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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410013

RESUMEN

In this population-based study, we explored the relationships between immigration, socio-economic status (SES), and perinatal outcomes. We quantified the effects of SES on birthweight disparities between native and immigrant mothers in Spain. We obtained birth and SES data from the 2011 census and administrative registers for years 2011-2015. The associations between origin, statuses, and the likelihood of low birthweight were estimated using logistic regressions. Fairlie's nonlinear extension of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method was applied to identify the extent to which the differences in birthweight between groups corresponded to socio-economic composition or to rates. Our results showed that African and Latin American mothers exhibited advantage in the perinatal outcomes over native mothers [odds ratio (OR) 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-0.90 and OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.65-0.82, respectively]. Decomposition analyses revealed that such advantage was not affected by the lower positions within the socio-economic structure that African and Latin American populations occupied.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260485

RESUMEN

This study aimed to analyse the influence of the economic crisis on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the immigrant population compared to the native population. A cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing 441 clinical records (329 Spanish nationals and 112 non-Spanish nationals) of individuals who, between 2000 and 2014, visited an STI clinic in Granada and tested positive for an infection. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed, and infection rates, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The mean age was 28.06 years (SD = 8.30; range = 16-70). During the period 2000-2014, the risk of being diagnosed with an STI was higher among non-Spanish nationals than among Spanish nationals (odds ratio (OR) = 5.33; 95% CI = 4.78-6.60). Differences between both populations were less marked during the crisis period (2008-2014: OR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.32-3.73) than during the non-crisis period (2000-2007: OR = 12.02; 95% CI = 10.33-16.17). This may be due to underreporting of diagnoses in the immigrant population. Immigrants visiting the STI clinic in Granada are especially vulnerable to positive STI diagnoses compared to the native population.

3.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-12, 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131930

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between malnutrition, socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity in Chilean adult population. DESIGN: Nationally representative survey (ENS) conducted in 2016-2017. Sociodemographic information, weight, height and hemoglobin (Hb) were measured (2003 ENS). Excess weight was defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Undernutrition included underweight (BMI <18·5 kg/m2), short stature (height <1·49 m in women and <1·62 m in men) or anaemia (Hb <12 g/l). Education and household income level were used as indicators of SES; ethnicity was self-reported. We applied linear combinations of estimators to compare the prevalence of excess weight and undernutrition by SES and ethnicity. SETTING: Chile. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 5082 adults ≥20 years (64 % women) and 1739 women ≥20 years for anaemia analyses. RESULTS: Overall, >75 % of women and men had excess weight. Low SES women either by income or education had higher excess weight ((82·0 (77·1, 86·1) v. 65·0 (54·8, 74·1)) by income; (85·3 (80·6, 89·0) v. 68·2 (61·6, 74·1) %) by education) and short stature (20-49 years; 31(17·9, 48·2) v. 5·2 (2·2,11·4) by education); obesity was also more frequent among indigenous women (20-49 years; 55·8 (44·4, 66·6) v. 37·2 (32·7, 42·0) %) than non-indigenous women. In men, excess weight did not significantly differ by SES or ethnicity, but short stature concentrated in low SES (20-49 years; 47·6 (24·6, 71·6) v. 4·5 (2·1, 9·5) by education) and indigenous men (21·5 (11·9, 5·5, 11·9) v. 8·2 (5·5, 11·9)) (P < 0·05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: In Chile, malnutrition is disproportionately concentrated among women of low SES and indigenous origin; these inequalities should be considered when implementing prevention policies.

4.
Euro Surveill ; 25(8)2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127121

RESUMEN

BackgroundChagas disease has spread beyond its original borders on the American continent with migration. It can be transmitted from mother to child, through organ transplantation and transfusion of blood and blood products. It is necessary to determine when to screen for this infection.AimOur objective was to evaluate the appropriateness of screening for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Latin American migrants and their descendants.MethodsWe reviewed the literature using rigorous criteria. The quality of evidence was ranked according to the GRADE classification. An evidence to decision framework was adopted to provide information on the most relevant aspects necessary to formulate recommendations.ResultsThe 33 studies evaluated revealed a prevalence of T. cruzi infection among Latin American migrants in Europe of 6.08% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.24-9.69; 28 studies). Vertical transmission occurred in three of 100 live births (95% CI: 1-6; 13 studies). The prevalence of cardiovascular disease was 19% (95% CI: 13-27; nine studies), including only 1% severe cardiac events (95% CI: 0-2; 11 studies). The overall quality of evidence was low because of risk of bias in the studies and considerable heterogeneity of the evaluated populations. The recommendations took into account economic studies on the value of screening strategies and studies on acceptability of screening and knowledge of the disease in the affected population.ConclusionsWe identified five situations in which screening for T. cruzi infection is indicated. We recommend screening persons from endemic areas and children of mothers from these areas.

5.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2020 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957526

RESUMEN

Background: Current policy and service provision recommend a woman-centered approach to maternity care and the development of personalized models for clinical assistance. Ethnicity has been recognized as a determinant in the risk calculation of selected obstetric complications. Based on these assumptions, our aims were to describe the linkage between baseline characteristics and maternal ethnicity and to analyze the cost for the local healthcare system, distinguishing mode of delivery, absence or presence of complications at birth, and maternal stay duration for all ethnic groups.Methods: In a 5-year period (2012-16), all women admitted for delivery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A Gemelli" IRCCS, Rome, Italy, were included in the analysis. Maternal demographics, adverse outcomes, and costs were evaluated. Economic calculations were performed by using the "diagnosis-related group" (DRG) approach.Results: A total of 18,093 patients were included in the analysis. An overall care expense of €42,663,481 was calculated. Caucasian was the main ethnicity (90.7%), with 9.3% minority groups. Vaginal delivery (VD) was the most common mode of delivery in all ethnic groups, with a global rate of 59.6%. The highest cesarean section (CS) rates were observed among Maghreb (51.5%) and Afro-Caribbean (47.8%) women. Minority groups had a doubled rate of complicated VD, primarily Afro-Caribbean women (69.9%), followed by Asian (64.1%), Maghreb (63.2%), and Latin American (62.7%) women. Afro-Caribbean women had the highest rate of complicated CS compared to the overall study population (37.6 versus 28.5%, p < .005).Conclusions: Minority groups have increased healthcare costs for birth assistance, mainly due to the higher rates of complications. In a prospective view, two strategies could be planned: first, calculating individualized risk to mitigate the clinical care charge, based on the ad hoc combination of ethnicity, mode of delivery, and obstetric complications; and second, endorsing the current financial return-on-investment opportunity tied to mitigating ethnic disparities in birth outcomes.

6.
J Relig Health ; 59(1): 431-451, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828596

RESUMEN

Religion, a prominent factor among Black diasporic communities, influences their health outcomes. Given the increase in Black Caribbeans living in the United States, it is important to understand how religion's function among different ethnic groups of Black Americans. We systematically reviewed four databases and included articles of any study design if they (a) focused on the religious experiences of emerging adults (18-29 years) identifying as Black Caribbean in the United States, in light of medical, public health, or mental health outcomes, and (b) were published before November 30, 2018. Study results contribute to future studies' conceptualization and measurement of religion among Black Caribbean emerging adults.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Estado de Salud , Religión , Espiritualidad , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Región del Caribe/etnología , Emigración e Inmigración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/etnología , Estados Unidos
7.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1047752

RESUMEN

Objetivo: realizar um mapeamento na literatura sobre os estudos que abordam a saúde das mulheres quilombolas. Método: revisão integrativa de literatura de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em três bases de dados, com a utilização da combinação dos descritores: Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano, Mulheres, Saúde, num intervalo temporal de 10 anos. Resultados: emergiram 66 artigos, sendo incluídos 58 para análise e discussão. Formou-se eixos temáticos, onde 25 estavam relacionadas às doenças das mulheres quilombolas e com limitada discussão da promoção da saúde e dos determinantes sociais. Os outros 33 artigos relacionavam-se à contextualização histórica e social dos quilombos, Atenção Primária à Saúde, iniquidade social e violência, racismo e discriminação e acesso das mulheres quilombolas aos serviços de saúde. Conclusão: identificou-se limitações frente a determinação social com foco em pesquisas de cunho biológico e com ênfase na doença, destacando a necessidade imperiosa de estudos voltados a promoção da saúde desta população


Objective: to carry out a mapping in the literature on studies addressing the health of quilombolas women. Method: integrative review of literature of qualitative approach, held in three databases, using the combination of the descriptors: african continental ancestry group, women, health, in a time interval of 10 years. Results: 66 articles emerged, being included 58 for analysis and discussion. It formed themes, and from these 25 were related diseases of the quilombo women and limited discussion of health promotion and social determinants. The other 33 articles were related to the historical and social context of the quilombos, Primary Health Care, social inequity and violence, racism and discrimination and access of quilombos women to health services. Conclusion: we identified limitations front the social determination with focus on research of biological nature and an emphasis on disease, highlighting the necessity of studies regarding at promoting the health of this population


Objetivo: realizar un levantamiento en la literatura sobre los estudios que abordan la salud de las mujeres quilombolas. Método: revisión integrativa de literatura de abordaje cualitativo, realizada en tres bases de datos, con la utilización de combinación de las siguientes palabras clave: Grupo con Ancestrales del Continente Africano, Mujeres, Salud, en un intervalo temporal de 10 años. Resultados: han surgido 66 artículos, de los cuales 58 se ha analizado y discutido. A partir de esto, se ha formado ejes temáticos, de los cuales 25 artículos presentan relación con enfermedades de las mujeres quilombolas y con limitada discusión de la Promoción de la Salud y de los Determinantes Sociales. Los otros 33 artículos presentan relación con la contextualización histórica y social de los quilombos, Atención Primaria a la Salud, iniquidad social y violencia, racismo y discriminación y acceso de las mujeres quilombolas a los servicios de salud. Conclusión: se identificó limitaciones frente a la determinación social con foco en investigaciones de carácter biológico y con énfasis en la enfermedad, destacando la necesidad imperiosa de estudios volcados a la Promoción de la Salud de esta población


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Salud de la Mujer , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Brasil , Servicios de Salud para Mujeres
8.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e190311, 2020. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056556

RESUMEN

Este artigo tem por objetivo investigar como o tema saúde de imigrantes haitianos vem sendo abordado em estudos empíricos qualitativos. Realizou-se revisão sistemática nas bases de dados PubMed, Scielo, Scopus e Web of Science, entre 2007 e 2019. Esta revisão orientou-se por princípios da revisão sistemática quantitativa, aplicados à pesquisa qualitativa. Os 17 artigos selecionados foram revisados criticamente e os dados relevantes extraídos e sintetizados utilizando-se preceitos da síntese temática. Os resultados apontam que percepções e saberes sobre saúde e doença estiveram presentes em todos os trabalhos. Os estudos incluídos demonstram motivos pelos quais os participantes não acessam serviços de saúde, no entanto, não exploram como ocorrem as trajetórias de cuidado. Recomenda-se que trabalhos futuros reconheçam a necessidade do diálogo intercultural, avançando no sentido de compreender a lógica e os significados que dão sustentação às representações socioculturais do cuidado à saúde.(AU)


This article aims to investigate how the theme Haitian immigrants' health has been approached in qualitative empirical studies. A systematic review was carried out in the databases PubMed, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science between 2007 and 2019. This review was guided by principles of quantitative systematic review applied to qualitative research. The 17 selected articles were critically reviewed and relevant data were extracted and synthesized using thematic synthesis precepts. Results show that perceptions and knowledge about health/disease were present in all the aticles. The selected studies demonstrate reasons why research participants do not access health services, but do not explore how care paths occur. It is recommended that further studies should recognize the need of intercultural dialog and advance towards understanding the logic and meanings that support sociocultural representations of healthcare.(AU)


El objetivo de este artículo es investigar el tema de la salud de inmigrantes haitianos que se ha abordado en estudios empíricos cualitativos. Se realizó la revisión sistemática en las bases de datos PubMed, Scielo, Scopus y Web of Science, entre 2007 y 2019. Esta revisión se orientó por principios de la revisión sistemática cuantitativa, aplicados a la investigación cualitativa. Los 17 artículos seleccionados se revisaron críticamente y los datos relevantes se extrajeron y sintetizaron utilizándose preceptos de la síntesis temática. Los resultados señalan que percepciones y saberes sobre salud/enfermedad estuvieron presentes en todos los trabajos. Los estudios incluidos demuestran motivos por los cuales los participantes no realizan el acceso a los servicios de salud, pero no exploran cómo ocurren las trayectorias de cuidado. Se recomienda que trabajos futuros reconozcan la necesidad del diálogo intercultural avanzando en el sentido de comprender la lógica y los significados que dan sustentación a las representaciones socioculturales del cuidado de la salud.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Investigación Empírica , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación Cualitativa , Indicadores Bibliométricos , Haití/etnología
9.
Agora USB ; 19(2): 424-440, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1054786

RESUMEN

Resumen El artículo analiza el comportamiento de la crisis económica en las trayectorias laborales de colombianos en Madrid, examinando los dos segmentos del mercado de trabajo español. Recurriendo al método biográfico, se constata que la crisis irrumpe como elemento definitivo en el re-direccionamiento laboral. Dicha dinámica se muestra tanto para trabajadores del segundo segmento laboral, como para aquellos ubicados en el segmento primario, desarrollando distintas estrategias que permiten para unos, resistir las inclemencias del ciclo económico, y para otros, superar estos obstáculos. El capital social y la situación administrativa se muestran como mecanismos decisivos para afrontar este contexto.


Abstract The article analyzes the behavior of the economic crisis in the labor trajectories of Colombians in Madrid, by examining the two segments of the Spanish labor market. By using the biographical method, it is found that the crisis breaks as a definitive element in labor redirection. This dynamic is shown both for workers in the second labor segment, as well as for those located in the primary segment, by developing different strategies, which allow for some, to resist the inclement conditions of the economic cycle, and for others, to overcome these hurdles. The social capital and administrative situation are shown as decisive mechanisms to deal with this context.

10.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588883

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyse disparities of malnutrition in all its forms by socio-economic indicators in children aged <5 years, adolescent girls and women of reproductive age (WRA). DESIGN: We defined wasting/underweight, stunting/short stature, overweight and obesity following the WHO criteria for children aged <5 years, adolescents and WRA. We evaluated the prevalence of malnutrition by wealth status, education level and ethnicity (indigenous/non-indigenous). SETTING: Guatemalan 2014-2015 National Maternal and Child Health Survey. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged <5 years (n 11 962), adolescent girls aged 15-19 years (n 1086) and WRA aged 20-49 years (n 11 354). RESULTS: Stunting/short stature prevalence among children, adolescents and WRA was 2·8, 2·1 and 2·0 times higher in the poorest compared with the richest; 2·9, 2·9 and 2·1 times higher in the lower educational level than in the highest; and 1·7, 1·7 and 1·6 times higher in the indigenous than in the non-indigenous population. In contrast, overweight/obesity prevalence among children, adolescents and WRA was 1·6, 2·1 and 1·8 times higher in the richest compared with the poorest; 1·6, 1·3 and 1·3 times higher in the higher educational level than in the lowest; and 1·3, 1·7 and 1·3 times higher in the non-indigenous than in the indigenous population. CONCLUSIONS: Stunting/short stature is more prevalent among low-income, low-education and indigenous populations in all age groups. In contrast, overweight/obesity is more prevalent in high-income, high-education and non-indigenous populations in all age groups. These outcomes demonstrate socio-economic and ethnic disparities for malnutrition in all its forms.

11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 616-628, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1058088

RESUMEN

Resumen La incorporación de terapias biológicas ha significado un gran avance en el manejo de diversas patologías de origen autoinmune, neoplásico u otros. Si bien su uso ha implicado mejoras significativas en el pronóstico de estas enfermedades, no está exento de complicaciones, entre éstas, las infecciosas. El objetivo de este consenso fue evaluar el perfil de seguridad, desde la mirada infectológica, de las terapias biológicas de uso más frecuente y dar recomendaciones para la prevención de infecciones en pacientes tratados con ellas, basándose en la evidencia de mayor calidad disponible para los biológicos seleccionados. El consenso cuenta de dos manuscritos. Esta segunda parte corresponde a la guía clínica que detalla estas recomendaciones mediante estrategias de cribado, terapias profilácticas e indicación de vacunas, según corresponde, para infecciones bacterianas, y por micobacterias en particular, virus, hongos y parásitos, tanto para adultos como para niños.


The use of biological therapies has meant a great improvement in the management of several conditions like autoimmune, neoplastic or others diseases. Although its use has implied significant improvements in the prognosis of these diseases, it is not exempt from complications: infectious diseases as one of them. The objective of this consensus was to evaluate, from an infectious viewpoint, the safeness of the most frequently used biological therapies and give recommendations for the prevention of infections in patients treated with these drugs. These recommendations were based on the highest quality evidence available for the selected biologics. The consensus counts of 2 manuscripts. This second part is a guideline that details these recommendations through screening strategies, prophylactic therapies and vaccines indications for bacterial, mycobacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections, both for adults and children.

12.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 34(4): 417-437, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396808

RESUMEN

Data from the Mexican Census reveal that between 2005 and 2015, nearly two million migrants returned voluntarily to Mexico from the United States. Currently, high rates of voluntary-return migration to Mexico continue at the same time that migration flows to the U.S. steadily decline. This return migration trend presents serious challenges for Mexico, a country that has long struggled to satisfy the health care demands of its population. However, little is known about return migrants' health care needs. In this study, we examine the health risk profiles and healthcare utilization for Mexican return migrants and the non-migrant population. We examine how these outcomes are affected by both the migration and return migration experience of the returnee population, while paying close attention to age-group differences. We employ inverse probability weighting regression adjustment (IPWRA) and logistic regression analysis of a sample of 348,450 respondents from the 2014 National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID) to test for differences in health conditions between those Mexican return migrants and non-migrants. We then turn to the Survey of Migration at Mexico's Northern Border (EMIF Norte, for its Spanish acronym) for the 2014-2017 period to further assess whether certain characteristics linked to aging and the migration experience influence the prevalence of chronic health conditions, and health insurance coverage among 17,258 returned migrants. Findings reveal that compared to non-migrants, returnees are more likely to be physically impaired. These poor health outcomes are influenced by the migration and return migration experience and vary by age group and duration of residence, the time that has elapsed since returning to Mexico. We do not find an association between return migration and mental or emotional distress. Policy implications are discussed in light of immigration reform and restrictions on eligibility for health insurance coverage for older adults in Mexico.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración/tendencias , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Estado de Salud , Cobertura del Seguro , Americanos Mexicanos , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 151, 2019 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096964

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Training in the use of cost-conscious strategies for medical students may prepare new physicians to deliver health care in a more sustainable way. Recently, a role-modeling cost-conscious behaviors scale (RMCCBS) was developed for assessing students' perceptions of their teachers' attitudes to cost consciousness. We aimed to translate the RMCCBS into Brazilian Portuguese, adapt the scale, transculturally, and validate it. METHODS: We adopted rigorous methodological approaches for translating, transculturally adapting and validating the original scale English version into Brazilian Portuguese. We invited all 400 undergraduate medical students enrolled in the 5th and 6th years of a medical course in Northeast Brazil between January and March 2017 to participate. Of the 400 students, 281 accepted to take part in the study. We analyzed the collected data using the SPSS software version 21 and structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed using AMOS SPSS version 18. We conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA), varimax rotation, with Kaiser Normalization and Principal Axis Factoring extraction method. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), using the SEM. We used the following indexes of adherence of the model: Comparative fit index (CFI), Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) and Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI). We considered the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) for Sample-size adjusted. The root mean square error of approximation was calculated. Values below 0.08 were considered acceptable. Composite reliability analyzes were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the instrument. Values above 0.70 were considered satisfactory. RESULTS: Of the 281 undergraduate medical students, 195 (69.3%) were female. Mean age of participants was 25.0 ± 2.6 years. In the EFA, the KMO was 0.720 and the Bartlett sphericity test was significant (p < 0.001). We conducted the EFA into two factors: role-modeling cost-conscious behaviors in health (seven items) and health waste behaviors (six items). The 13 item-scale was submitted to composite reliability analyzes, obtaining values of 0.813 and 0.761 for the role-modeling cost-conscious behaviors and the health waste behaviors factors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the cost-conscious behaviors scale has good psychometric properties and is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating medical students' perception of their teachers' cost-conscious behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Cultural , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Traducción , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Brasil , Características Culturales , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Rol del Médico , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 399, 2019 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975126

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Latinos are currently the largest and fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the lowest rates nationally of regular sources of primary care. The changing demographics of Latino populations have significant implications for the future health of the nation, particularly with respect to chronic disease. Community-based agencies and clinics alike have a long history of engaging community health workers (CHWs) to provide a broad range of tangible and emotional support strategies for Latinos with chronic diseases. In this paper, we present the protocol for a community intervention designed to evaluate the impact of CHWs in a Community-Clinical Linkage model to address chronic disease through innovative utilization of electronic health records (EHRs) and application of mixed methodologies. Linking Individual Needs to Community and Clinical Services (LINKS) is a 3-year, prospective matched observational study designed to examine the feasibility and impact of CHW-led Community-Clinical Linkages in reducing chronic disease risk and promoting emotional well-being among Latinos living in three U.S.-Mexico border communities. METHODS: The primary aim of LINKS is to create Community-Clinical Linkages between three community health centers and their respective county health departments in southern Arizona. Our primary analysis is to examine the impact of the intervention 6 to 12-months post program entry. We will assess chronic disease risk factors documented in the EHRs of participants versus matched non-participants. By using a prospective matched observational study design with EHRs, we have access to numerous potential comparators to evaluate the intervention effects. Secondary analyses include modeling within-group changes of extended research-collected measures. This approach enhances the overall evaluation with rich data on physical and emotional well-being and health behaviors of study participants that EHR systems do not collect in routine clinical practice. DISCUSSION: The LINKS intervention has practical implications for the development of Community-Clinical Linkage models. The collaborative and participatory approach in LINKS illustrates an innovative evaluation framework utilizing EHRs and mixed methods research-generated data collection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was retrospectively registered, approved, and made available on Clinicaltrials.gov by NCT03787485 as of December 20, 2018.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/organización & administración , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Arizona , Enfermedad Crónica/prevención & control , Centros Comunitarios de Salud/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Estudios Prospectivos , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
15.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 21, 2019 03 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922320

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthier dietary patterns are generally more costly than less healthy patterns, but dietary costs may be more important for dietary quality in lower educated and ethnic minority groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary costs and dietary quality and interactions with ethnicity and socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 4717 Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan origin participants of the multi-ethnic HELIUS study (the Netherlands), who completed an ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The primary outcome measure was dietary quality according to adherence to the Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD15-index, range 0-130). Individual dietary costs (the monetary value attached to consumed diets in Euros) were estimated by merging a food price variable with the FFQ nutrient composition database. Regression analyses were used to examine main and interaction effects. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, energy intake, physical activity, ethnicity and educational level. RESULTS: Having higher dietary costs was associated with higher dietary quality. Analyses stratified by educational level showed that associations were stronger in higher educated (Btertile3 = 8.06, 95%CI = 5.63; 10.48) than in lower educated participants (Btertile3 = 5.09, 95%CI = 2.74; 7.44). Stratification by ethnic origin showed strongest associations in Turkish participants (Btertile2 = 9.31, 95%CI = 5.96; 12.65) and weakest associations in Moroccan participants (Btertile3 = 4.29, 95%CI = 0.58; 8.01). Regardless of their level of education, Turkish and Moroccan individuals consumed higher quality diets at the lowest cost than Dutch participants. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of dietary costs for dietary quality differs between socioeconomic and ethnic subgroups. Increasing individual food budgets or decreasing food prices may be effective for the promotion of healthy diets, but differential effects across socioeconomic and ethnic subgroups may be expected.


Asunto(s)
Costos y Análisis de Costo , Dieta Saludable/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/economía , Grupos Étnicos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Registros de Dieta , Femenino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios , Marruecos/etnología , Países Bajos , Suriname/etnología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia/etnología
16.
Medwave ; 19(1): e7470, 2019 Jan 07.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816880

RESUMEN

Background: The Functional Status Score for the Intensive Care Unit (FSS-ICU) is a valid and reliable instrument to measure physical functioning in the intensive care unit setting. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation in Chile has not been published for the FSS-ICU. Aim: To translate and cross-culturally adapt all associated documents of the original FSS-ICU for Chile. Method: The Spanish version of FSS-ICU, available at www.ImproveLTO.com, was used as the starting point. This version was previously translated, with the original FSS-ICU developers, following established guidelines for this process. The Chilean pocket card version was newly developed based on the English version at www.ImproveLTO.com. Cognitive interviews were conducted for the adaptation of the FSS-ICU and pocket card version to assess understanding of relevant stakeholders (i.e., Chilean intensive care unit physiotherapists). Adaptations to the translation were made when agreement among the physiotherapists was less than 80%. Results: Cognitive interviews of the Chilean FSS-ICU (85 items) and pocket card version (18 items) were performed with 30 Chilean physiotherapists from 18 hospitals (14 public and 4 private). During the interviews, modest adaptations mainly made in the general guidelines and specific instructions for three items of the FSS-ICU and two items of the pocket card. Finally, the frequently asked questions, pocket card and full version of the FSS-ICU were developed. The original developers accepted all adaptations. Conclusions: The Chilean version of the FSS-ICU was easy to understand by the physiotherapists. The FSS-ICU is freely available for non-commercial clinical and research use by Chilean Spanish-speakers.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Estado de Salud , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Chile , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Lenguaje , Fisioterapeutas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
17.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(1): 43-52, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013123

RESUMEN

Abstract Objectives: to analyze the prenatal care of pregnant teenagers interviewed in the post-partum period in Brazilian maternity hospitals, according to economic status and skin color. Methods: data were obtained from the Birth in Brazil study, a national hospital-based survey in 2011 and 2012. Information was obtained from interviews with the postpartum women and from data collected from their prenatal cards. Multivariate logistic regression was used to verify whether maternal and prenatal care characteristics were associated with ina-dequate prenatal care. Results: a total of 3,317 teenage mothers were interviewed in the postpartum period, 84.4% of whom had received inadequate prenatal care, with worse results for lower-income, lower-schooling, and multiparous teens. In the same way, it became evident the higher proportion of black teenagers and those from economic classes D/E among those who failed to receive routine laboratory tests, who received little orientation on the pregnancy, labor, and childbirth, and who were forced to go from one maternity hospital to another before being admitted to give birth. Conclusions: strategies targeted to the most vulnerable pregnant teenagers should be implemented in order to achieve greater equality in teenagers' prenatal care, seeking to assure easier access, earlier initiation of care, and greater case-resolution capacity


Resumo Objetivos: analisar a assistência pré-natal de puérperas adolescentes brasileiras, segundo as características econômicas e de cor da pele. Métodos: foram utilizados dados da pesquisa Nascer no Brasil, um inquérito nacional de base hospitalar, realizado entre 2011 e 2012. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas com as puérperas e coleta de dados dos cartões de pré-natal. Realizou-se regressão logística multivariada para verificar quais características maternas e dos cuidados recebidos estavam associadas à inadequação da assistência pré-natal. Resultados: um total de 3.317 puérperas adolescentes foram entrevistadas, tendo 84,4% recebido cuidado inadequado durante o pré-natal, com pior resultado para as adolescentes de classe econômica mais baixa, menor escolaridade e multíparas. Do mesmo modo, ficou evidente a maior proporção de adolescentes da classe econômica D/E e de cor da pele preta que não conseguiram realizar exames preconizados como rotina durante a gravidez, que receberam poucas orientações sobre a gestação e parto, e que mais peregrinaram em busca de maternidade para realização do parto. Conclusões: estratégias direcionadas ao grupo de adolescentes mais vulneráveis devem ser implementadas visando maior equidade na assistência pré-natal de adolescentes, buscando garantir acesso facilitado, início precoce da assistência e maior resolutividade.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Adolescente , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Atención Prenatal , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Racismo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Brasil , Salud Materno-Infantil , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Servicios de Salud Materno-Infantil , Inequidad Social
18.
Licere (Online) ; 22(1): I:445-f:472, mar.2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-998755

RESUMEN

O lazer ainda é tratado com características eurocêntricas (contraposição ao trabalho). Frente a isso, enfatizamos a necessidade de uma educação para/pelo lazer pautada na matriz afro-brasileira. Para tanto, identificamos modos de fazer e conteúdos dessa matriz em produções realizadas no campo de atuação da educação física. Por meio da revisão sistemática, foram encontrados 42 resultados sendo selecionados 16 estudos, sendo 8 relativos a manifestações culturais afro-brasileiras. Identificamos que as culturas de diferentes matrizes se interagem de formas distintas, promovendo a articulação dos conflitos entre a cultura das mestiçagens que a enredam, das anacronias que a sustentam, por fim, a maneira em que trabalha a hegemonia e as resistências que mobilizam.


Leisure is still treated with eurocentric characteristics (contrast to work). Face of this, we emphasize the needing for an education for leisure based on the African-Brazilian array. To do so, we identify how to making and contents of this array in productions carried out in the field of Physical Education. Through the systematic revision, 42 results were found and we selected 16 studies, 8 were related to AfricanBrazilian cultural manifestations. We identify that the cultures of different arrays interact in distinct ways, promoting the articulation of the conflicts between the culture of the mestizos that tangle it, of the anachronisms that sustain it, and finally, the way in which the Hegemony works and the Resistances that mobilize it.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Cultura , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Educación , Actividades Recreativas , Recreación , Religión , Identificación Social , Baile , Música
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 109, 2019 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736771

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The continuous migration of Human Resources for Health (HRH) compromises the quality of health services in the developing supplying countries. The ability to increase earnings potentially serves as a strong motivator for HRH to migrate abroad. This study adds to limited available literature on HRH salaries within the Caribbean region and establishes the wage gap between selected Caribbean and popular destination countries. METHODS: Salaries are reported for registered nurses, medical doctors and specialists. Within these cadres, experience is incorporated at three different levels. Earnings are compared using purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates allowing for cost of living adjusted salary differentials, awarded to different levels of work experience for the chosen health cadres in the selected Caribbean countries (Jamaica, Dominica, St Lucia and Grenada) and the three destination countries (United States, United Kingdom and Canada). RESULTS: Registered nurses in the destination countries, across all experience levels, have greater spending power compared to their Caribbean counterparts. Recently qualified registered nurses earn substantially more in the UK (86.4%), US (214.2%) and Canada (182.5% more). The highest PPP salary ($) gap amongst more experienced nurses (5-10 years) is found within the US, with a gap of 163.9%. PPP salary gaps amongst medical doctors were pronounced, with experienced cadres (10-20 years of experience) in the US earning 316.3% more than their Caribbean counterparts, whilst UK doctors (183.5%) and Canadian doctors (251.3%) also earning significantly more. Large salary differentials remained for medical specialists and consultants. US specialist salaries were 540.4% higher than their Caribbean based counterparts, whilst UK and Canadian specialists earned 95.2 and 181.6% more respectively. CONCLUSION: The PPP adjusted HRH salaries in the three destination countries are superior to those of comparable HRH working in the Caribbean countries selected. The extent of the salary gaps vary according to country and the health cadre under examination, but remain considerable even for newly qualified HRH. The financial incentive to migrate for HRH trained and working in the Caribbean region remains strong, with governments having to consider earning potential abroad when formulating policies and strategies aimed at retaining health professionals.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración , Cuerpo Médico/economía , Motivación , Salarios y Beneficios , Región del Caribe , Bases de Datos Factuales , Países Desarrollados , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Salarios y Beneficios/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 43: e17, 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-978884

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective To identify and summarize existing literature on the burden of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and viral hepatitis (VH) in indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in Latin America to provide a broad panorama of the quantitative data available and highlight problematic data gaps. Methods Published and grey literature were systematically reviewed to identify documents published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese with data collected between January 2000 and April 2016 on HIV, STI, and VH disease burden among indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in 17 Latin American countries. Results Sixty-two documents from 12 countries were found. HIV prevalence was generally low (< 1%) but pockets of high prevalence (> 5%) were noted in some indigenous communities in Venezuela (Warao) (9.6%), Peru (Chayahuita) (7.5%), and Colombia (Wayuu females) (7.0%). High active syphilis prevalence (> 5%) was seen in some indigenous communities in Paraguay (11.6% and 9.7%) and Peru (Chayahuita) (6.3%). High endemicity (> 8%) of hepatitis B was found in some indigenous peoples in Mexico (Huichol) (9.4%) and Venezuela (Yanomami: 14.3%; Japreira: 29.5%) and among Afro-descendant quilombola populations in Brazil (Frechal: 12.5%; Furnas do Dionísio: 8.4% in 2008, 9.2% in 2003). Conclusions The gaps in existing data on the burden of HIV, STIs, and VH in indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in Latin America highlight the need to 1) improve national surveillance, by systematically collecting and analyzing ethnicity variables, and implementing integrated biobehavioral studies using robust methodologies and culturally sensitive strategies; 2) develop a region-wide response policy that considers the needs of indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants; and 3) implement an intercultural approach to health and service delivery to eliminate health access barriers and improve health outcomes for these populations.


RESUMEN Objetivo Identificar y resumir la bibliografía existente sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en América Latina para proporcionar un panorama amplio de los datos cuantitativos disponibles y poner de relieve las brechas problemáticas que pudiera haber en los datos. Métodos Se hizo un examen sistemático de la bibliografía publicada y la bibliografía gris para encontrar documentos publicados en inglés, español o portugués con datos recogidos entre enero del 2000 y abril del 2016 sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las ITS y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en 17 países latinoamericanos. Resultados Se encontraron 62 documentos de 12 países. La prevalencia de la infección por el VIH fue generalmente baja (< 1%), pero se observaron focos de prevalencia alta (> 5%) en algunas comunidades indígenas en Venezuela (Warao) (9,6%), Perú (Chayahuita) (7,5%) y Colombia (las mujeres Wayuus) (7,0%). Se observó prevalencia alta de sífilis activa (> 5%) en algunas comunidades indígenas en Paraguay (11,6% y 9,7%) y Perú (Chayahuita) (6,3%). Se encontró endemicidad alta (> 8%) de la hepatitis B en algunos pueblos indígenas en México (Huichol) (9,4%) y Venezuela (Yanomami: 14,3%; Japreira: 29,5%) y en las poblaciones quilombola de afrodescendientes en Brasil (Frechal: 12,5%; Furnas do Dionísio: 8,4% en el 2008, 9,2% en el 2003). Conclusiones Las brechas en los datos existentes sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las ITS y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en América Latina destacan la necesidad de: 1) mejorar la vigilancia nacional mediante la recolección y el análisis sistemáticos de las variables de etnicidad y la ejecución de estudios bioconductuales integrados que utilicen metodologías sólidas y estrategias sensibles a diferencias entre las culturas; 2) elaborar una política de respuesta de alcance regional que considere las necesidades de las poblaciones indígenas y de afrodescendientes; y 3) aplicar un enfoque intercultural de la salud y de la prestación de servicios conexos para eliminar las barreras de acceso a la salud y mejorar los resultados en materia de salud para estas poblaciones.


RESUMO Objetivo Identificar e sintetizar a literatura existente sobre a carga de HIV, infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes da América Latina para traçar um amplo panorama dos dados quantitativos disponíveis e destacar as lacunas problemáticas nos dados. Métodos Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura publicada e da literatura cinzenta para identificar documentos publicados em inglês, espanhol ou português com dados coletados entre janeiro de 2000 e abril de 2016 sobre a carga de HIV, IST e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes em 17 países latino-americanos. Resultados Sessenta e dois documentos de 12 países foram encontrados. A prevalência de HIV observada foi em geral baixa (<1%), com focos de alta prevalência (>5%) observados em comunidades indígenas da Venezuela (warao) (9,6%), Peru (chayahuita) (7,5%) e Colômbia (mulheres wayúu) (7,0%). Foi verificada uma alta prevalência de sífilis ativa (> 5%) em comunidades indígenas no Paraguai (11,6% e 9,7%) e Peru (chayahuita) (6,3%). A alta endemicidade (>8%) de hepatite B foi observada em povos indígenas no México (huichol) (9,4%) e Venezuela (ianomâmi 14,3%; japrería 29,5%) e em comunidades negras quilombolas no Brasil (Frechal 12,5%; Furnas do Dionísio 8,4% em 2008 e 9,2% em 2003). Conclusões As lacunas nos dados existentes sobre a carga de HIV, IST e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes na América Latina destacam a necessidade de: melhorar a vigilância nacional com coleta sistemática e análise de variáveis de etnicidade e realizar estudos integrados de análise biocomportamental com o uso de metodologias robustas e estratégias sensíveis à diversidade cultural; desenvolver uma política de resposta regional que considere as necessidades dos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes; e implementar um enfoque intercultural à saúde e prestação de serviços para derrubar as barreiras de acesso à saúde e melhorar os resultados de saúde nestas populações.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , VIH , Salud de Poblaciones Indígenas , América Latina/epidemiología
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