and $) per AOM episode per patient with standard deviations (SD, in €) regardless of study group assignment because there was no clinical effect of the trial intervention. In sensitivity analysis, we calculated cost in the intervention and usual care group, after exclusion of extreme outliers. RESULTS: Mean total AOM cost per patient were €565.93 or $638.78 (SD €1071.01); nearly 90% of these costs were due to productivity losses experienced by parents. After exclusion of outliers, AOM cost was €526.70 or $594.50 (SD €987.96) and similar in the intervention and usual care groups: €516.10 or $582.53 (SD €949.69) and €534.55 or $603.36 (SD €920.55) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: At €566 or $639 per episode, societal cost of AOM is higher than previously known and mainly driven by productivity losses by children's parents. Considering its high incidence, AOM poses a significant economic burden that extends beyond direct medical costs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register no. NTR4920: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4920 .

19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 200, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663508

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The transition to electronic health records offers the potential for big data to drive the next frontier in healthcare improvement. Yet there are multiple barriers to harnessing the power of data. The Learning Health System (LHS) has emerged as a model to overcome these barriers, yet there remains limited evidence of impact on delivery or outcomes of healthcare. OBJECTIVE: To gather evidence on the effects of LHS data hubs or aligned models that use data to deliver healthcare improvement and impact. Any reported impact on the process, delivery or outcomes of healthcare was captured. METHODS: Systematic review from CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Medline in-process and Web of Science PubMed databases, using learning health system, data hub, data-driven, ehealth, informatics, collaborations, partnerships, and translation terms. English-language, peer-reviewed literature published between January 2014 and Sept 2019 was captured, supplemented by a grey literature search. Eligibility criteria included studies of LHS data hubs that reported research translation leading to health impact. RESULTS: Overall, 1076 titles were identified, with 43 eligible studies, across 23 LHS environments. Most LHS environments were in the United States (n = 18) with others in Canada, UK, Sweden and Australia/NZ. Five (21.7%) produced medium-high level of evidence, which were peer-reviewed publications. CONCLUSIONS: LHS environments are producing impact across multiple continents and settings.

20.
Transl Behav Med ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677529

RESUMEN

Population health management (PHM) strategies to address diabetes prevention have the potential to engage large numbers of at-risk individuals in a short duration. We examined a PHM approach to recruit participants to a diabetes prevention clinical trial in a metropolitan health system. We examined reach and representativeness and assessed differences from active and passive respondents to recruitment outreach, and participants enrolled through two clinical screening protocols. The PHM approach included an electronic health record (EHR) query, physician review of identified patients, letter invitation, and telephone follow-up. Data describe the reach and representativeness of potential participants at multiple stages during the recruitment process. Subgroup analyses examined proportional reach, participant differences based on passive versus active recruitment response, and clinical screening method used to determine diabetes risk status. The PHM approach identified 10,177 potential participants to receive a physician letter invitation, 60% were contacted by telephone, 2,796 (46%) completed telephone screening, 1,961 were eligible from telephone screen, and 599 were enrolled in 15 months. Accrual was unaffected by shifting clinical screening protocols despite the increase in participant burden. Relative to census data, study participants were more likely to be obese, female, older, and Caucasian. Relative to the patient population, enrolled participants were less likely to be Black and were older. Active respondents were more likely to have a higher income than passive responders. PHM strategies have the potential to reach a large number of participants in a relatively short period, though concerted efforts are needed to increase participant diversity.

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