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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077341

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a worldwide pandemic and created an utmost crisis across the globe. To mitigate the crisis, the design of vaccines is a crucial solution. The frequent mutation of the virus demands generalized vaccine candidates, which would be effective for all mutated strains at present and for the strains that would evolve due to further new mutations in the virus. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify more frequently occurring mutated variants of SARS-CoV-2 and to suggest peptide vaccine candidates effective in common against the viral strains considered. METHOD: In this study, we have identified all currently prevailing mutated strains of SARS-CoV-2 through 2D Polar plot and Quotient Radius〖(q〗_R) characterization descriptor. Then, by considering the top eight mutation strains, which are significant due to their frequency of occurrence, peptide regions suitable for vaccine design have been identified with the help of a mathematical model - 2D Polygon Representation, followed by the evaluation of epitope potential and ensuring that there is no case of any autoimmune threat. Lastly, in order to verify whether this entire approach is applicable for vaccine design against any other virus in general, we have made a comparative study between the peptide vaccine candidates prescribed for the Zika virus using the current approach and a list of potential vaccine candidates for the same already established in the past. RESULTS: We have finally suggested three generalized peptide regions which would be suitable as sustainable peptide vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 irrespective of its currently prevailing strains as well any other variant of the same that may appear in the future. We also observed that during the comparative study using the case of E protein of Zika virus, the peptide regions suggested using the new approach matched with the already established results. CONCLUSION: The study, therefore, illustrates an approach that would help in developing peptide vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 by suggesting those peptide regions which can be targeted irrespective of any mutated form of this virus. The consistency with which this entire approach was also able to figure out similar vaccine candidates for Zika virus with utmost accuracy proves that this protocol can be extended for peptide vaccine design against any other virus in the future.

2.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 77, 2021 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088336

RESUMEN

The Nordic countries have differed in their approach as to how much priority for COVID19 vaccine access should be given to health care workers. Two countries decided not to give health care workers highest priority, raising some controversy. The rationale was that those at highest risk of dying needed to come first. However, when it comes to protecting those at the highest risk of dying from COVID19, their needs and vulnerabilities need to be considered more broadly than just in terms of the individual protection that vaccination will afford them. Likewise, when considering whether to prioritize health care workers for the vaccine, their crucial role in keeping the health care system operational, and right to a safe work environment need to be factored in. Below we review several ethical arguments for why frontline health care workers and first responders should receive priority access to the COVID19 vaccine.

3.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128376

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: In this study, the authors aimed to explore consumer perspectives on accelerated access to medicines. The authors were particularly interested in how they balance competing considerations of safety, efficacy, equity and access; whether and how their views change when there are different levels of uncertainty surrounding the safety and efficacy of new medicines; and the procedures that they think should be used to make decisions about accelerated access to new medicines. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This was an exploratory qualitative study. Thirteen semi-structured interviews with patient advocates and two focus groups with patients were conducted and analysed thematically. Interviews and focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed through inductive thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Participants outlined a range of justifications for accelerated access, including addressing unmet medical needs and encouraging further research and development. However, they were also cognisant of the potential risks and viewed ongoing data collection, disinvestment and market withdrawal as ways to address these. They also emphasised the importance of transparent decisions being made by people with relevant expertise, based on a thorough consideration of scientific evidence and stakeholder perspectives. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This is the first study to comprehensively explore Australian consumers' views of accelerated access to medicines. The results suggest that consumers want timely access to new medicines, but not at the expense of safety, efficacy, equity and sustainability. While accelerated access programs are likely to be welcomed by consumers, they must be fully informed of their conditions and limitations, and robust post-market data surveillance must be implemented and enforced to protect the interests of both individual patients and the broader community.

4.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 129: 108374, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080545

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Closures and reductions in capacity of select health and social services in response to the COVID-19 pandemic may have placed people who use drugs (PWUD) at a disproportionately increased risk for experiencing harms, and resulted in critical treatment disruptions. We conducted the current national study among a cohort of PWUD to understand how COVID-19 has affected service access, including any significant impacts PWUD may have experienced. Results will contribute to the evidence base for informing future pandemic and public health policy planning for vulnerable populations. METHODS: The project involved qualitative telephone-based interviews with 196 adult (aged 18+) PWUD from across Canada. Eligibility criteria included daily or weekly use of psychoactive substance(s), and/or current enrollment in opioid agonist treatment (OAT). Data collection took place between May and July 2020. Data underwent thematic analyses, and common themes informed the results. RESULTS: Most participants experienced detrimental service access issues and treatment disruptions during COVID-19, including reduced access to harm reduction services, OAT, withdrawal management and treatment services, medical professionals (e.g., addictions and mental health counseling), shelters/housing, and food banks. Positive impacts included greater access to OAT take-home 'carries' and prescription deliveries. Decreases in service capacity resulted in increased health issues and risky substance use behaviors among PWUD, such as unaccompanied substance use, sharing/re-use of supplies, and overdose events. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in the accessibility of critical services PWUD rely on during COVID-19 has increased existent substance use and health issues among PWUD, while decreasing their ability to mitigate risks related to substance use. Thus, the expansion of the depth and breadth of support options is crucial. Services must remain open and flexible to the unique needs of PWUD during COVID-19, while novel and effective adaptations and interventions should remain available and accessible post-COVID-19.

6.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098737

RESUMEN

Aim: This study provides real-world insight into patient profile, clinical effectiveness and health-related quality of life among patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma treated with nivolumab. Materials & methods: Data were collected from medical records of patients with advanced GEJ adenocarcinoma treated with nivolumab in a UK Early Access to Medicines Scheme and from the patient-reported EuroQoL five dimensions questionnaire. Results: Evaluable patients (n = 113; median age 62 years) were predominantly male (76.1%), White (87.4%) and with GEJ adenocarcinoma (61.9%). Median follow-up was 2.8 months. The 6-month progression-free survival and overall survival were 31.6 and 56.7%, respectively. Mean EuroQoL five dimensions questionnaire index utility scores at baseline, 8, 16 and 24 weeks were 0.795, 0.831, 0.870 and 0.793, respectively. Conclusion: Progression-free survival was consistent with trial results and health-related quality of life remained stable over time.

7.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 683, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112117

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Access to childhood cancer medicines is a critical global health challenge. There is a lack of sufficient context-specific data in Ghana on access to essential medicines for treating childhood cancers. Here, we present an analysis of essential cancer medicine availability, pricing, and affordability using the pediatric oncology unit of a tertiary hospital as the reference point. METHOD: Data on prices and availability of 20 strength-specific essential cancer medicines and eight non-cancer medicines were evaluated using the modified World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International method. Two pharmacies in the hospital and four private pharmacies around the hospital were surveyed. We assessed their median price ratio using the WHO international reference price guide. The number of days wages per the government daily wage salary was used to calculate the affordability of medicines. RESULTS: The mean availability of essential cancer medicines and non-cancer medicines at the hospital pharmacies were 27 and 38% respectively, and 75 and 84% respectively for private pharmacies. The median price ratio of cancer medicines was 1.85, and non-cancer medicines was 3.75. The estimated cost of medicines for treating a 30 kg child with Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was GHÈ» 4928.04 (US$907.56) and GHÈ» 4878.00 (US$902.62) for Retinoblastoma, requiring 417 and 413-days wages respectively for the lowest-paid unskilled worker in Ghana. CONCLUSION: The mean availability of cancer medicines at the public and private pharmacies were less than the WHO target of 80%. The median price ratio for cancer and non-cancer medicines was less than 4, yet the cost of medicines appears unaffordable in the local setting. A review of policies and the establishment of price control could improve availability and reduce medicines prices for the low-income population.

8.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 185, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112150

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of information technology can make pulmonary rehabilitation interventions in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) more flexible and thereby has the potential to reach a larger proportion of the population. However, the success of using information technology in pulmonary rehabilitation is dependent on the end-user's competence in information technology and access to the Internet. The aim was to describe the access to, and the use, knowledge, and preferences of information technology and technical equipment among people with COPD. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted using a standardised questionnaire on information technology and technical devises addressing the household, access to and usage of the Internet, contact with authorities, e-commerce, security, the workplace, digital competence, and disabilities. Questions were also posed regarding participants' views on a future eHealth tool for COPD, appropriate content, and the potential likelihood for them to use an eHealth tool for exercise training. RESULTS: In total 137 persons agreed to participate, 17 dropped out resulting in 120 included participants (response rate 88%). The participants (86 women) were aged 51 to 92 years (mean: 72.5), and all severity grades of COPD according to GOLD A-D were represented. Over 90% had access to the Internet. Smartphones were used by 81%, and over 90% used apps. Participants had high knowledge of how to use the Internet, 91% had used the Internet during the last 3 months, 85% almost every day. The most common requests for a future eHealth tool for COPD were evidence-based and trustworthy information on COPD, (including medication, exercise training, inhalation and breathing techniques), communication (chat) with others and with health carers. Access to individually adjusted exercise training, and support, (motivation via prompts, chat rooms, digital information board) was also desired. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that people with COPD in Sweden have high access and ability to use the Internet and information technology. They are frequent users and most of them take part in the digital society, even to a higher extent than the general population. The results show that the use of an eHealth tool could be a suitable strategy for people with COPD.

9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-06-15. (PAHO/HSS/SF/21-0007).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54292

RESUMEN

The PAHO Strategic Fund Annual Report 2020 outlines progress made over the past year in helping ensure access to essential medicines and public health supplies while responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. The report covers various aspects of the Strategic Fund, including benefits offered, participating stakeholders, product offerings, and key initiatives. It also provides useful data, information, statistics, and examples of ways in which the Strategic Fund has facilitated technical cooperation across the Region of the Americas. This report aims to summarize the critical work undertaken by the Strategic Fund during 2020 and offer insight into its operating principles and goals for long-term strengthening and support of health systems in the Region.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Acceso a Medicamentos Esenciales y Tecnologías Sanitarias , Equipos y Suministros
10.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-06-11. (OPS-W/FPL/IM/COVID-19/21-0028).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54270

RESUMEN

En este documento se presenta orientación provisional sobre las mejores prácticas para evaluar la efectividad de las vacunas contra la COVID-19 usando el diseño de estudio observacional. Se examinan las consideraciones esenciales del diseño, el análisis y la interpretación de las evaluaciones de la efectividad de las vacunas contra la COVID-19, dado que se pueden obtener resultados sesgados aun en entornos en los que la exhaustividad y la calidad de los datos son altas. Esta orientación se dirige principalmente a las evaluaciones realizadas en los países de ingresos bajos o medianos, pero la mayoría de los conceptos también son aplicables en entornos de ingresos altos.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Vacunas , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación , Vacunación , Acceso a Medicamentos Esenciales y Tecnologías Sanitarias
11.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21252858

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 vaccine distribution is at risk of further propagating the inequities of COVID-19, which in the United States (US) has disproportionately impacted the elderly, people of color, and the medically vulnerable. We identify vaccine deserts - US Census tracts with localized, geographic barriers to vaccine-associated herd immunity - using a comprehensive supply database (VaccineFinder) and an empirically parameterized model of spatial access to essential resources. Incorporating high-resolution COVID-19 burden and time-willing-to-travel for vaccination, we show that early (February - March 2021) vaccine allocation disadvantaged rural and medically vulnerable populations. Data-driven vaccine distribution to vaccine deserts may improve immunization in the hesitant and control SARS-CoV-2.

12.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 29-36, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-201546

RESUMEN

Drugs are sold on both dark web services and on social media, but research investigating these drug purchases online is still emerging. The aim of this study is to analyze risk factors associated with buying drugs online. Utilizing theories of criminology and addiction research, it was hypothesized that social bonds, low levels of self-control, and poor mental health are associated with buying drugs online. Additionally, it was predicted that purchases of drugs online would mediate the relationship between low self-control and regular drug use. Participants of this nationwide study were 15 to 25 years old living in the United States (N = 1,212) and Spain (N = 1,212). Measures of impulsivity, a sense of mastery, social belonging, psychological distress, excessive behaviors (drinking, gambling and internet use) were utilized to predict purchasing drugs online. Two percent of the U.S. and Spanish respondents reported buying drugs online with 77% of them utilizing social media services to buy drugs. Results from multinomial logistic regression, penalized maximum-likelihood logistic regression, and binary mediation regression models indicated that buying drugs online was associated with lower self-control, higher psychological distress, and excessive gambling behavior and excessive Internet use. Having online friends was not a risk factor, but having strong social bonds with offline friends served as a protective factor. Additionally, buying drugs online mediated the relationship between low self-control and regular use of drugs. Results indicate that more focus should be placed on mainstream social media services as sources of drug acquisition as online drug buyers have multiple self-control and mental health problems


Las drogas se venden en páginas web oscuras y en las redes sociales, aunque la investigación de estas adquisiciones online está aún en sus comienzos. Este estudio tiene como objetivo examinar los factores de riesgo vinculados a la compra de drogas online. De acuerdo con las teorías de la criminología y la investigación sobre adicciones, se planteó la hipótesis de que los vínculos sociales, el bajo nivel de autocontrol y los problemas de salud mental están relacionados con la compra online de drogas. Además, se postuló que la adquisición online de drogas estaría mediada por la relación entre el bajo autocontrol y el consumo frecuente de drogas. Participaron en el estudio un total de 2,424 jóvenes residentes en Estados Unidos (N = 1,212) y en España (N = 1,212), que fueron evaluados en impulsividad, sensación de dominio, pertenencia social, malestar psicológico, comportamientos abusivos (bebida, juego y utilización de internet) , con el objetivo de predecir la compra online de drogas. El 2% de los participantes de EE UU y España dijeron que compraban drogas online, de los cuales el 77% utilizaba servicios de redes sociales para tal fin. Los resultados de una regresión logística multinomial, regresión logística de máxima verosimilitud penalizada y modelos de regresión de mediación binaria mostraron que la adquisición online de drogas se relaciona con un menor autocontrol y un mayor malestar emocional y abuso del juego, y del uso de internet. El hecho de tener amigos por internet no constituía un factor de riesgo y tener vínculos sociales estrechos con amigos fuera de internet constituía un factor protector. A su vez, la compra online de drogas es un factor que media la relación entre bajo autocontrol y uso habitual de drogas. Los resultados sugieren que debería prestarse mayor atención a las redes sociales como medio habitual de adquisición de drogas, dado que los compradores online de drogas tienen múltiples problemas de salud mental y autocontrol


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Tráfico de Drogas/tendencias , Comercio Electrónico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Red Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/tendencias
13.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 726-733, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010027

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Lung cancer is a global health problem, with more than 220,000 new cases and 150,000 deaths per year in the United States. Likewise, in Brazil, lung cancer is the most lethal cancer with 30,200 new cases expected in 2020. Regarding treatment types, radiation therapy (RT) represents an important approach, since 60%-70% of the patients will receive this modality of treatment during the course of their disease. However, access to RT remains challenging because of the socioeconomic inequalities in the Brazilian population, where approximately 100,000 patients/year die without access to RT. This work provides an overview on the availability of high technology RT in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using the Brazilian Radiotherapy Census, local public and private databases, and the current literature published in 2019. RESULTS: The Brazilian radiotherapy network relies on approximately 363 linear accelerators and 20 cobalt machines that remain operational. Most of these machines are installed at public health facilities. Regarding high technology, intensity-modulated RT is available in 53.7% (n = 130) and volumetric modulated arc therapy in 28.5% (n = 69) of the institutions, although only 19.8% (n = 48) of those facilities are capable of performing image-guided RT using cone beam computed tomography. Considering only the public health care system, the scenario is more restricted, with 40.1% (n = 65) of the institutions offering intensity-modulated RT, 21% (n = 34) volumetric modulated arc therapy, and 14.8% (n = 24) using cone beam computed tomography. Because of these scare resources, only 16% of Radiation Departments offer stereotactic body RT. CONCLUSION: Brazil still needs to improve and provide high and safer RT technologies to patients with lung cancer across all Brazilian regions to attend the population needs and obtain better patient outcomes.

14.
Vaccine ; 2021 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965254

RESUMEN

Diarrhoeal disease attributable to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes substantial morbidity and mortality predominantly in paediatric populations in low- and middle-income countries. In addition to acute illness, there is an increasing appreciation of the long-term consequences of enteric infections, including ETEC, on childhood growth and development. Provision of potable water and sanitation and appropriate clinical care for acute illness are critical to reduce the ETEC burden. However, these interventions are not always practical and may not achieve equitable and sustainable coverage. Vaccination may be the most cost-effective and equitable means of primary prevention; however, additional data are needed to accelerate the investment and guide the decision-making process for ETEC vaccines. First, to understand and quantify the ETEC disease burden, additional data are needed on the association between ETEC infection and physical and cognitive stunting as well as delayed educational attainment. Furthermore, the role of inappropriate or inadequate antibiotic treatment of ETEC-attributable diarrhoea may contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and needs further elucidation. An ETEC vaccine that mitigates acute diarrhoeal illness and minimizes the longer-term disease manifestations could have significant public health impact and be a cost-effective countermeasure. Herein we review the ETEC vaccine pipeline, led by candidates compatible with the general parameters of the Preferred Product Characteristics (PPC) recently developed by the World Health Organization. Additionally, we have developed an ETEC Vaccine Development Strategy to provide a framework to underpin priority activities for researchers, funders and vaccine manufacturers, with the goal of addressing globally unmet data needs in the areas of research, product development, and policy, as well as commercialization and delivery. The strategy also aims to guide prioritization and co-ordination of the priority activities needed to minimize the timeline to licensure and use of ETEC vaccines, especially in in low- and middle-income countries, where they are most urgently needed.

15.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 2021 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967026

RESUMEN

Attaining equity in vaccination distribution is a moral and ethical goal that ensures all members of our community are properly cared for. We suggest a comprehensive approach that involves allocating community resources based on local economic, demographic, and COVID-19 infection data, removing technology barriers by staffing vaccine appointment call-in centers, distributing vaccines based on objective factors (eg, household density) rather than on a "first come, first served" basis, and creating pop-up vaccination sites at trusted community organizations such as federally qualified healthcare centers, churches, libraries, and barber/beauty shops. Until every community is safe, no community will be safe.

16.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 41: 1-12, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956494

RESUMEN

Increasing cancer drug prices present global challenges to treatment access and cancer outcomes. Substantial variability exists in drug pricing across countries. In countries without universal health care, patients are responsible for treatment costs. Low- or middle-income countries are heavily impacted, with limited patient access to novel cancer treatments. Financial toxicity is seen across cancer types, countries, and health care systems. Those at highest risk include younger patients, new immigrants, visible minority groups, and those without private health coverage. Currently, cancer drug pricing does not correlate with value or clinical benefit. Value-based pricing of oncology drugs may incentivize development of higher-value medicines and eliminate excess spending on drugs that yield little benefit. Generics and biosimilars in oncology can also improve affordability and patient access, offering dramatic reductions in drug spending while maintaining patient benefit. Oncologists can promote value-based care by following evidence-based clinical guidelines that avoid low-value treatments. Researchers can also engage in value-based research that critically explores optimal cancer drug dosing, schedules, and treatment duration and defines patient populations most likely to benefit (e.g., through biomarker selection). Cancer Groundshot proposes that we improve outcomes for today's patients with cancer, including broader global access for high-value treatments, promotion of affordable cancer control strategies, and reduction of cancer morbidity and mortality through low-cost prevention and screening initiatives. Moving forward, major oncology societies recommend promoting uniform global access to essential cancer medicines and avoiding financial harm for patients as key principles in addressing the affordability of cancer drugs.

17.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959993

RESUMEN

WHAT IS KNOWN: Estimates of the prevalence of diseases can be affected by non-biological factors such as change in diagnostic criteria and change in awareness of the diseases. The launch of a new drug is a potential contributory factor to the estimated prevalence of the target disease, but there appears to be no reports on this possible relationship. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the change in the number of patients diagnosed and factors such as the number of drugs indicated and the number of relevant scientific articles, focused on 45 intractable diseases in Japan. METHODS: The number of patients with 1 of 45 intractable diseases from 2004 to 2013 was collected from publicly available data. The number of drugs indicated, the number of scientific articles, and diagnostic and certificate criteria for the disease were collected from publicly available sources from 2004 to 2013. Using these data, the correlation coefficient was calculated, and linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The rate of increase in the number of drugs and the increase rate of the number of articles were found to be associated with an increase in the number of patients from 2004 to 2013. Linear regression analysis showed that the increase rate of the number of drugs available (2004-2008) was a statistically significant factor correlated with the rate of increase in the number of patients diagnosed in the following period (2009-2013). However, the increase rate of the number of patients (2004-2008) was not associated with the rate of increase in the number of drugs (2009-2013). One possible reason as to why the number of new drugs was correlated with the patient diagnosis numbers thereafter was proposed to be due to an increased awareness of diseases among physicians. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: This is the first study to investigate the relationship between the number of new drugs and the number of patients diagnosed based on data from multiple diseases. The investigation of data on 45 intractable diseases in Japan indicated that the increased availability of drugs was correlated with the increase in the number of patients in the future.

18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 628744, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996712

RESUMEN

Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally accounting for more than half of deaths in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Cancer treatment is expensive and the high prices of cancer medicines have a huge impact on access in LMICs. Scarcity of pricing or affordability data is one of the major barriers in the development of effective and transparent pricing policies in LMICs. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding pricing, availability, affordability, and access to anti-cancer medicines in LMICs. Method: A systematic search was conducted across six electronic databases: PubMed, Medline/CINAHL (EBSCO), Web of Science, Springer Links, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The literature (from 2015 to 2020) was reviewed to identify original research articles published in English. Results: A total of 13 studies were included in the review with some having multiple outcomes: five studies on pricing, four studies addressed affordability, five studies reported on availability, and four studies on access to anti-cancer medicines. The studies showed that in LMICs, there are wide variations in cancer prices and availability amongst the medicine brands and across different countries, with less affordability by patients with low-income levels, sometimes leading to treatment abandonment. Conclusion: Given the importance of medicine availability and prices in patient access and medicine buying capacity of governments, multi-pronged policy and program approaches by multiple stakeholders are needed to ensure access to cancer medicines.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Neoplasias , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Pobreza
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