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1.
J Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074955

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine if repeat annual health risk assessments (RAHRAs) with intervention reduce 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in financial sector employees. METHODS: Retrospective analysis from RAHRAs in 13737 employees over 4-years. We report changes in 10-year Framingham risk score (FRS) for CVD (%) and risk factors after 1 (GR1), 2 (GR2) and 3 (GR 3) RAHRAs. RESULTS: Mean FRS increased with RAHRAs (GR1: +0.4%; GR2: +0.7%; GR3: +0.8%) (p < 0.001) and was higher for GR3 vs. GR1 (p < 0.001) and GR2 (pairwise: p < 0.0355). RAHRAs were associated with increased inadequate fruit/vegetable intake (GR1: +5.4%; GR2: +9.8%; GR3: +15.8%) (all pairwise: p < 0.001) and overweight (GR1: +5.4% vs. GR2: +9.8%) (p < 0.001) and only hypercholesterolaemia decreased (GR1; -4.4% vs. GR3; -9.6%) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: RAHRAs did not reduce 10-year CVD risk in financial sector employees. Role of RAHRAs in chronic disease management requires further study.

2.
Psychosom Med ; 83(5): 423-431, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074982

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and is associated with poor outcomes. Although different treatments are available, it is unclear which are best or most acceptable to patients, so we conducted a network meta-analysis of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different depression treatments to ascertain relative efficacy. METHODS: We searched for systematic reviews of RCTs of depression treatments in CAD and updated these with a comprehensive search for recent individual RCTs. RCTs comparing depression treatments (pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, combined pharmacological/psychotherapeutic, exercise, collaborative care) were included. Primary outcomes were acceptability (dropout rate) and change in depressive symptoms 8 week after treatment commencement. Change in 26-week depression and mortality were secondary outcomes. Frequentist, random-effects network meta-analysis was used to synthesize the evidence, and evidence quality was evaluated following Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations recommendations. RESULTS: Thirty-three RCTs (7240 participants) provided analyzable data. All treatments were equally acceptable. At 8 weeks, combination therapy (1 study), exercise (1 study), and antidepressants (10 studies) yielded the strongest effects versus comparators. At 26 weeks, antidepressants were consistently effective, but psychotherapy was only effective versus usual care. There were no differences in treatment groups for mortality. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations ratings ranged from very low to low. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the evidence was limited and biased. Although all treatments for post-CAD depression were equally acceptable, antidepressants have the most robust evidence base and should be the first-line treatment. Combinations of antidepressants and psychotherapy, along with exercise, could be more effective than antidepressants alone but require further rigorous, multiarm intervention trials.Systematic Review Registration: CRD42018108293 (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews).

3.
J Nephrol ; 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061337

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Besides reducing hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, phosphate lowering agents might provide beneficial effects on clinical and laboratory parameters. This meta-analysis was conducted to comprehensively examine the impact of all phosphate lowering agents on various aspects of clinical and laboratory outcomes in CKD patients. METHOD: A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials until July 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared the effects of each phosphate lowering agent with controls, comprising placebo and all other phosphate lowering agents. Various clinical and laboratory outcomes were analyzed. Random effects model was used to compute the standardized mean difference for continuous variables and the risk ratio (RR) for binary variables. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 127 RCTs with 20,215 patients. Sevelamer and lanthanum significantly reduced all-cause mortality (RR 0.610, 95% CI 0.401-0.929 and 0.467, 95% CI 0.337-0.647, respectively) but not cardiovascular (CV) mortality or CV events. Hospitalization rates were significantly diminished by sevelamer (RR 0.527; 95% CI 0.308-0.902). Certain phosphate lowering agents improved biochemical parameters including serum phosphate, calcium, coronary artery calcium scores, fibroblast growth factor-23, bone biomarkers, and lipid profiles. Intact parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density were not significantly changed. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to decreasing serum phosphate levels, various beneficial effects on clinical and laboratory parameters of phosphate lowering agents might play potential roles in diminishing morbidity and mortality in CKD patients.

4.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 86, 2021 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082822

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of infection prevention and control (IPC) procedures among healthcare workers (HCWs) is crucial for effective IPC. Compliance with IPC measures has critical implications for HCWs safety, patient protection and the care environment. AIMS: To discuss the body of available literature regarding HCWs' knowledge of IPC and highlight potential factors that may influence compliance to IPC precautions. DESIGN: A systematic review. A protocol was developed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis [PRISMA] statement. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Proquest, Wiley online library, Medline, and Nature) were searched from 1 January 2006 to 31 January 2021 in the English language using the following keywords alone or in combination: knowledge, awareness, healthcare workers, infection, compliance, comply, control, prevention, factors. 3417 papers were identified and 30 papers were included in the review. RESULTS: Overall, the level of HCW knowledge of IPC appears to be adequate, good, and/or high concerning standard precautions, hand hygiene, and care pertaining to urinary catheters. Acceptable levels of knowledge were also detected in regards to IPC measures for specific diseases including TB, MRSA, MERS-CoV, COVID-19 and Ebola. However, gaps were identified in several HCWs' knowledge concerning occupational vaccinations, the modes of transmission of infectious diseases, and the risk of infection from needle stick and sharps injuries. Several factors for noncompliance surrounding IPC guidelines are discussed, as are recommendations for improving adherence to those guidelines. CONCLUSION: Embracing a multifaceted approach towards improving IPC-intervention strategies is highly suggested. The goal being to improve compliance among HCWs with IPC measures is necessary.

5.
RMD Open ; 7(2)2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099538

RESUMEN

Early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are of critical importance to halt the progression of the disease. Optimal use of advanced imaging techniques or biomarkers may facilitate early diagnosis of RA. Even though many disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are available for RA treatment, biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) offer expanding therapeutic options and good outcomes in patients with RA who do not have a sufficient response to conventional synthetic DMARDs. However, high costs of bDMARDs have limited patient access to optimised disease management and increased the cost burden for healthcare systems. The advent of biosimilars led to significant cost savings driven by price competition among the reference products, which could be beneficial for healthcare systems. Healthcare provider (HCP)-patient communication and informed shared decision-making are crucial to prevent the occurrence of a nocebo effect, which results from negative perceptions that patients may have and could lead to less effective outcomes. Research has demonstrated that effective communication between HCPs and patients utilising positive framing can improve acceptance by patients to be initiated on or switched to a biosimilar and can help to integrate biosimilars into routine clinical practice to maximise benefits for patients with RA.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100388

RESUMEN

Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and liver transplant recipients are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although several studies demonstrated the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in the general population, data in CLD patients and liver transplant recipients are lacking. Two COVID-19 vaccines were approved by the Saudi Food and Drug Authority and rolled out to several million recipients in Saudi Arabia. These vaccines are mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b2 from Pfizer/BioNTech and adenovirus-based AZD1222 from Oxford/AstraZeneca from three manufacturing sites (EU Nodes, Serum Institute of India, and South Korea Bio). The Saudi Association for the Study of Liver diseases and Transplantation (SASLT) has reviewed the available evidence and issued interim recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination in CLD and liver transplant recipients. Since there is no evidence contradicting the safety and immunogenicity of the currently approved COVID-19 vaccines in patients with CLD and hepatobiliary cancer and liver transplant recipients, the SASLT recommends vaccination in those patient populations. CLD and hepatobiliary cancer patients and liver transplant recipients should be prioritized depending on the risk factors for severe COVID-19. In transplant recipients, the optimal timing of vaccination remains unknown; however, immunization is recommended after the initial immunosuppression phase. Patients with CLD and liver transplant candidates or recipients should be closely monitored after COVID-19 vaccination. These patient populations should be included in future clinical trials to provide further evidence on the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines.

7.
Hemodial Int ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085386

RESUMEN

The most significant complication of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is cardiovascular disease, mainly coronary artery disease (CAD). Although the effective treatment of CAD is an important prognostic factor, whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is better for treating CAD in this group of patients is still controversial. We searched Pubmed/Medline, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials articles that compared the outcomes of CABG versus PCI in patients with ESKD requiring dialysis. A total of 10 observational studies with 39,666 patients were included. Our analysis showed that when compared to PCI, CABG had lower risk of need for repeat revascularization (relative risk [RR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-2.42, p < 0.00001) and cardiovascular death (RR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.14-1.23, p < 0.00001) and higher risk for short-term mortality (RR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.38-0.48, p < 0.00001). There was no statistically significant difference between the PCI and CABG groups in the risk for late mortality (RR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.97-1.14, p = 0.25), myocardial infarction (RR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.46-2.36, p = 0.91) or stroke (RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.64-1.61, p = 0.95). This meta-analysis showed that in ESKD patients requiring dialysis, CABG was superior to PCI in regard to cardiovascular death and need for repeat revascularization and inferior to PCI in regard to short term mortality. However, this meta-analysis has limitations and needs confirmation with large randomized controlled trials.

8.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 180, 2021 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090422

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women with pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations possess a high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. They face difficult choices when considering preventive options. This study presents the development process of the first decision aids to support this complex decision-making process in the German healthcare system. METHODS: A six-step development process based on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards was used, including a systematic literature review of existing decision aids, a topical medical literature review, preparation of the decision aids, focus group discussions with women with BRCA1/2 mutations, internal and external reviews by clinical and self-help experts, and user tests. All reviews were followed by iterative revisions. RESULTS: No existing decision aids were transferable to the German setting. The medical research revealed a need to develop separate decision aids for women with BRCA1/2 mutations (A) without a history of cancer (previvors) and (B) with a history of unilateral breast cancer (survivors). The focus group discussions confirmed a high level of approval for the decision aids from both target groups. Additionally, previvors requested more information on risk-reducing breast surgery, risk-reducing removal of both ovaries and Fallopian tubes, and psychological aspects; survivors especially wanted more information on breast cancer on the affected side (e.g. biological parameters, treatment, and risk of recurrence). CONCLUSIONS: In a structured process, two target-group-specific DAs for previvors/survivors with BRCA1/2 mutations were developed to support decision-making on risk-adapted preventive options. These patient-oriented tools offer an important addition to existing specialist medical care in Germany.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Neoplasias Ováricas , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/prevención & control , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Femenino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Alemania , Humanos , Mutación , Neoplasias Ováricas/genética , Neoplasias Ováricas/prevención & control
9.
J Endovasc Ther ; : 15266028211023505, 2021 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106028

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: A late increased mortality risk has been reported in a summary level meta-analysis of patients with femoropopliteal artery occlusive disease treated with paclitaxel-coated angioplasty balloons and stents. However, at the longer follow up timepoints that analysis was limited by small trial numbers and few participants. The aim of this study was to report an updated summary level risk of all-cause mortality after treatment with paclitaxel-coated devices in that same patient group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to investigate the mortality outcomes associated with paclitaxel-coated devices used to treat patients with occlusive disease of femoropopliteal arteries (last search date December 10, 2020). The single primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We identified 34 randomized controlled trials (7654 patients; 84% intermittent claudication). There were 622 deaths among 4147 (15.0%) subjects in the paclitaxel device group and 475 deaths among 3507 (13.5%) subjects in the noncoated control group [relative risk ratio (RR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.20, p=0.20, I2=0%). All-cause mortality was similar between groups at 12 months (34 studies, 7654 patients; RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.22, p=0.94, I2=0%), 24 months (20 studies, 3799 patients; RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.55, p=0.31, I2=0%), and 60 months (9 studies, 2288 patients; RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.45, p=0.08, I2=0%). CONCLUSION: This updated meta-analysis with included additional trials and larger patient numbers shows no evidence of increased risk of all-cause mortality in patients treated with paclitaxel-coated devices, compared with uncoated devices for femoropopliteal disease at all time points to 60 months. There is therefore no justification to limit their use, or alter regulatory body follow-up recommendations in this patient population. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: CRD42020216140.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112574

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The efficacy and cost effectiveness of atherectomy for femoropopliteal (FP) arterial diseases have not been determined yet. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare the efficacy and safety between atherectomy combined with balloon angioplasty (BA) and BA alone for patients with de novo FP steno-occlusive lesions. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, Medline, and Embase were used to search for studies evaluating outcomes of atherectomy combined with BA compared with BA alone in FP arterial diseases from inception to July 2020. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was used to assess the level of evidence for each outcome. The fixed effects model was chosen to combine the data when I2 < 50%; otherwise, the random effects model was used. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to further analyse the results. RESULTS: Four RCTs were included. The meta-analysis showed that atherectomy combined with BA was associated with improved technical success rate (risk ratio [RR] 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.38, p < .001; I2 = 0; high quality), reduced bailout stenting (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.07-0.32, p < .001; I2 = 16%; high quality), and flow limiting dissection (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.13-0.47, p < .001; I2 = 0; high quality). No statistically significant difference was found in target lesion revascularisation (TLR), primary patency, mortality, major adverse event (MAE), or ankle brachial index (ABI) after one year follow up. CONCLUSION: Compared with BA alone, atherectomy combined with BA may not improve primary patency, TLR, mortality rate, or ABI, but may reduce the need for bailout stenting and the incidence of flow limiting dissection and increase the technical success rate in FP arterial diseases. More studies are warranted to further confirm the conclusion.

12.
Adv Nutr ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113965

RESUMEN

Although levodopa remains the most effective drug for symptomatic management of Parkinson's Disease (PD), treatment during advanced disease stages may raise unpredictable motor fluctuations and other complications. Counteracting these complications with other pharmacological therapies may prompt a vicious circle of side effects, and here, nutritional therapy may have great potential. Knowledge about the role of diet in PD is emerging and multiple studies have investigated nutritional support specifically with respect to levodopa therapy. With this systematic review, we aim to give a comprehensive overview of dietary approaches to optimize levodopa treatment in PD. A systematic search was performed using the databases of PubMed and Scopus between January 1985 and September 2020. Nutritional interventions with the rationale to optimize levodopa therapy in human PD patients were eligible for this study and their quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. In total, we included 22 papers that addressed the effects of dietary proteins (n = 10), vitamins (n = 7), fiber (n = 2), soybeans (n = 1), caffeine (n = 1), and ketogenic diets (n = 1) on levodopa therapy. Interventions with protein redistribution diets (PRDs), dietary fiber, vitamin C, and caffeine improved levodopa absorption, thereby enhancing clinical response and reducing motor fluctuations. Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folic acid successfully reduced high homocysteine concentrations that emerged from levodopa metabolism and promoted many metabolic and clinical complications, such as neuropathology and osteoporosis. In conclusion, dietary interventions have the potential to optimize levodopa efficacy and control side effects. Nutrition that improves levodopa absorption, including PRDs, fiber, vitamin C, and caffeine, is specifically recommended when fluctuating clinical responses appear. Supplements of vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folic acid are advised along with levodopa initiation to attenuate hyperhomocysteinemia, and importantly, their potential to treat consequent metabolic and clinical complications warrants future research.

13.
Int Urogynecol J ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115162

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective was to find an alternative treatment to a low-dose antibiotic for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) and to evaluate the difference in rates of reinfection within 1 year when treated with methenamine hippurate for prophylaxis compared with trimethoprim. METHODS: We present a non-blinded randomized trial comparing methenamine hippurate with trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrent UTI at 12 months after starting treatment. Women over 18 who had at least two culture-positive UTI in the prior 6 months or three in the prior year were included. Ninety-two patients met enrollment criteria and were randomized to receive daily prophylaxis with methenamine hippurate or trimethoprim for a minimum of 6 months. Both intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses if patients received the alternative drug after randomization were analyzed using Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank test, and a logistic and multivariate regression model. The primary outcome of this study was culture-proven UTI recurrence by 12 months after initiating prophylaxis. RESULTS: In the intent-to-treat analysis, we found no difference between groups in recurrent UTI, with a 65% (28 out of 43) recurrence in the trimethoprim group versus 65% (28 out of 43) in the methenamine hippurate group (p = 1.00). In the per-protocol analysis, 65% (26 out of 40) versus 65% (30 out of 46) of patients had UTI recurrences in the trimethoprim group versus the methenamine hippurate group (p = 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Methenamine hippurate may be an alternative for the prevention of recurrent UTI, with similar rates of recurrence and adverse effects to trimethoprim.

14.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e14457, 2021 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105858

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is prevalent worldwide and for many patients, non-adherence to medication remains a problem. Motivational interviewing is a behavioural, communication strategy used as an intervention aimed to improve health outcomes. AIMS: This systematic review sought to investigate the effect of motivational interviewing delivered as part of pharmacy care on medication adherence and the effect this has on clinical outcomes. These included systolic and diastolic blood pressure, haemoglobin A1C, lipid profiles and cardiovascular risk scores. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted in six databases: PubMed Central UK, Cochrane Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), PsycINFO, EMBASE and MEDLINE from the inception of motivational interviewing in 1983 to November 2020. Randomised controlled trials that assessed motivational interviewing as part of pharmacy care interventions were selected. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the risk of bias for each included study. This review was registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42020222954). RESULTS: A total of eight randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Five out of eight studies demonstrated medication adherence significantly improved following motivational interviewing interventions. One study showed a significant improvement for systolic blood pressure (SBP) change by 7.2mmHg (95% CI 1.6-12.8mmHg); this reduction was observed in patients whose baseline blood pressure was above their target blood pressure. No statistically significant effect was seen across other clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: motivational interviewing could be an effective behavioural strategy to enhance medication adherence in patients with CVD. Although the evidence is promising thus far, further research is required to explore the impact of motivational interviewing on clinical outcomes as well as the feasibility of implementing motivational interviewing interventions within existing pharmacy care services.

15.
Andes Pediatr ; 92(2): 309-315, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106172

RESUMEN

In the framework of the vaccination campaign against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the Chilean Ministry of Health requested advice from the Genetics Branch of the Chilean Society of Pediatrics, to define the level of prioritization for people with Down Syndrome . A panel of geneticists worked on the development of this consensus, in which not only patients with Down syndrome were included, but the search was extended to patients with other types of disabilities, in both pediatric and adult ages in or der to contribute to the development of public health measures against the COVID-19 pandemic. The consensus concludes that, given the prevalence of comorbidities associated with Down syndrome, the higher incidence of cases with severe COVID-19 in this population group and a higher mortality, individuals with trisomy 21 should be considered as a high-risk population, and therefore, vaccina tion against SARS-CoV-2 should have a high priority for all people with Down syndrome regardless of their age (except for the age limit established by the clinical trials of each vaccine), and should be preceded only by the groups of health personnel and adults aged > 60-65 years. Likewise, this group of experts urges health authorities to include people with intellectual disabilities and related conditions as a priority population (other chromosomal abnormalities other than Down syndrome, intellectual disability, congenital anomalies and conditions that cause disability with microcephaly), as well as the caregivers of people with this type of conditions. Vaccination in children with this type of disorders should be considered as part of the first priority group, once safe vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are available for use in children and adolescents.

16.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 33, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised patients are at higher risk of surgical site infection and wound complications. However, optimal management in the perioperative period is not well established. Present systematic review aims to analyse existing strategies and interventions to prevent and manage surgical site infections and other wound complications in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted. RESULTS: Literature review shows that partial skin closure is effective to reduce SSI in this population. There is not sufficient evidence to definitively suggest in favour of prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy. The use of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) in transplanted patient needing ad emergent or undeferrable abdominal surgical procedure must be carefully and multidisciplinary evaluated. The role of antibiotic prophylaxis in transplanted patients needs to be assessed. CONCLUSION: Strict adherence to SSI infection preventing bundles must be implemented worldwide especially in immunocompromised patients. Lastly, it is necessary to elaborate a more widely approved definition of immunocompromised state. Without such shared definition, it will be hard to elaborate the needed methodologically correct studies for this fragile population.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046817, 2021 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103320

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on meatal cleaning prior to urinary catheterisation and post catheterisation and reduces the risk catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) and bacteriuria was published in 2017, with further studies undertaken since this time. The objective of this paper is to present an updated systematic review on the effectiveness of antiseptic cleaning of the meatal area for the prevention of CAUTIs and bacteriuria in patients who receive a urinary catheter. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline and Academic Search Complete were searched from 1 January 2016 and 29 February 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the use of antiseptic, antibacterial or non-medicated agents for cleaning the meatal, periurethral or perineal areas before indwelling catheter insertion or intermittent catheterisation or during routine meatal care. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted using the Cochrane Collaboration's data collection form for RCTs and non-RCTs. Data were extracted by one researcher and then checked for accuracy by a second researcher. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies were included. Some potential benefit of using antiseptics, compared with non-antiseptics for meatal cleaning to prevent bacteriuria and or CAUTI was identified (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.02; p=0.071). Antiseptics (chlorhexidine or povidine-iodine) may be of value for meatal cleaning on the incidence of CAUTI, compared with comparator agents (saline, soap or antimicrobial cloths) (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.99; p=0.047). CONCLUSION: There is emerging evidence of the role of some specific antiseptics (chlorhexidine) prior to urinary catheterisation, in reducing CAUTIs, and some potential benefit to the role of antiseptics more generally in reducing bacteriuria. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015023741.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriuria , Infecciones Urinarias , Bacteriuria/prevención & control , Clorhexidina , Humanos , Cateterismo Urinario/efectos adversos , Catéteres Urinarios , Infecciones Urinarias/prevención & control
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2111826, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115128

RESUMEN

Importance: While the 2016 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain was not intended to address postoperative pain management, observers have noted the potential for the guideline to have affected postoperative opioid prescribing. Objective: To assess changes in postoperative opioid dispensing after vs before the CDC guideline release in March 2016. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 361 556 opioid-naive patients who received 1 of 8 common surgical procedures between March 16, 2014, and March 15, 2018. Data were retrieved from a private insurance database, and a retrospective interrupted time series analysis was conducted. Data analysis was conducted from March 2014 to April 2018. Exposure: Outcomes were measured before and after release of the 2016 CDC guideline. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the total amount of opioid dispensed in the first prescription filled within 7 days following surgery in morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs); secondary outcomes included the total amount of opioids prescribed and the incidence of any opioid refilled within 30 days after surgery. To characterize absolute opioid dispensing levels, the amount dispensed in initial prescriptions was compared with available procedure-specific recommendations. Results: The sample included 361 556 opioid-naive patients undergoing 8 general and orthopedic surgical procedures; 164 009 (45.4%) were male patients, and the median (interquartile range) age of the sample was 58 (45 to 69) years. The total amount of opioids dispensed in the first prescription after surgery decreased in the 2 years following the CDC guideline release, compared with an increasing trend in the 2 years prior (prerelease trend: 1.43 MME/month; 95% CI, 0.62 to 2.24 MME/month; P = .001; postrelease trend: -2.18 MME/month; 95% CI, -3.01 to -1.35 MME/month; P < .001; trend change: -3.61 MME/month; 95% CI, -4.87 to -2.35 MME/month; P < .001). Changes in initial dispensing amount trends were greatest for patients undergoing hip or knee replacement (-8.64 MME/month; 95% CI, -11.68 to -5.60 MME/month; P < .001). Minimal changes were observed in rates of refills over time (net change: 0.14% per month; 95% CI, 0.06% to 0.23% per month; P = .001). Absolute amounts prescribed remained high throughout the period, with nearly half of patients (47.7%; 95% CI, 47.4%-47.9%) treated in the postguideline period receiving at least twice the initial opioid dose anticipated to treat postoperative pain based on available procedure-specific recommendations. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, opioid dispensing after surgery decreased substantially after the 2016 CDC guideline release, compared with an increasing trend during the 2 years prior. Absolute amounts prescribed for surgery remained high during the study period, supporting the need for further efforts to improve postoperative pain management.

19.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-06-01.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54136

RESUMEN

Las Directrices unificadas sobre la información estratégica en materia de hepatitis virales resumen y simplifican el enfoque general propuesto por la OMS para recopilar, analizar, difundir y utilizar información estratégica sobre las hepatitis virales a nivel local, subnacional, nacional e internacional. La publicación describe la información estratégica en diversas etapas de la respuesta, en el marco del fortalecimiento de los sistemas de información de salud más amplios. La información estratégica se puede definir como los datos recogidos en todos los niveles de prestación de servicios y los niveles administrativos con miras a fundamentar las políticas y las decisiones programáticas. Los directores de programas nacionales pueden utilizar el presente documento como una orientación general de alto nivel sobre la información estratégica en materia de hepatitis virales. El documento incluye tres apéndices en línea en forma de modelos de protocolo de vigilancia de la hepatitis aguda, las infecciones crónicas y las secuelas, que se prepararon en colaboración con comités científicos conformados por expertos de las seis regiones de la OMS.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis Viral Humana , Directrices para la Planificación en Salud
20.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(6): 1124-1147, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003176

RESUMEN

Clostridioides difficile infection occurs when the bacterium produces toxin that causes diarrhea and inflammation of the colon. These guidelines indicate the preferred approach to the management of adults with C. difficile infection and represent the official practice recommendations of the American College of Gastroenterology. The scientific evidence for these guidelines was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation process. In instances where the evidence was not appropriate for Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation but there was consensus of significant clinical merit, key concept statements were developed using expert consensus. These guidelines are meant to be broadly applicable and should be viewed as the preferred, but not the only, approach to clinical scenarios.

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