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1.
J Fish Biol ; 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942302

RESUMEN

Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) play an important ecological role as top predators, yet knowledge of their reproductive ecology is scarce. Here, we report the first observation of a potential neonate G. cuvier at Cocos Island, a predator-dominated oceanic island in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The individual was captured using baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS). Our cameras also captured female individuals potentially pregnant, suggesting that parturition may take place at or near the island. However, it is still unclear if the presence of a single neonate is an isolated event or evidence that the species is using the island for reproduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
J Fish Biol ; 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942896

RESUMEN

The genus Chaenopsis presently includes ten species, four in the eastern Pacific and six in the western Atlantic. Five individuals of an undescribed species of this genus were obtained at Gorgona Island in the eastern Pacific of Colombia, in depths between 3 to 5 m. This new species differs from all the Eastern Pacific species in an array of traits including meristic, coloration, and morphometric characters. Chaenopsis celeste new species differs from its only sympatric species, C. deltarrhis, in having fewer pectoral rays, fewer dorsal spines, and more dorsal-fin soft rays and anal-fin elements. This new species is found over shallow sandy, rubble, and small rocks bottoms from Costa Rica to Colombia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Malar J ; 20(1): 208, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931091

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, available metrics for malaria surveillance have been insufficient to measure the performance of passive case detection adequately. An indicator for malaria suspected cases with malaria test (MSCT) is proposed to measure the rate of testing on persons presenting to health facilities who satisfy the definition of a suspected malaria case. This metric does not rely on prior knowledge of fever prevalence, seasonality, or external denominators, and can be used to compare detection rates in suspected cases within and between countries, including across settings with different levels of transmission. METHODS: To compute the MSCT, an operational definition for suspected malaria cases was established, including clinical and epidemiological criteria. In general, suspected cases included: (1) persons with fever detected in areas with active malaria transmission; (2) persons with fever identified in areas with no active transmission and travel history to, or residence in areas with active transmission (either national or international); and (3) persons presenting with fever, chills and sweating from any area. Data was collected from 9 countries: Belize, Colombia (in areas with active transmission), Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama (September-March 2020). A sample of eligible medical records for 2018 was selected from a sample of health facilities in each country. An algorithm was constructed to assess if a malaria test was ordered or performed for cases that met the suspected case definition. RESULTS: A sample of 5873 suspected malaria cases was obtained from 239 health facilities. Except for Nicaragua and Colombia, malaria tests were requested in less than 10% of all cases. More cases were tested in areas with active transmission than areas without cases. Travel history was not systematically recorded in any country. CONCLUSIONS: A statistically comparable, replicable, and standardized metric was proposed to measure suspected malaria cases with a test (microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) that enables assessing the performance of passive case detection. Cross-country findings have important implications for malaria and infectious disease surveillance, which should be promptly addressed as countries progress towards malaria elimination. Local and easy-to-implement tools could be implemented to assess and improve passive case detection.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 840, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mesoamerica is severely affected by an epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of non-traditional origin (CKDnt), an epidemic with a marked variation within countries. We sought to describe the spatial distribution of CKDnt in Mesoamerica and examine area-level crop and climate risk factors. METHODS: CKD mortality or hospital admissions data was available for five countries: Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica and linked to demographic, crop and climate data. Maps were developed using Bayesian spatial regression models. Regression models were used to analyze the association between area-level CKD burden and heat and cultivation of four crops: sugarcane, banana, rice and coffee. RESULTS: There are regions within each of the five countries with elevated CKD burden. Municipalities in hot areas and much sugarcane cultivation had higher CKD burden, both compared to equally hot municipalities with lower intensity of sugarcane cultivation and to less hot areas with equally intense sugarcane cultivation, but associations with other crops at different intensity and heat levels were not consistent across countries. CONCLUSION: Mapping routinely collected, already available data could be a first step to identify areas with high CKD burden. The finding of higher CKD burden in hot regions with intense sugarcane cultivation which was repeated in all five countries agree with individual-level studies identifying heavy physical labor in heat as a key CKDnt risk factor. In contrast, no associations between CKD burden and other crops were observed.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933625

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Formal recognition of palliative medicine as a specialty has been one of the main drivers in the development of palliative care. AIM: To provide a comparative, comprehensive overview on the status of palliative medicine as medical specialty across Latin America. METHOD: We conducted a comparative study of 19 Latin American countries. Key informants and persons in charge of the specialization training programs were identified and interviewed. We collected data on general recognition as specialty (title, process of certification) and on training program characteristics (title, start year, requirements, training length and type full time or part time). RESULTS: Eight of 19 countries (42 %) Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay and Venezuela reported palliative medicine as medical specialty. Thirty-five (sub)specialization training programs in palliative medicine were identified in the region (8 as a specialty and 27 as a subspecialty), the majority in Colombia (43.5%) and Brazil (33.7%). 20% of the programs have yet to graduate their first cohort. Length of clinical training as specialty varied from two to four years, and from 520 hrs. to three years for a subspecialty. CONCLUSION: Despite long-standing efforts to improve quality of care, and significant achievements to date, most Latin American countries have yet to develop palliative medicine as medical specialty. Specialty and sub-specialty training programs remain scarce in relation to regional needs, and the programs that do exist vary widely in duration, structure, and content.

6.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113933, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873009

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: The purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of coronavirus awareness, psychological stress responses, and sociodemographic variables on mental health indicators (somatization, depression, and anxiety) in residents of Honduras, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. METHODS: The study used a quantitative, cross-sectional approach. Data was collected online using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18); the Coronavirus Awareness Scale-6 (CAS-6) and a questionnaire that included psychological and sociodemographic questions. The total sample size consisted of 1559 respondents from Honduras (34%), Chile (29%), Costa Rica (17%), Mexico (11%), and Spain (9%). RESULTS: The most common stress domains correspond to family (22.97%), financial (22.53%), academic (16.47%), leisure time constraints (14.23%), health (12.48%), peer group (7.63%), and religious concerns (3.69%). These domains are significantly associated with the respondent's country, sex, employment status, and being or not a health worker. Respondents who reported confinement stress also reported higher scores in anxiety, depression, and somatization. The Global Severity Index was significantly predicted by confinement stress, health, academic, and leisure time-related stress, sex, age, being a health worker, COVID-19 Personal Concern, and Perceived Seriousness. Non-significant predictors were employment status, the number of people at home, presence of older adults and children at home, financial, peer group, family, and religious concerns; the regression model had an R2 of 0.26. Similar analyses were conducted for somatization, depression, and anxiety subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has adverse effects on the mental health of the general population, particularly regarding anxiety, depression, and somatization. Specific populations, such as women and healthcare workers, are at particular risk of suffering a deterioration in mental wellbeing. The implications of the study for public policy are discussed.

7.
Environ Manage ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914094

RESUMEN

Many rural communities in developing countries experience severe water shortages, limiting their capacity for self-sustainability. This study used contingent valuation and choice experiment methods and in-person interviews to estimate household willingness to pay (WTP) for gray and green interventions to augment water supply in rural Costa Rica. In particular, we examined residents' preferences for well construction, as a form of gray intervention, and reforestation, as a form of green intervention, aimed at alleviating water shortages. Household WTP to reduce annual water shortage by one day varied between $0.85 (95% CI = 0.77-0.94) and $1.32 (95% CI = 1.08-2.56) per month depending on the project. The results also indicated that households were willing to pay $2.28 (95% CI = 1.36-3.21) and $3.51 (95% CI = 2.57-4.44) per month to increase forest cover in the watershed by 140-180 and 300-340 ha, respectively, assuming no additional water provision from the reforestation project. Nonwater-related benefits comprised 25-34% of the WTP for green intervention, depending on the acreage scenario. We also observed that, even without the nonwater-related ecosystem service benefits associated with reforestation, the value of water from green intervention exceeded the corresponding value of water from gray intervention. The disparity between preferences for water obtained from gray and green intervention may be due to differences in corresponding timing, uncertainty, quality of additional water made available from the considered projects, and differences in value elicitation methods.

8.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837603

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in thyroid cancer incidence and mortality in Latin America. METHODS: Ecological study of time series, with incidence data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer for the 1990-2012 period and mortality data of 16 countries obtained from WHO for the 1995-2013 period. The trends of incidence rates were analysed by the Joinpoint regression. Average annual percentage change and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for incidence and mortality. RESULTS: Incidence and mortality from thyroid cancer in Latin America were higher in women, with the highest incidence rate in women in Quito (Ecuador) aged 40-59 years: 42.2 new cases per 100 000 inhabitants, and mortality of 4.8/100 000 in women over 60. Thyroid cancer incidence increased in women of all age groups in Cali (Colombia), Costa Rica and Quito (Ecuador); and in men in Costa Rica. Incidence rates were stable above the age of 60 years in Cali, in Goiania (Brazil), Quito (Ecuador) and Valdivia (Chile) in men, and in women in Goiania (Brazil) and Valdivia (Chile). Mortality among women increased in Ecuador (AAPC = 3.28 CI 95% 1.36; 5.24), Guatemala (AAPC = 6.14 CI 95% 2.81; 9.58) and Mexico (AAPC = 0.67 CI 95% 0.16; 1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid cancer incidence in Latin America is high and rising in women. Mortality remains stable in most countries of Latin America.

9.
Zootaxa ; 4958(1): zootaxa.4958.1.14, 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903461

RESUMEN

Guapinannus Wygodzinsky, 1951 (Hemiptera: Schizopteridae) was described based on a single female specimen from Costa Rica. Some additional specimens representing this genus have since become available and were incorporated into a comparative male genitalic study across Dipsocoromorpha and into combined molecular and morphological hypotheses of the infraorder. However, the species-level diversity of Guapinannus has remained unexplored and undocumented. Based on examination of 264 specimens from central and South America, we here revise the taxonomy of Guapinannus, describing 19 species as new (Guapinannus anaticulus, sp. n.; Guapinannus artus, sp. n.; Guapinannus auriculus, sp. n.; Guapinannus castigatus, sp. n.; Guapinannus clava, sp. n.; Guapinannus dispar, sp. n.; Guapinannus falcis, sp. n.; Guapinannus graziae, sp. n.; Guapinannus minutus, sp. n.; Guapinannus orbiculatus, sp. n.; Guapinannus plurilobus, sp. n.; Guapinannus policis, sp. n.; Guapinannus robustus, sp. n.; Guapinannus sinuosus, sp. n.; Guapinannus tatumbia, sp. n.; Guapinannus tenuis, sp. n.; Guapinannus tergus, sp. n.; Guapinannus trilobus, sp. n.; Guapinannus uncus, sp. n.). In addition, we provide photos of the female holotype of Guapinannus bierigi Wygodzinsky, 1951, SEM documentation for Guapinannus clava, sp. n., habitus photos and a map for all species, and line drawings of male genitalic features for all species for which males are known.

10.
Zootaxa ; 4958(1): zootaxa.4958.1.43, 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903490

RESUMEN

Only three species assigned to two genera of the flat bug subfamily Carventinae Usinger, 1950 are recorded to date from Costa Rica and one genus and species from Grenada. Following apterous carventine taxa are described and illustrated in the present paper: Joceliaptera graziae gen. et sp. nov.; Peggicoris cahuitanus sp. nov.; Peggicoris grenadensis sp. nov. Joceliaptera gen. nov. is compared with most similar Neotropical genera. A key to species of Peggicoris is presented.

11.
Zootaxa ; 4964(2): zootaxa.4964.2.7, 2021 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903521

RESUMEN

In the present work was carried out in the intertidal zone of Las Baulas de Guanacaste National Marine Park (PNMB) located on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.                The main objective was to contribute to knowledge about the invertebrate diversity of the park, one of the richest bioregions on the planet, about which little is known. This study assesses the Order Polycladida Lang, 1884, a cornerstone of this ecosystem and one of the most cosmopolitan and plastic invertebrate taxa in the animal kingdom.                In total, 57 individuals were collected in the rocky intertidal zone of Carbón and Langosta beaches. Nine different species were identified, of which four are new for Costa Rica: Semonia bauliensis n. sp.; Cryptostylochus sesei n. sp.; Paraplanocera angeli n. sp., Prostheceraeus fitae n. sp.; and five new records: Paraplanocera oligoglena (Schmarda, 1859); Marcusia ernesti Hyman, 1953; Enchiridium magec Cuadrado, Moro Noreña, 2017; Pseudobiceros bajae (Hyman, 1953); and the genus Boninia spp.

12.
Zootaxa ; 4963(3): zootaxa.4963.3.2, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903539

RESUMEN

Haplaxius is a large genus of cixiid planthoppers that is widespread in the New World and economically important due to the role of H. crudus in transmitting palm lethal decline phytoplasmas. A new species of Haplaxius, here described as Haplaxius pocococo sp. n., was discovered during survey work on palms in north-central Costa Rica. Placement in Haplaxius is supported by sequence analysis of the COI and 18S genes relative to congeners and by morphological characters.

13.
Virusdisease ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898651

RESUMEN

We describe the first whole-genome sequence of a GA13-like isolate of avian infectious bronchitis virus CK/CR/1160/16 (MN757859), obtained in 2016 in the province of Alajuela, Costa Rica. This virus caused an outbreak with great economic impact to the local poultry industry. The genome sequence is 27 696 bp in length, with the following genome organization 5'-UTR-Pol-S-3a-3b-E-4b-4c-M-5a-5b-N-6b-3'-UTR. The complete genome sequence has the highest sequence identity (94.03%) with DMV/1639/GA9977/2019 (MK878536) from Georgia, USA, and the lowest identity (86.03%) with ck/CH/LHLJ/08-6 (KX252788), from China. Analysis of the S1 subunit indicates that the Costa Rican isolate belongs to genotype I, lineage 17 (GI-17) and displays 96.89% identity with the S1 subunit of Ga-13/14255/14 (KM087780) (USA). Possible recombination events in genes S, E, M, 4b y 4c were detected, with Massachusetts, Connecticut, Arkansas and MA5 as potential parental types. This study highlights the importance of the epidemiological and molecular surveillance of avian infectious bronchitis.

14.
Primates ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792807

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic forest fragmentation impacts many aspects of animal behaviour, including feeding ecology. With forests increasingly fragmented in tropical regions due to human development, the proportion of forest edge (≤ 100 m from clear-cut regions) is higher relative to forest interior. Forest edges differ in vegetation from interior, making it important to better understand how anthropogenic edges impact the feeding behaviour of primates such as mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). We predicted that howler monkeys would feed on higher-quality plant resources, from a larger number of tree families, and from larger trees in forest interior compared to anthropogenic forest edge. We surveyed howler monkey feeding behaviour across forest zones in a fragmented rainforest in Costa Rica, La Suerte Biological Research Station. We observed individual monkeys for 30-minute periods, collecting data on their feeding behaviour and tree use at 2-minute intervals. We measured feeding trees and recorded the plant parts and taxonomy of resources consumed. Monkeys consumed more leaves and fewer stems and fed from a smaller number of tree families in the forest interior, while they consumed fewer leaves and more stems and fed from a larger number of tree families in the forest edge. Monkeys also fed from larger, taller trees in the forest interior than the edge. The differences in howler monkey feeding behaviour between forest zones attest to the impact of human disturbance on howler monkey feeding ecology.

15.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 144: 89-98, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830072

RESUMEN

Amphibians are globally threatened by emerging infectious diseases, and ranaviruses are among the most concerning pathogens to threaten species in the wild. We sampled for ranaviruses in wild amphibians at 8 sites in Costa Rica, spanning broad climatic zones and taxonomic associations. Seven of these sites are inhabited by highly threatened amphibian species that persist at low global population sizes after population declines due to amphibian chytridiomycosis. One of the surveyed sites is occupied by an introduced amphibian species, which is relatively rare in Central America but may be an important pathway for long-distance transport of ranaviruses. We detected ranavirus using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 16.3% of the 243 individuals and among 5 of our 8 sites, but not at the site with the introduced species. Infection prevalence varied among species and sites, but not with mean annual temperature or mean annual precipitation. Infection intensity did not vary with species, site, temperature, or precipitation. Our results show that ranavirus infection is spatially widespread in Costa Rica, affecting a broad range of host species, and occurs across climatic zones-though we encountered no mortality or morbidity in our sampled species. Ranaviruses are known to cause intermittent mass mortality in amphibian populations, and the threatened species sampled here are likely vulnerable to population impacts from emerging ranaviruses. Therefore, we believe the potential impacts of ranaviruses on amphibian populations in tropical regions have likely been underestimated, and that they should be viewed as a potential major stressor to threatened amphibians in tropical regions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Virus ADN , Ranavirus , Anfibios , Animales , América Central , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus ADN/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus ADN/veterinaria
16.
Health Policy Plan ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848340

RESUMEN

Costa Rica is a bright spot of primary healthcare (PHC) performance, providing first-contact accessibility and continuous, comprehensive, coordinated, and patient-centered care to its citizens. Previous research hypothesized that strong data collection and use for quality improvement are central to Costa Rica's success. Using qualitative data from 40 interviews with stakeholders across the Costa Rican healthcare system, this paper maps the various data streams at the PHC level and delineates how these data are used to make decisions around insuring and improving the quality of PHC delivery. We describe four main types of PHC data: individual patient data, population health data, national healthcare delivery data, and local supplementary healthcare delivery data. In particular, we find that the Healthcare Delivery Performance Index-a ranking of the nation's 106 Health Areas using 15 quality indicators-is utilized by Health Area Directors to create quality improvement initiatives, ranging from education and coaching to optimization of care delivery and coordination. By ranking Health Areas, the Index harnesses providers' intrinsic motivation to stimulate improvement without financial incentives. We detail how a strong culture of valuing data as a tool for improving population health and robust training for personnel have enabled effective data collection and use. However, we also find that the country's complex data systems create unnecessary duplication and can inhibit efficient data use. Costa Rica's experience with data collection, analysis, and use for quality improvement hold important lessons for PHC in other public sector systems.

17.
Parasitol Res ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851247

RESUMEN

Procamallanus is a species-rich genus of parasitic nematodes of marine, brackish, and freshwater fishes, occurring also occasionally in amphibians and reptiles. In the Neotropical region, this genus is highly diverse, with species described from a wide range of fish families. In this study, we reassess the taxonomic status of Procamallanus rebecae with molecular and morphological data and describe a new species endemic to Nicaragua and Costa Rica. We analyzed all Procamallanus isolated from fish from the Nicaraguan lakes and some rivers in Costa Rica after an exhaustive analysis of their freshwater fish endoparasite fauna. Procamallanus rebecae is a host-specific parasite of Middle American cichlids, previously reported in southern Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. We therefore compared these Central American specimens with individuals of P. rebecae collected in cichlids from southeastern Mexico using two genomic regions (28S rDNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, COI). We found high levels of sequence divergence between Procamallanus from the two geographical regions, with up to 9.8 and 10.5% for both genetic markers, respectively. We also analyzed their morphology and found conspicuous differences in the shape of the mouth and the structure of the female cauda. We therefore describe the specimens of Procamallanus from Central American cichlids as a new species. Both Procamallanus species occur in different cichlid species and are allopatrically distributed. The host specificity and ancient association patterns between cichlids and Procamallanus and the jointly colonization of both hosts and parasites during their northern dispersal from South America are briefly discussed.

18.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851867

RESUMEN

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is produced in Norway both in field and greenhouses. In Norway, greenhouse lettuce is one of the most important vegetables grown year-round. In winter 2018, wilting symptoms were observed on soil-grown lettuce of the cultivar Frillice in a greenhouse in south east Norway (Buskerud county). Affected plants showed stunted growth, wilting of outer leaves, and brownish discoloration of vascular tissues of taproots and crowns. According to the producer, the disease led to an estimated 10% of yield losses. Fungal isolates were obtained from crowns and roots of diseased plants collected from the greenhouse in 2018 and 2019. Two single spore isolates, 231274 from 2018 and 231725 from 2019, were used in further studies. The isolates were incubated on synthetic nutrient-poor agar (SNA) at 18-20 °C, and a 12 hours dark, 12 hours UV light cycle. Isolate 231274 produced abundant macro- and microconidia characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum while macroconidia were never observed in isolate 231725. On potato dextrose agar (PDA), colonies of isolate 231274 were purple in color and colonies of isolate 231725 were pinkish with abundant aerial mycelium. For PCR-assay, DNA from mycelia was extracted using Easy-DNA kit (Invitrogen). A portion of the translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) gene was amplified using primers F-728F (Carbone and Kohn. 1999) and EF2 (O'Donnell et al. 1998) as described by Aas et al. 2018. Blast analysis of both sequences (accession no. MW316853 for 231274 and MW316854 for 231275) obtained a 99% homology with the sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae (FOL) race 1 strain S1 (accession no. DQ837657)(Mbofung et al. 2007). Both isolates were identified as race 1 by using specific primers Hani3' and Hanilatt3rev (Pasquali et al. 2007) as described by Cabral et al. 2014. To complete Koch's postulate, lettuce plants of the cultivar Frillice were used. Race identity was confirmed using the differential lettuce cultivars Costa Rica No.4 (resistant to FOL race 1), Banchu Red Fire (resistant to FOL races 2 and 4) and Romana Romabella (resistant to FOL races 1 and 2) (Gilardi et al. 2017) provided by the breeding company Rijk Zwaan (De Lier, The Netherlands). For inoculation, roots of six 2-weeks old seedlings per cultivar were dipped in a spore suspension (1 x 106 CFU/ml) for 1 min, while controls were dipped in distilled water. Seedlings were planted in 250 ml pots containing fertilized potting substrate, and were placed in a greenhouse with temperature ranging from 15 to 35 °C and an average of 23 °C. After 10 days reduced growth was observed in cultivars Frillice and Banchu Red Fire for both fungal isolates. After 25 days wilting was observed in both cultivars. Affected plants presented discoloration of vascular tissue. No difference in growth was observed between cultivars Romana Romabella and Costa Rica No. 4 and their respective controls. FOL was re-isolated from all inoculated cultivars but not from controls. The colony patterns of the recovered isolates were the same than those of the isolates used for inoculation. These results confirm that the isolate belongs to race 1. Greenhouse lettuce in Norway is mainly produced in hydroponics. FOL is here reported to cause damages in soil- grown lettuce. Nevertheless FOL in hydroponic systems has been reported in Japan (Fujinaga et al. 2003) and Thailand (Thongkamngam and Jaenaksorn 2017). Thus, the possibility of infections in hydroponics remain a big concern for lettuce production in Norway.

19.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-13, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843560

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the energy, nutrients-to-limit and total gram amount consumed and identify their top food sources consumed by Latin Americans. DESIGN: Data from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS). SETTING: ELANS is a cross-sectional study representative of eight Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. PARTICIPANTS: Two 24-h dietary recalls on non-consecutive days were used to estimate usual dietary intake of 9218 participants with ages between 15-65 years. 'What We Eat in America' food classification system developed by United States Department of Agriculture was adapted and used to classify all food items consumed by the ELANS population. Food sources of energy, added sugars, SFA, Na and total gram amount consumed were identified and ranked based on percentage of contribution to intake of total amount. RESULTS: Three-highest ranked food categories of total energy consumed were: rice (10·3%), yeast breads (6·9%), and turnovers and other grain-based items (6·8 %). Highest ranked food sources of total gram amount consumed were fruit drinks (9·6%), other 100% juice (9·3%) and rice (8·3%). Three highest ranked sources for added sugars were other 100% juice (24·1 %), fruit drinks (16·5%), and sugar and honey (12·4%). SFA ranked foods were turnovers and other grain-based (12·6 %), cheese (11·9%), and pizza (10·3%). Three top sources of Na were rice (13·9%), soups (9·1 %) and rice mixed dishes (7·3 %). CONCLUSION: Identification of top sources of energy and nutrients-to-limit among Latin Americans is critical for designing strategies to help them meet nutrient recommendations within energy needs.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8560, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879843

RESUMEN

Establishing affordable, efficient, accessible, innovative, and multidisciplinary methodologies to the diagnosis of the conservation state of an artwork is key to carry out appropriate strategies of conservation and consequently to the creation of modern public policies on cultural heritage. Limited access to large-format paintings is a challenge to restoration scientists seeking to obtain information quickly, in a non-destructive and non-invasive manner, and identify regions of interest. Therefore, we put forward two unique software tools based on multispectral imaging techniques, with the long-term aim to assess the artist's intentions, creative process, and colour palette. This development paves the way for a comprehensive and multidisciplinary understanding of the mysteries encompassed in each pictorial layer, through the study of their physical and chemical characteristics. We conducted the first ever study on Musas I and Musas II, two large-format paintings by Italian artist Carlo Ferrario, located in the National Theatre of Costa Rica. In this study, we used our novel imaging techniques to choose regions of interest in order to study sample layers; while also assessing the works' state of conservation and possible biodeterioration. We explored the applications of our two versatile software tools, RegionOfInterest and CrystalDistribution, and confirmed paint stratigraphies by means of microscopy and spectroscopy analyses (OM, SEM-EDX, Fluorescent microscopy, FTIR-ATR and micro-Raman). In a pilot study, we identified the artist's main colour palette: zinc white, lead white, chrome yellow, lead read, viridian, along with artificial vermilion and ultramarine pigments. We were able to identify artificial vermilion and ultramarine and distinguish them from the natural pigments using CrystalDistribution to map the average size and diameter of the pigment crystals within the paint layers. This study demonstrated that software-based multidisciplinary imaging techniques are novel in establishing preventive and non-invasive methods for historical painting conservation studies, in addition, this study provides tools with great potential to be used in the future in applications such as virtual restoration.

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