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1.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200700. 20 p. tab.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1102563

RESUMEN

El documento contiene los lineamientos de prevención, reducción y contención de infecciones respiratorias y COVID-19 en los ámbitos geográficos identificados con presencia de PIA y PICI, con un enfoque intercultural y de derechos humanos.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Preventiva , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pueblos Indígenas
2.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638939

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection has high transmissibility and several measures have been adopted for controlling its dissemination. OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) regarding measures for controlling the dissemination of COVID-19 infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: This review of Cochrane SRs was carried out in the Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery and in the Division of Emergency Medicine and Evidence-Based Medicine of Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A comprehensive search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews retrieved all Cochrane SRs directly related to measures for controlling COVID-19 dissemination. The main characteristics and results of all the SRs included were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Three Cochrane SRs were included in the qualitative synthesis. These evaluated population-based and individual measures for controlling the dissemination of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Low-certainty evidence shows that quarantine for people exposed to confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases prevented 44% to 81% of incident cases and 31% to 63% of deaths, compared with situations of no measures. Moreover, the sooner the quarantine measures were implemented, the greater the cost savings were. High-confidence evidence showed that clear communication about infection control and prevention guidelines was vital for successful implementation. Low-certainty evidence showed that healthcare professionals with long gowns were less exposed to contamination than were those using coveralls. In addition, coveralls were more difficult to doff. Further SRs on controlling the dissemination of COVID-19 infection are desirable.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690803

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence on preventing Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging to interpret due to varying study designs with heterogeneous endpoints and credibility. We completed a systematic review and meta-analysis of current evidence with prospective designs to propose evidence-based suggestions on AD prevention. METHODS: Electronic databases and relevant websites were searched from inception to 1 March 2019. Both observational prospective studies (OPSs) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The multivariable-adjusted effect estimates were pooled by random-effects models, with credibility assessment according to its risk of bias, inconsistency and imprecision. Levels of evidence and classes of suggestions were summarised. RESULTS: A total of 44 676 reports were identified, and 243 OPSs and 153 RCTs were eligible for analysis after exclusion based on pre-decided criteria, from which 104 modifiable factors and 11 interventions were included in the meta-analyses. Twenty-one suggestions are proposed based on the consolidated evidence, with Class I suggestions targeting 19 factors: 10 with Level A strong evidence (education, cognitive activity, high body mass index in latelife, hyperhomocysteinaemia, depression, stress, diabetes, head trauma, hypertension in midlife and orthostatic hypotension) and 9 with Level B weaker evidence (obesity in midlife, weight loss in late life, physical exercise, smoking, sleep, cerebrovascular disease, frailty, atrial fibrillation and vitamin C). In contrast, two interventions are not recommended: oestrogen replacement therapy (Level A2) and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (Level B). INTERPRETATION: Evidence-based suggestions are proposed, offering clinicians and stakeholders current guidance for the prevention of AD.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502258

RESUMEN

Evidence is limited for infection prevention and control (IPC) measures reducing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) transmission in health facilities. This systematic review, one of seven commissioned by the World Health Organization to inform the 2019 update of global tuberculosis (TB) IPC guidelines, asked: do triage and/or isolation and/or effective treatment of TB disease reduce MTB transmission in health care settings? Of 25 included articles, 19 reported latent TB infection (LTBI) incidence in health care workers (HCWs; absolute risk reductions 1%-21%); five reported TB disease incidence in HCWs (no/slight [high TB burden] or moderate [low burden] reduction) and two in HIV-positive in-patients (6%-29% reduction). 23/25 studies implemented multiple IPC measures; effects of individual measures could not be disaggregated. Packages of IPC measures appeared to reduce MTB transmission, but evidence for effectiveness of triage, isolation, or effective treatment, alone or in combination, was indirect and low quality. Harmonising study designs and reporting frameworks will permit formal data syntheses and facilitate policymaking.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(Supplement_1): S1-S3, 2020 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578867

RESUMEN

The articles in this supplement address key questions on syphilis diagnostics, provide reference tables of test performances, and discuss optimal specimens and knowledge gaps. Laboratory-developed genetic direct detection tests could be most useful at the point of care and add to the currently available serologic methods of nontreponemal and treponemal tests.

8.
San Salvador; El Salvador. Ministerio de Salud; jun.15,2020. 46 p. ilus.
No convencional en Español | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1102988

RESUMEN

El Ministerio de Salud, considera fundamental priorizar las acciones contra la malaria, protegiendo la salud de los trabajadores en consonancia con las disposiciones nacionales de respuesta a la COVID-19. Las orientaciones específicas sobre malaria en respuesta a la COVID-19, han sido elaboradas por OMS y son referencia principal de este documento


The Ministry of Health considers it essential to prioritize actions against malaria, protecting the health of workers in accordance with national provisions for response to COVID-19. Specific guidelines on malaria in response to COVID-19 have been developed by WHO and are the main reference in this document


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Malaria
9.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020038, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512661

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Transmission of infectious diseases is often prevented by quarantine and isolation of the populations at risk. These approaches restrict the mobility, social interactions, and daily activities of the affected individuals. In recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, quarantine and isolation are being adopted in many contexts, which necessitates an evaluation of global evidence on how such measures impact the mental health outcomes among populations. This umbrella review aimed to synthesize the available evidence on mental health outcomes of quarantine and isolation for preventing infectious diseases. METHODS: We searched nine major databases and additional sources and included articles if they were systematically conducted reviews, published as peer-reviewed journal articles, and reported mental health outcomes of quarantine or isolation in any population. RESULTS: Among 1,364 citations, only eight reviews met our criteria. Most of the primary studies in those reviews were conducted in high-income nations and in hospital settings. These articles reported a high burden of mental health problems among patients, informal caregivers, and healthcare providers who experienced quarantine or isolation. Prevalent mental health problems among the affected individuals include depression, anxiety, mood disorders, psychological distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, insomnia, fear, stigmatization, low self-esteem, lack of self-control, and other adverse mental health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This umbrella review found severe mental health problems among individuals and populations who have undergone quarantine and isolation in different contexts. This evidence necessitates multipronged interventions including policy measures for strengthening mental health services globally and promoting psychosocial wellbeing among high-risk populations.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
10.
Metab Brain Dis ; 2020 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363472

RESUMEN

Lately, focus on the relation between Parkinson's disease (PD) and Diabetes has risen greatly, as neuroprotective properties have been attributed to insulin use. Several studies have assessed the effect of glitazones, an insulin-sensitizing agent, in diabetic population on PD future risk. However, reports on the effect of their use have been heterogeneous. We aimed to synthesize the available scientific evidence which assesses the effect of glitazone use in type 2 diabetes patients on PD incidence. A systematic review was performed on multiple electronic databases. Considered for inclusion were studies that assessed the incidence of PD in type 2 diabetes glitazone users. Two reviewers worked independently and in duplicate to assess all studies, extract information and assess the methodological quality in each included study. Four high quality retrospective cohorts fulfilled inclusion criteria. Comparison groups varied across studies. In each study, incidence of PD was lower in glitazone-exposed patients compared to their respective comparison group. Pooled analysis showed lesser risk of PD in ever versus never glitazone users (RR 0.75 [95% C.I. 0.67-0.85; p < .0001; I2 = 0]). Our pooled analysis showed lesser risk of PD in glitazone versus non glitazone users, however, we advise to take results with caution since results are non-adjusted to possible confounding variables, furthermore, different glitazone-exposure time, follow up and comparison groups are aspects that also need to be pointed out. More clinical research focused on glitazone use and its relation with PD is needed, as this could result in new potential treatment modalities.

11.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 154, 2020 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349691

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The oral health of patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) is insufficient. Poor oral health and its components can affect the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of these patients. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the OHRQoL of adult patients under RRT. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using the terms: dialysis OR "renal disease" OR kidney OR "renal failure" OR "kidney transplantation" OR hemodialysis OR "peritoneal dialysis" OR "renal replacement therapy" AND "oral health-related quality of life", complemented by manual search. Clinical studies including adults (age ≥ 18 years) that were published between 2009 and 2019 were included in qualitative analysis. RESULTS: Twelve out of 20 studies were included in the qualitative analysis. The majority (11/12 studies) included patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD), with a sample size between 47 and 512 participants. Two studies included patients after kidney transplantation. Only one-quarter of the investigations included a healthy control group. The overall OHRQoL was found to be reduced. The majority of studies found relationships between OHRQoL and different oral health parameters. Furthermore, several relationships between OHRQoL and general quality of life as well as disease related parameters including age, gender, diabetes, blood parameters and dialysis duration were found. OHRQoL subscales psychological/psychosocial impairment and pain were predominantly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Patients under RRT suffer from a reduced OHRQoL, which is potentially influenced by oral health and disease related parameters. Interdisciplinary dental care is needed and should consider both physical and psychosocial issues.

12.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 156, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357924

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Regarding lupus disease activity, morbidity and survival, limited literature concluded conflicting results when comparing hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis as initial renal replacement therapies (RRT) prior to transplantation, in lupus nephritis end-stage renal disease (LN-ESRD) patients. This study was aimed to compare the risks of lupus flares, all-cause infections, all-cause cardiovascular events, and mortality, between hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis as initial RRT - modality before renal-transplant in LN-ESRD patients, by systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS were searched for observational-studies comparing LN-ESRD -patients undergoing hemodialysis (Group1) versus peritoneal-dialysis (Group 2) prior to renal-transplantation, by their risks of lupus flare, all-cause infections, all-cause cardiovascular events, and mortality as outcome measures. Relative-Risks of outcomes between the groups measured overall effects at a 95% significance level. RevMan 5.3 computer software was used for analysis. RESULTS: From search, 16 eligible studies reported 15,636 LN-ESRD -patients prior to renal transplantation with 4616 patients on hemodialysis, 2089 on peritoneal dialysis, 280 directly underwent kidney transplantation, 8319 were eliminated with reasons and 332 participants' details were not reported. Hemodialysis group had higher risk of all-cause cardiovascular events, Relative-Risk = 1.44 (Confidence Interval:1.02, 2.04), p-Value< 0.05. With regards to risks for mortality, flare and all-cause infections, there were trends that were not statistically significant (p-Value> 0.05). CONCLUSION: Except for all-cause cardiovascular events in which peritoneal dialysis is superior to hemodialysis offering better outcomes, both treatment modalities offer more or less similar clinical outcomes as effective initial choices of RRT in LN-ESRD patients prior to renal transplant. THE PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2019 CRD42019131600.

13.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 41(3): 167-171, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375960

RESUMEN

Background: The 2017 addendum to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) guidelines on peanut allergy prevention significantly altered recommendations for patients at risk of developing peanut allergies. It is unknown if primary care physicians are aware of or are following these guidelines. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice of the NIAID guidelines among primary care physicians. Methods: A survey was developed to assess the knowledge, awareness, and practice behaviors of the NIAID guidelines. It was distributed to pediatric, family medicine, and medicine-pediatric residents and attending physicians at two large academic centers. Responses were analyzed with binary logistic regression. Results: The survey was distributed to 605 providers, with a response rate of 35% (n = 210). The average score was 4.8 of seven questions answered correctly. Of the participants, 53% incorrectly recommended at-home peanut introduction in patients with egg allergy. In addition, 40% of the participants incorrectly believed that the earliest age for peanut introduction was >1 year of age. More than half of the participants were unaware of the new guidelines. On logistic regression, factors associated with adequate knowledge assessment scores were awareness of the guidelines (odds ratio [OR] 2.98 [confidence interval {CI}, 1.34-6.60]), graduation from residency within 5 years (OR 3.60 [95% CI, 1.14-11.35]), and affiliation with the medicine-pediatrics department (OR 4.59 [95% CI, 1.07-19.65]). Conclusion: The primary care providers incorrectly answer one-third of the questions related to the prevention of peanut allergy. Increasing awareness of the 2017 NIAID guidelines may provide an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. There is an urgent need to develop innovative education strategies to publicize these guidelines.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352895

RESUMEN

Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are costly and associated with poorer patient outcomes. Intra-operative surgical site irrigation and intra-cavity lavage may reduce the risk of SSIs through removal of dead or damaged tissue, metabolic waste, and site exudate. Irrigation with antibiotic or antiseptic solutions may further reduce the risk of SSI because of bacteriocidal properties. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted comparing irrigation solutions, but important comparisons (e.g., antibiotic vs. antiseptic irrigation) are absent. We use systematic review-based network meta-analysis (NMA) of RCTs to compare irrigation solutions for prevention of SSI. Methods: We used Cochrane methodology and included all RCTs of participants undergoing a surgical procedure with primary site closure, in which method of irrigation was the only systematic difference between groups. We used a random effects Bayesian NMA to create a connected network of comparisons. Results are presented as odds ratios (OR) of SSI, where OR <1 indicates a beneficial effect. Results: We identified 42 eligible RCTs with 11,726 participants. Most were at unclear or high risk of bias. The RCTs included groups given no irrigation or non-antibacterial, antiseptic, or antibiotic irrigation. There was substantial heterogeneity, and a random effects model was selected. Relative to non-antibacterial irrigation, mean OR of SSI was 0.439 (95% credible interval: 0.282, 0.667) for antibiotic irrigation and 0.573 (0.321, 0.953) for antiseptic agents. No irrigation was similar to non-antibacterial irrigation (OR 0.959 [0.555, 1.660#x005D;). Antibiotic and antiseptic irrigation were ranked as most effective for preventing SSIs; this conclusion was robust to potential bias. Conclusions: Our NMA found that antibiotic and antiseptic irrigation had the lowest odds of SSI. There was high heterogeneity, however, and studies were at high risk of bias. A large RCT directly comparing antibiotic irrigation with both antiseptic and non-antibacterial irrigation is needed to define the standard of care for SSI prevention by site irrigation.

15.
Global Health ; 16(1): 41, 2020 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375804

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are one of the main challenges of healthcare systems around the world. In addition to the technical level, it requires political negotiations and solutions, such as global health diplomacy (GHD), which involves the participation of a wide range of actors and stakeholders and innovative international health partnerships. This review aimed to draw lessons for strengthening linkages with a wide range of actors and stakeholders from the GHD literature for NCDs, and how policymakers and political leaders can effectively use international health partnerships to beat NCDs. METHODS: This research was a systematic review of the literature on GHD for NCDs. All relevant articles published in English were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase databases, Google and Google Scholar search engines, and the reference lists of identified articles as well as a number of special journals. 30 articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed using content analysis in MAXQDA 10. The Global Health Diplomacy Pyramid and Blouin and Dubé's (2010) analytical framework for examining negotiations were used to classify the data. FINDINGS: 30 articles have been published on GHD for NCDs. Five key themes, i.e. the specific problem requiring global collective action, key actors, their interests in the problem, potential negotiation process, and potential scenarios for collective action and 46 sub-themes were identified. Moreover, given the importance of collaboration on NCDs in the international arena, actors were categorized into three groups based on the GHD Pyramid: (1) core diplomacy, (2) multi-stakeholder diplomacy, and (3) informal diplomacy. CONCLUSION: Development and adoption of a global policy to tackle the rise in NCDs in developed and developing countries require policymakers and political leaders that participate in GHD. Successful developments in global health policy depend on the performance of and respectful relationships among the stakeholders, and global health diplomats need to understand the complexities of the institutional structures and functional relationships of the international institutions involved in health.

16.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-8, 2020 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389140

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In colorectal surgery, the composition of the most effective bundle for prevention of surgical site infections (SSI) remains uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to identify bundle interventions most associated with SSI reduction. METHODS: We systematically reviewed 4 databases for studies that assessed bundles with ≥3 elements recommended by clinical practice guidelines for adult colorectal surgery. The main outcome was 30-day postoperative SSI rate (overall, superficial, deep, and/or organ-space). RESULTS: We included 40 studies in the qualitative review, and 35 studies (54,221 patients) in the quantitative review. Only 3 studies were randomized controlled trials. On meta-analyses, bundles were associated with overall SSI reductions of 44% (RR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.48-0.65); superficial SSI reductions of 44% (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.42-0.75); deep SSI reductions of 33% (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.46-0.98); and organ-space SSI reductions of 37% (RR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50-0.81). Bundle composition was heterogeneous. In our meta-regression analysis, bundles containing ≥11 elements, consisting of both standard of care and new interventions, demonstrated the greatest SSI reduction. Separate instrument trays, gloves with and without gown change for wound closure, and standardized postoperative dressing change at 48 hours correlated with the highest reductions in superficial SSIs. Mechanical bowel preparation combined with oral antibiotics, and preoperative chlorhexidine showers correlated with highest organ-space SSI reductions. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive bundles emphasizing guideline-recommended elements from both standard of care as well as new interventions were most effective for SSI reduction following colorectal surgery. High clinical-bundle heterogeneity and low quality for most observational studies significantly limit our conclusion.

17.
Biomed J ; 2020 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389822

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA) due to advanced knee joint osteoarthritis. There are few studies describing the incidence, morbidities, mortality rate, and cost analysis regarding ESRD patients receiving TKA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved patient data from National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan during 2005 to 2011, and evaluated the outcomes of TKA in patients with (ESRD group) and without ESRD (non-ESRD group). Patients' demographic data, comorbidities, mortality, and in-hospital cost were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 578 TKAs and 110,895 TKAs were identified in the ESRD and non-ESRD group, respectively. The incidence of patients receiving TKA was higher in the ESRD than in non-ESRD group by at least 2 folds. The ESRD group showed significantly more medical complications (pneumonia, peptic ulcer disease, and acute myocardial infarction) after surgery. In prosthesis-related complications, the ESRD group also had more periprosthetic joint infections, and prosthetic loosenings by one year. The one-year mortality rate was more than 6 times higher in the ESRD than in the non-ESRD group. The ESRD group had higher in-hospital medical expense than the non-ESRD group, especially when there were complications, even when the dialysis-related costs were exempted. CONCLUSIONS: The complication rate, mortality rate, and cost were higher in the ESRD patients receiving TKA. When considering TKA in ESRD patients, it is crucial to weigh the risks against benefits of TKA, and have a thorough discussion with the patients.

18.
Vaccine ; 38(25): 4079-4087, 2020 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: RTS,S/AS01, the most advanced vaccine against malaria, is now undergoing pilot implementation in Malawi, Ghana, and Kenya where an estimated 360,000 children will be vaccinated each year. In this study we evaluate RTS,S/AS01 alongside bed net use and estimate cost-effectiveness. METHODS: RTS,S/AS01 phase III trial and bed net prevalence data were used to determine the effect of vaccination in the urban/periurban and rural areas of Lilongwe, Malawi. Cost data were used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of various interventions over three years. FINDINGS: Since bed nets reduce malaria incidence and homogeneous vaccine efficacy was assumed, participants without bed nets received greater relative benefit from vaccination with RTS,S/AS01 than participants with bed nets. Similarly, since malaria incidence in rural Lilongwe is higher than in urban Lilongwe, the impact and cost-effectiveness of vaccine interventions is increased in rural areas. In rural Lilongwe, we estimated that vaccinating one child without a bed net would prevent 2·59 (1·62 to 3·38) cases of malaria over three years, corresponding to a cost of $10·08 (7·71 to 16·13) per case averted. Alternatively, vaccinating one child with a bed net would prevent 1·59 (0·87 to 2·57) cases, corresponding to $16·43 (10·16 to 30·06) per case averted. Providing RTS,S/AS01 to 30,000 children in rural Lilongwe was estimated to cost $782,400 and to prevent 58,611 (35,778 to 82,932) cases of malaria over a three-year period. Joint interventions providing both vaccination and bed nets (to those without them) were estimated to prevent additional cases of malaria and to be similarly cost-effective, compared to vaccine-only interventions. INTERPRETATION: To maximize malaria prevention, vaccination and bed net distribution programs could be integrated. FUNDING: Impacts of Environment, Host Genetics and Antigen Diversity on Malaria Vaccine Efficacy (1R01AI137410-01).

19.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e034804, 2020 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385061

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Acute exacerbation (AE) is a major cause of disease progression and death in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), accounting for majority of medical expenditures. Correct inhalation therapy is effective in preventing AE attacks. However, inappropriate usage of dry powder inhaler, partially due to the unrecovered peak inhalation flow rate (PIFR) after acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD), results in increased risk of early treatment failure. Therefore, we designed a multicentre, randomised clinical trial to determine whether PIFR-based optimised inhalation therapy and training on inhaler usage at discharge could effectively reduce early treatment failure events. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 416 hospitalised patients just recovering from AECOPD will be recruited and equally randomised into the PIFR group and the control group at a 1:1 ratio. The PIFR group will receive additive support before discharge, including choice of PIFR-guided inhaler and education on its usage. PIFR is measured by InCheck DIAL. In comparison, the control group will receive inhalers based on judgement of the respiratory physician. The primary outcome of the study is 30-day treatment failure rate. Other endpoints include PIFR, error rate of inhalation device use, satisfaction with inhalation devices, 30-day mortality, 90-day mortality, symptoms and quality of life of patients, and COPD-related treatment costs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University (B2019-142). Participants will be screened and enrolled from hospitalised patients with AECOPD by clinicians, with no public advertisement for recruitment. After the trial has completed, the results will be reported to the public through conference presentations and peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04000958.

20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 403, 2020 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393380

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To discriminatively evaluate the cost-saving effects of a disease management program for diabetic nephropathy patients through care process rectification and, subsequently, improved health outcomes. METHODS: This study links public medical insurance claims data to the health records of a disease management program for diabetic nephropathy patients. To account for selection bias caused by the non-randomized allocation of the disease management program for diabetes patients, we adopted a fixed-effect model of panel data analysis. To discriminatively evaluate the cost-saving effects of the disease management program for diabetic nephropathy patients through care process rectification and, subsequently, improved health outcomes, we expanded the difference-in-differences analysis from the traditional two-period model to a three-period model, comprising the before-intervention, during-intervention, and after-intervention periods. Data were extracted from municipal public insurers in Kure, Japan. RESULTS: The cost-reduction effect in terms of treatment costs from the before-intervention period to the during-intervention period (the rectification effect) was 4.02%, and the cost-saving effect from the during-intervention period to the after-intervention period (the health improvement effect) was 2.95%. CONCLUSIONS: A disease management program for diabetes patients organized by local public insurers in Japan reduced costs both by amending treatment processes and by subsequently improving the prognosis of the disease.

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