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1.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, aug. 2020https://doi.org/10.26633/RPSP.2020.76.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52525

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. En este estudio se identifican y describen los cambios introducidos en el entramado constitucional y legal, y la política económica y social de Cuba entre los años 2015 y 2020 que inciden en el acceso a la salud y se actualiza el mapa conceptual sobre salud pública y propiedad intelectual en Cuba (MC SPPIC). Se realizó la búsqueda de documentos, ajustada al período de tiempo analizado, en la Gaceta Oficial de la República de Cuba y los sitios en Internet de la Oficina Cubana de la Propiedad Industrial, los organismos de la Administración Central del Estado y del Grupo de las Industrias Biotecnológica y Farmacéutica BioCubaFarma. El MC SPPIC actualizado refleja los cambios en la nueva Constitución de la República de Cuba adoptada en 2019, la actualización de los Lineamientos de la Política Económica y Social para el quinquenio 2016-2021 y las leyes, decretos leyes y otras disposiciones legales relacionados con la propiedad intelectual en el período 2015-2020. La Política sobre el Sistema de Propiedad Industrial aprobada se fortaleció con legislaciones específicas para la protección de la propiedad industrial, en especial las que inciden en la protección de los resultados obtenidos por la industria biotecnológica y farmacéutica cubana. Los cambios reflejados en el MC SPPIC actualizado favorecen la interacción y la sinergia entre los diversos actores que inciden en el acceso a la salud —en su sentido más amplio— de la población cubana.


[ABSTRACT]. This study identifies and describes the changes introduced in Cuba’s constitutional and legal framework, and the country’s economic and social policy between 2015 and 2020, in terms of the effects on access to health. The conceptual map of public health and intellectual property in Cuba was also updated. A document search for the time period of the study was conducted in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Cuba and on the webpages of the Cuban Office of Industrial Property, Cuban government agencies, and the Cuban Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries group (BioCubaFarma). The updated conceptual map reflects amendments to the new Constitution of the Republic of Cuba adopted in 2019, updated guidelines on economic and social policy for the quinquennium 2016-2021, and laws, decrees, and legal provisions adopted in the period 2015-2020 in relation to intellectual property. The approved policy on the industrial property system was strengthened with specific legislation to protect industrial property, especially for the protection of the results obtained by the Cuban biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. The changes reflected in the updated conceptual map favor interactions and synergy among the various actors that affect the Cuban population’s access to health in the broadest sense.


[RESUMO]. Neste estudo, procuramos identificar e descrever as mudanças introduzidas no quadro constitucional e legal e na política econômica e social de Cuba entre 2015 e 2020 que afetam o acesso à saúde, bem como atualizar o mapa conceitual sobre saúde pública e propriedade intelectual em Cuba (MC SPPIC). Realizamos uma busca em documentos, ajustada ao período analisado, no Diário Oficial da República de Cuba e nos sites do Escritório Cubano de Propriedade Industrial, dos órgãos da Administração Central do Estado e do grupo da indústria biotecnológica e farmacêutica BioCubaFarma. O MC SPPIC atualizado reflete as mudanças na nova Constituição da República de Cuba adotada em 2019, a atualização das Diretrizes de Política Econômica e Social para o quinquênio 2016-2021 e as leis, decretos-lei e outras disposições legais relacionadas à propriedade intelectual no período 2015-2020. A Política sobre o Sistema de Propriedade Industrial, adotada previamente, foi fortalecida com legislação específica para a proteção da propriedade industrial, especialmente no que diz respeito à proteção dos resultados obtidos pela indústria biotecnológica e farmacêutica cubana. As mudanças refletidas no MC SPPIC atualizado favorecem a interação e sinergia entre os diversos atores que influenciam o acesso à saúde — em seu sentido mais amplo — por parte da população cubana.


Asunto(s)
Propiedad Intelectual , Legislación como Asunto , Industria Farmacéutica , Derecho a la Salud , Cuba , Propiedad Intelectual , Legislación como Asunto , Industria Farmacéutica , Derecho a la Salud , Propiedad Intelectual , Legislación como Asunto , Industria Farmacéutica , Derecho a la Salud
2.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 211, ago. 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103439

RESUMEN

En años recientes los venezolanos hemos enfrentado problemas de diversa índole con relación a la situación de salud. Entre ellos, problemas en la prescripción y la obtención de medicamentos. En esta publicación se tratarán aspectos importantes para la correcta prescripción y obtención de medicamentos, lo cual, a su vez, debería ser el colofón de la atención médica de primera que siempre ha caracterizado a nuestro país y que hoy, lamentablemente, ha devenido en una situación muy dolorosa. La prescripción y obtención de medicamentos puede verse dificultada por diversos inconvenientes, entre los cuales podemos considerar aquellos que tienen relación con el medicamento propiamente dicho, con el prescriptor y el cliente, con las regulaciones vigentes en nuestro país y con la disponibilidad en los centros autorizados para su venta. Como consecuencia de una prescripción inadecuada y un consumo inapropiado de medicamentos pueden surgir problemas muy serios, entre los cuales habría que destacar, en el campo de los antiinfecciosos, la resistencia bacteriana. Y en el campo de fármacos destinados al tratamiento del dolor, la ansiedad y el insomnio, la posibilidad de adicciones diversas. La prescripción adecuada de medicamentos conlleva la necesidad de conocer, a la par de los efectos beneficiosos y terapéuticos de los mismos, la posibilidad de efectos adversos e interacciones. Todos los prescriptores sanitarios deben conocer los fundamentos de la Farmacovigilancia, la cual permitirá conocer el verdadero balance riesgo-beneficio de los fármacos, por lo cual hacemos una breve mención de la misma al final de esta presentación(AU)


In recent years, Venezuelans have faced various kinds of problems related to the health situation. Among them, problems in prescription and acquisition of medicines. This publication will discuss important aspects for the correct prescription and obtention of medicines, which, in turn, should be the culmination of the excellent medical care that has always characterized our country but that today, unfortunately, has become a very disgraced and sad situation. Prescription and acquisition of medicines can be hindered by various inconveniences, among which we can consider those that are related to the product itself, to the prescriber and the client, to the regulations in force in our country and to the availability in authorized centers for sale. As a result of an inadequate prescription and consumption of medications, very serious problems can arise, among which, in the field of anti-infectives, bacterial resistance should be highlighted. In the field of drugs for the treatment of pain, anxiety and insomnia, the possibility of diverse addictions. Proper prescription of medicaments entails the need to know, along with their beneficial and therapeutic effects, the possibility of adverse effects and interactions. All health prescribers must know the basics of Pharmacovigilance, which allow to know the true risk-benefit balance of drugs, so we make a brief mention of it at the end of this presentation.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Prescripciones de Medicamentos/normas , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Derecho a la Salud , Farmacología Clínica , Especificaciones Sanitarias , Farmacovigilancia
3.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47749

RESUMEN

Relatório da Relatora Especial das Nações Unidas, Alice Cruz, para a Eliminação da Discriminação contra as Pessoas Afetadas pela Hanseníase e seus Familiares. Brasília, 14 Maio de 2019. Disponível nos idiomas inglês e português.


Asunto(s)
Lepra , Derechos Humanos , Naciones Unidas , Equidad en Salud , Políticas Públicas Antidiscriminación
4.
Health Hum Rights ; 22(1): 35-49, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669787

RESUMEN

Throughout the world, mental health remains a neglected priority, low on the agenda of policy makers and funders at the national and international levels. While this is shifting somewhat, there remains a considerable need to address the underprioritization of mental health and well-being, perhaps even more so in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, given the history of mental health interventions-which have overemphasized the biomedical model and have thus resulted in coercion, denial of life in the community, and unnecessary pathologization of human experience-there is also a need to ensure that increased funding does not simply replicate these mistakes. This is particularly true in the current landscape, where efforts to "scale up" mental health and to reduce "treatment gaps" are gaining momentum and where post-pandemic responses are still being formulated. As the potential for global mechanisms for funding mental health increases, national and international funders should look to practices that are rights affirming and contextually relevant. In this paper, I explore the current landscape of mental health financing, in terms of both national resource allocation and development assistance. I then outline the momentum in global mental health that is likely to materialize through increased funding, before considering ways in which that funding might be utilized in a manner that promotes human rights.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Derechos Humanos/normas , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Salud Mental , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/economía , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Servicios de Salud Mental/economía , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 51, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491111

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE To discuss the negative and positive concepts of liberty and postulate its interdependent and complementary relationship in the evaluation of public policy intersectoral actions, taking water fluoridation as a case. METHOD To describe scopes and limits regarding 1950s Isaiah Berlin's distinction, showing its validity in facing the harmful effects of an uncontrolled market economy and an autocratic political regime. RESULTS Both the rights that protect citizens against a powerful state and the rights that protect the state against powerful citizens were equally acknowledged as crucial. CONCLUSION We argued that, in a context in which negative and positive liberties are balanced, regulatory policies have double meaning. Thus, there should be a balance between the establishment of necessary rules for social protection and limits for them not to violate individuals' rights.


Asunto(s)
Fluoruración , Libertad , Política Pública , Derecho a la Salud , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos
10.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(5): 443-445, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478545

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has had disproportionate contagion and fatality in Black, Latino, and Native American communities and among the poor in the United States. Toxic stress resulting from racial and social inequities have been magnified during the pandemic, with implications for poor physical and mental health and socioeconomic outcomes. It is imperative that our country focus and invest in addressing health inequities and work across sectors to build self-efficacy and long-term capacity within communities and systems of care serving the most disenfranchised, now and in the aftermath of the COVID-19 epidemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/etnología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Servicios de Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/etnología , Trauma Psicológico/etnología , Autoeficacia , Justicia Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Pandemias , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Estados Unidos/etnología , Poblaciones Vulnerables
11.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(3): 28-32, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596899

RESUMEN

In this essay, we suggest practical ways to shift the framing of crisis standards of care toward disability justice. We elaborate on the vision statement provided in the 2010 Institute of Medicine (National Academy of Medicine) "Summary of Guidance for Establishing Crisis Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations," which emphasizes fairness; equitable processes; community and provider engagement, education, and communication; and the rule of law. We argue that interpreting these elements through disability justice entails a commitment to both distributive and recognitive justice. The disability rights movement's demand "Nothing about us, without us" requires substantive inclusion of disabled people in decision-making related to their interests, including in crisis planning before, during, and after a pandemic like Covid-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Personas con Discapacidad , Equidad en Salud/ética , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Justicia Social/ética , Nivel de Atención/ética , Betacoronavirus , Comunicación , Equidad en Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Pandemias , Justicia Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Nivel de Atención/legislación & jurisprudencia
14.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(2): 355-371, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102538

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste artigo é problematizar a relação entre eugenia e racismo associada às doenças genéticas, especificamente à doença falciforme, tendo como referência o caso do Programa de Triagem Populacional (PTP), cuja implantação em Salvador, Bahia, não se concretizou devido às mobilizações sociais. Realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa, ancorada na perspectiva feminista e antirracista, que aliou a análise documental da proposta do programa e entrevistas em profundidade com mulheres negras com doença falciforme acerca da percepção sobre o conteúdo do programa. A análise do documento evidenciou conteúdos racistas e eugenistas, relacionados com um discurso de cerceamento do direito reprodutivo de mulheres com este agravo. Entre as mulheres negras entrevistadas, prevaleceu o sentimento de indignação frente à interdição de seu direito reprodutivo. Há necessidade de destituir práticas institucionais que se forjam sob o crivo do racismo institucional e produzem violências sobre os corpos negros.


This article seeks to discuss the relationship between racism and eugenics associated with genetic diseases, specifically with the sickle cell disease, having as reference the case of the Population Screening Program (PTP ­ Programa de Triagem Populacional), which was planned to be implemented in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and was unsuccessful, since it was inhibited by social movements. A qualitative research was conducted, based on the feminist and anti-racist perspective, which combined document analysis of the program proposal and in-depth interviews with black women with sickle cell disease in order to understand their perception of the program. The results indicate that the PTP proposal had explicit references to restrictions of the reproductive right of women with sickle cell disease, as well as revealed eugenics besides racist premises. Regarding the perception of the participants of the study, the feeling of indignation prevailed, especially towards the restriction of their reproductive rights. There is a need to eradicate institutional practices that are forged under a cloak of institutional racism producing violence against black bodies.


El objetivo de este artículo es problematizar la relación entre eugenesia y racismo, asociada a las enfermedades genéticas, en particular a la anemia de células falciformes, teniendo como referencia el PTP Programa de Triagem Populacional (Programa de Selección Poblacional), cuya implementación en Salvador, Bahía, no se ha concretado debido a las movilizaciones sociales. Se realizó una investigación cualitativa, fundamentada en la perspectiva feminista e antirracista, aliada al análisis documental de la propuesta del programa y entrevistas en profundidad con mujeres negras con anemia de células falciformes acerca de la percepción sobre el contenido del programa. El análisis del documento evidenció referencias explícitas a restricciones del derecho reproductivo de mujeres con anemia de células falciformes, presentando en muchas partes contenidos claramente sintonizados con principios eugenésicos y racistas. Entre las mujeres negras entrevistadas, prevaleció el sentimiento de indignación frente a la interdicción de su derecho reproductivo. Hay necesidad de suspender practicas institucionales que se forjan bajo el tamiz del racismo institucional y producen violencias sobre los cuerpos negros.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Participación de la Comunidad , Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos , Racismo , Salud de las Minorías Étnicas , Anemia de Células Falciformes , Prejuicio , Feminismo , Investigación Cualitativa , Equidad de Género
15.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(8): 703-704, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472231

RESUMEN

The continuing outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has inflicted considerable burdens onto the health system of China, the world's most populous country. Remarkably, among spectrum of potential mitigation strategies, the Chinese government has implemented all-out lockdowns on large geographical areas, unprecedented in the modern era. This inevitably undermined the right to healthcare of many who now faced great difficulty in getting treatment, especially those with cancer or other life-threatening issues. We elaborate and discuss the medico-legal and human rights consideration triggered by the lockdowns, the unprecedented mass quarantine of Hubei province in China, and the suspension of normal healthcare services. We argue that the same challenge will now be faced by other countries, particularly the USA, Italy, Spain, and France, as the epicentres of COVID-19 has shifted to Europe and the Americas.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Derecho a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , China , Brotes de Enfermedades , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Cuarentena , Estados Unidos
17.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-05-05. (OPS/EGC/LEG/COVID-19-0001).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52075

RESUMEN

Justificación: La pandemia de COVID-19 afecta de distintas maneras a los diferentes grupos de hombres y mujeres. Los riesgos y las consecuencias recaen de forma desproporcionada en ciertos grupos de la población, especialmente los que se encuentran en una situación de vulnerabilidad y los que sufren discriminación. Es fundamental que en su respuesta a la COVID-19 los países consideren la perspectiva de la equidad, el género, la etnicidad y los derechos humanos a fin de: - evitar un aumento de las desigualdades; - tener en cuenta la realidad cotidiana de cada uno de los diferentes grupos, pues esa realidad puede afectar el éxito de las medidas.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Equidad en Salud , Derechos Humanos
19.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(3): 46-49, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468631

RESUMEN

The Covid-19 pandemic needs to be considered from two perspectives simultaneously. First, there are questions about which policies are most effective and fair in the here and now, as the pandemic unfolds. These polices concern, for example, who should receive priority in being tested, how to implement contact tracing, or how to decide who should get ventilators or vaccines when not all can. Second, it is imperative to anticipate the medium- and longer-term consequences that these policies have. The case of vaccine rationing is particularly instructive. Ethical, epidemiological, and economic reasons demand that rationing approaches give priority to groups who have been structurally and historically disadvantaged, even if this means that overall life years gained may be lower.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/ética , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas/provisión & distribución , Factores de Edad , Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Comorbilidad , Trazado de Contacto/ética , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Grupos de Población Continentales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etnología , Estado de Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/etnología , Justicia Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Ventiladores Mecánicos/provisión & distribución
20.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e50, 2020 05 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468988

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised significant concerns for population mental health and the effective provision of mental health services in the light of increased demands and barriers to service delivery [1]. Particular attention is being directed toward the possible neuropsychiatric sequelae of both COVID-19 and of the stringent societal mitigation steps deployed by national governments, concerns that are informed by historical increases in the incidence of psychotic disorders following influenza pandemics [2]. However, so far there has been scant attention paid to other important areas of psychiatry during COVID-19, including medico-legal aspects and human rights. In this paper, we discuss the legal implications for psychiatry of the COVID-19 pandemic and report a novel situation in which psychiatric patients may experience diminution of their statutory protections. We believe that this represents a paradigm shift in psychiatric care and that the consideration of the fundamental rights of psychiatric patients as "less important" than infection control measures compel mental health professionals to "advocate for … patients and their caregivers" in this time of crisis [1].


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Derechos Humanos , Servicios de Salud Mental , Salud Mental , Enfermos Mentales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Derechos Civiles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Psiquiatría
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