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1.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(1): 24, 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947417

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although understanding changes in the body weight distribution and trends in obesity inequality plays a key role in assessing the causes and persistence of obesity, limited research on this topic is available for Cuba. This study thus analyzed changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distributions and obesity inequality over a 9-year period among urban Cuban adults. METHODS: Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were first applied to the data from the 2001 and 2010 National Survey on Risk Factors and Chronic Diseases to identify a rightward shift in both the BMI and WC distributions over the 2001-2010 period. A Shapley technique decomposed the increase in obesity prevalence into a mean-growth effect and a (re)distributional component. A univariate assessment of obesity inequality was then derived by calculating both the Gini and generalized entropy (GE) measures. Lastly, a GE-based decomposition partitioned overall obesity inequality into within-group and between-group values. RESULTS: Despite some relatively pronounced left-skewing, both the BMI and WC distributions exhibited a clear rightward shift to which the increases in general and central obesity can be mostly attributed. According to the Gini coefficients, both general and central obesity inequality increased over the 2001-2010 period, from 0.105 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.103-0.106] to 0.110 [95% CI = 0.107-0.112] and from 0.083 [95% CI = 0.082-0.084] to 0.085 [95% CI = 0.084-0.087], respectively. The GE-based decomposition further revealed that both types of inequality were accounted for primarily by within-group inequality (93.3%/89.6% and 87.5%/84.8% in 2001/2010 for general/central obesity, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity inequality in urban Cuba worsened over the 2001-2010 time period, with within-group inequality in overall obesity dominant over between-group inequality. In general, the results also imply that the rise in obesity inequality is immune to health care system characteristics.

2.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 497(1): 45-50, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948815

RESUMEN

The presence of deciduous premolars and erupting C1, P2, P4, I1, I2, I3, P2, and P4 in Nesophontidae is established for the first time on the fossil remains of Nesophontes major Arredondo, 1970, and N. micrus Allen, 1917 from El Abrón Cave (Republic of Cuba, Pinar del Río Province, Late Pleistocene). During ontogenesis, the replacement of teeth (except P1 and P1) occurred after the molar eruption, but before the animal reached adult size. By the dental replacement pattern nesophontids differ from most members of Lipotyphla and are close to Solenodontidae.

3.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 497(1): 51-55, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948816

RESUMEN

The study of the remains of Nesophontes micrus Allen, 1917 and N. major Arredondo, 1970 from El Abrón Cave (Republic of Cuba, Pinar del Río Province, Late Pleistocene) allowed to establish for the first time anomalies of the dentition in Nesophontidae. Failures of eruption of teeth (impaction of I3 in N. micrus, retention or impaction of P2 in N. major), as well as malformations (aberrant I3 in N. micrus, P2 and P4 in N. major), are the developmental abnormalities. The absence of P2 and M2 in combination with reossification of their alveoli in N. major is caused by dental injuries and diseases.

4.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(1): e672, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156363

RESUMEN

Introducción: La cardiopatía isquémica es frecuente, tiene diversas formas de manifestarse y predomina entre las enfermedades que motivan el ingreso de pacientes a unidades de emergencias, y que causan ingresos hospitalarios. Objetivo: Profundizar en el conocimiento de los pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica en una unidad de cuidados intensivos municipal. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal, de 528 pacientes que ingresaron en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital General Docente "Orlando Pantoja Tamayo", Contramaestre, Santiago de Cuba, con diagnóstico de cardiopatías isquémicas, desde enero de 2016 hasta junio de 2019. Las variables utilizadas fueron: grupo de edades, sexo, diagnostico al ingreso, antecedentes patológicos personales, estadía y estado al egreso. Se utilizó el porcentaje para resumir la información, así como el test chi cuadrado para identificar asociación estadística. Resultados: Hubo predominio del sexo masculino y edades entre 60-70 y 36-59 años, fueron más frecuentes el infarto agudo de miocardio y la combinación de 3 o más factores de riesgo. El mayor número de fallecimientos se ocurrió en los primeros 3 días de admitidos y en pacientes con ventilación mecánica invasiva. Conclusiones: El comportamiento de las enfermedades cardiovasculares continúa siendo un gran problema de salud, aparece en edades cada vez más tempranas. En casos severos la mortalidad puede ocurrir en las primeras 72 h(AU)


Introduction: Ischemic heart disease is frequent, has different manifestation forms, and predominates among diseases leading to patient admission into emergency units and hospital admissions in general. Objective: To deepen the knowledge of patients with ischemic heart disease in a municipal intensive care unit. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out of 528 patients who were admitted into the intensive care unit of Orlando Pantoja Tamayo General Teaching Hospital in Contramaestre Municipality, Santiago de Cuba, with a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, from January 2016 to June of 2019. The variables used were age group, sex, diagnosis at admission, personal pathological history, hospital stay, and status at discharge. We used percentage to summarize the information, as well as the chi-square test to identify statistical association. Results: There was a predominance of males and ages between 60-70 and 36-59 years. Acute myocardial infarction and the combination of three or more risk factors were more frequent. The highest number of deaths occurred in the first three days after admission and among patients with invasive mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: The characteristics of cardiovascular diseases continues to be a major health concern, as long as they are appearing at increasingly earlier ages. In severe cases, mortality can occur in the first seventy-two hours(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Cardiopatías/epidemiología , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/tendencias , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Factores de Riesgo , Conocimiento
5.
Humanidad. med ; 21(1): 1-19, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154344

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Fundamento: En Cuba, durante el período inicial de la pandemia, el comportamiento de la COVID-19 presentó un incremento diario de casos similar a la situación mundial. La provincia Camagüey no escapó a esta realidad; sin embargo, los resultados del enfrentamiento a la pandemia mostraron un comportamiento favorable en este territorio. El objetivo del presente trabajo está dirigido a valorar aspectos del enfrentamiento social y clínico-epidemiológico a la COVID-19 en la provincia Camagüey durante el periodo comprendido entre los meses de marzo y mayo de 2020. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal en la provincia Camagüey. El universo estuvo compuesto por los 48 pacientes confirmados al virus SARS-CoV-2 en este territorio en el período mencionado. Resultados: La enfermedad se registró en ambos sexos de forma similar, mientras que predominaron los pacientes con edades comprendidas entre 40 y 59 años. Discusión: La mayoría de los individuos no presentó complicaciones. Con el cumplimiento de las indicaciones establecidas por las autoridades sanitarias se limitó el tiempo posible de la transmisión de la enfermedad en la provincia.


ABSTRACT Background: In Cuba, during the initial period of the pandemic, the behavior of COVID-19 presented a daily increase in cases similar to the world situation. The Camagüey province did not escape this reality; however, the results of the confrontation with the pandemic showed a favorable behavior in this territory. The objective of this work is aimed at assessing aspects of the social and clinical-epidemiological confrontation with COVID-19 in the Camagüey province during the period between the months of March and May, 2020. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional observational study was carried out in the Camagüey province. The universe was made up of the 48 patients confirmed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus in this territory in the mentioned period. Results: The disease was registered in both sexes in a similar way, while patients with ages between 40 and 59 years predominated. Discussion: Most of the individuals did not present complications. With the fulfillment of the indications established by the health authorities, the possible time of transmission of the disease in the province was limited.

6.
Humanidad. med ; 21(1): 37-52, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154346

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Fundamento: con los primeros casos de COVID-19 aparejado al desarrollo posterior de la enfermedad en Cuba se determinó la puesta en marcha de la pesquisa activa con un fuerte apoyo de los estudiantes de las ciencias médicas, con el antecedente del apoyo brindado por estos en campañas contra enfermedades transmisibles y los favorables resultados obtenidos. Objetivo: describir la contribución de la pesquisa estudiantil en el enfrentamiento a la COVID-19 en el Policlínico Universitario Ignacio Agramonte y Loynaz de Camagüey. Material y Métodos: se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, retrospectivo de los resultados relevantes de la pesquisa realizada por los estudiantes de las Ciencias Médicas, para identificar los pacientes con sintomatología respiratoria y brindar actividades educativas en el trimestre abril-mayo-junio del 2020 en el Policlínico Universitario Ignacio Agramonte de Camagüey. Resultados: Los valores más altos de la media diaria de los parámetros controlados fueron alcanzados en mayo con el 96.35% de casas visitadas, 90.54% de personas pesquisadas, 96.26% de mayores de 60 años y 92.76% de ancianos solos. Los principales síntomas encontrados fueron fiebre (44), secreción nasal (41) y dolor de garganta (55), realizándose un total de 897 092 actividades educativas. Conclusiones: la pesquisa estudiantil permitió identificar personas con sintomatología respiratoria, logró realizar la visita de un elevado porcentaje de viviendas y dentro de los pesquisados los adultos mayores tuvieron un número significativo. Las actividades de promoción de salud resultaron las herramientas utilizadas en el proceso de pesquisa activa.


ABSTRACT Background: with the first cases of COVID-19 coupled with the subsequent development of the disease in our country, it determined the start of the active research with strong support from medical science students, with the antecedent of the support provided by them in campaigns against communicable diseases and the favorable results obtained. Objective: to describe the contribution of the student research in the confrontation with COVID-19 at the university clinic Ignacio Agramonte y Loynaz in Camagüey. Material and Methods: a quantitative, descriptive, retrospective study of the relevant results of the research carried out by students of Medical Sciences was carried out, to identify patients with respiratory symptoms and provide educational activities in the April-May-June quarter of 2020 at the university clinic Ignacio Agramonte y Loynaz in Camagüey. Results: the highest values of the daily mean of the controlled parameters were reached in May with 96.35 % of houses visited, 90.54 % of people surveyed, 96.26 % of those over 60 years old and 92.76 % of the elderly alone. The main symptoms found were fever (44), runny nose (41) and sore throat (55), carrying out a total of 897 092 educational activities. Conclusions: the student research allowed identifying people with respiratory symptoms, managed to visit a high percentage of homes and among those surveyed, older adults had a significant number. Health promotion activities were tools in the active research for the containment of the disease.

7.
Multimed (Granma) ; 25(2): e2244, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154956

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: la infección de la necrosis pancreática es la complicación local más grave de la pancreatitis aguda. Ocurre aproximadamente en un 35% de los pacientes y presenta una mortalidad cercana al 80%. Objetivo: identificar el espectro microbiológico de la necrosis pancreática infectada Métodos: realizamos un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo, prospectivo en la Unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Universitario Carlos Manuel de Céspedes de la ciudad de Bayamo, Cuba, en el periodo comprendido desde enero de 2012 hasta diciembre de 2018.Fueron incluidos 71 pacientes con el diagnostico o sospecha de pancreatitis aguda necrotizante infectada que requirieron necrosectomía con toma de cultivo intraoperatorio. Resultados: del total de pacientes de la serie la mayoría fueron masculinos representando el 56,3 % de la muestra. la etiología más frecuentemente encontrada fue la litiasica con 38 pacientes (53,5%). Mientras que 52 pacientes (73,2%) presentaban más del 50% de la glándula pancreática con necrosis. En 63 pacientes se confirmó la presencia de infección de la necrosis. Con predominio de la infección monomicrobiana en 48 casos (76,2%).El germen más frecuentemente encontrado fue E. coli (47,9%).La mortalidad post-operatoria fue de 15 pacientes (21, 1%).De ellos 14 pacientes (93,3%) con infección luego de la necrosectomía. Conclusiones: predominó la infección monomicrobiana por E. coli. Los pacientes con confirmación de crecimiento bacteriano post necrosectomía presentaron mayor mortalidad.


ABSTRACT Introduction: infection of pancreatic necrosis is the most serious local complication of acute pancreatitis. It occurs in approximately 35% of patients and has a mortality rate close to 80%. Objective: to identify the microbiological spectrum of infected pancreatic necrosis Methods: we carried out a longitudinal, descriptive, prospective study in the intensive care unit of the Carlos Manuel de Céspedes University Hospital in the city of Bayamo, Cuba, in the period from January 2012 to December 2018. 71 patients with the diagnosis or suspicion of infected acute necrotizing pancreatitis that required necrosectomy with intraoperative culture taking. Results: of the total number of patients in the series, the majority were male, representing 56.3% of the sample. the most frequently found etiology was lithiasis with 38 patients (53.5%). While 52 patients (73.2%) had more than 50% of the pancreatic gland with necrosis. In 63 patients, the presence of necrosis infection was confirmed. With a predominance of monomicrobial infection in 48 cases (76.2%). The most frequent germ found was E. coli (47.9%). Post-operative mortality was 15 patients (21.1%). Of them 14 patients (93.3%) with infection after necrosectomy. Conclusions: monomicrobial infection by E. coli predominated. Patients with confirmed bacterial growth post necrosectomy had higher mortality.


RESUMO Introdução: a infecção da necrose pancreática é a complicação local mais grave da pancreatite aguda. Ocorre em aproximadamente 35% dos pacientes e tem mortalidade próxima a 80%. Objetivo: identificar o espectro microbiológico da necrose pancreática infectada Métodos: foi realizado um estudo longitudinal, descritivo e prospectivo na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Universitário Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, nacidade de Bayamo, Cuba, no período de janeiro de 2012 a dezembro de 2018. 71 pacientes portadores de diagnóstico ou suspeita de pancreatite necrosante aguda infectada que exigiu necrosectomia com coleta de cultura intraoperatória. Resultados: do total de pacientes da série, a maioria era do sexo masculino, representando 56,3% da amostra. a etiologia mais encontrada foi a litíase com 38 pacientes (53,5%). En quanto 52 pacientes (73,2%) apresentavam mais de 50% da glândula pancreática com necrose. Em 63 pacientes, foi confirmada a presença de infecção de necrose. Com predomínio de infecção monomicrobiana em 48 casos (76,2%). O germe mais encontrado foi E. coli (47,9%). A mortalidade pós-operatória foi de 15 pacientes (21,1%). Destes 14 pacientes (93,3%) com infecção após necrosectomia. Conclusões: a infecção monomicrobiana por E. coli predominou. Pacientes com crescimento bacteriano confirmado após necrosectomia apresentaram maior mortalidade.

8.
Podium (Pinar Río) ; 16(1): 291-307,
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155076

RESUMEN

RESUMEN La sociedad actual y su carácter complejo, demanda la formación de profesionales cada vez más competentes e integrales capaces de dar solución a múltiples y difíciles problemas sociales; esto ha exigido a las universidades revisar las dificultades y contradicciones que aún se presentan en este sentido. En el ámbito de la actividad física y el deporte, el profesional que se desempeñe en el eslabón de base en Cuba, requiere una sólida formación interdisciplinaria, que la universidad como ente formador debe propiciar, pero no siempre ha logrado, en tanto no ha alcanzado en este aspecto los niveles deseados. Conocer como ha sido en su devenir histórico y caracterizar las principales tendencias de la interdisciplinariedad en la formación profesional del Licenciado en Cultura Física, objetivo de este trabajo, reviste total importancia para tomar acciones pertinentes y enrumbar dicha formación con un carácter interdisciplinario. Para lograrlo, se analizaron los resultados de investigaciones terminadas sobre la temática desde una perspectiva analítica, interpretativa o crítica de los autores, que permitió en calidad de artículo de opinión o debate, presentar el siguiente texto, para lograr una comprensión del tema desarrollado.


RESUMO A sociedade atual e o seu carácter complexo, requer a formação de profissionais cada vez mais competentes e integrais capazes de dar solução a múltiplos e difíceis problemas sociais; isto tem exigido às universidades que revejam as dificuldades e contradições que ainda são apresentadas neste sentido. No campo da atividade física e do desporto, o profissional que trabalha no elo básico em Cuba requer uma sólida formação interdisciplinar, que a universidade como entidade formadora deve promover, mas nem sempre alcançou, uma vez que não atingiu os níveis desejados neste aspecto. Saber como tem sido no seu desenvolvimento histórico e caracterizar as principais tendências de interdisciplinaridade na formação profissional do Licenciado em Cultura Física, objetivo deste trabalho, é de total importância para tomar ações pertinentes e dirigir esta formação com um carácter interdisciplinar. Para tal, os resultados da investigação concluída sobre o tema foram analisados a partir de uma perspectiva analítica, interpretativa ou crítica dos autores, o que permitiu, como artigo de opinião ou debate, apresentar o seguinte texto, de modo a alcançar uma compreensão do tema desenvolvido.


ABSTRACT The present society and its complex character, demands the training of increasingly competent and integral professionals capable of providing solutions to multiple and difficult social problems; this has required universities to review the difficulties and contradictions that are still present in this regard. In the field of physical activity and sport, the professional who works in the basic link in Cuba requires a solid interdisciplinary training, which the university as a training entity should promote, but has not always achieved, since it has not reached the desired levels in this aspect. To know how it has been in its historical development and to characterize the main tendencies of interdisciplinarity in the professional training of the Bachelor of Physical Culture, objective of this work, is of total importance to take pertinent actions and to direct such training with an interdisciplinary character. To achieve this, the results of completed research on the subject were analyzed from an analytical, interpretative or critical perspective of the authors, which allowed, as an opinion article or debate, to present the following text, in order to achieve an understanding of the developed topic.

9.
Podium (Pinar Río) ; 16(1): 308-322,
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155077

RESUMEN

RESUMEN A medida que la población envejece, aumenta la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas y discapacitantes. Cuba es uno de los países más envejecidos de América Latina; está previsto sea hacia el 2050 uno de los más envejecidos del mundo. El costo de las enfermedades y su impacto en el estado funcional son mayores en los pacientes de edad avanzada que en personas más jóvenes. La elevada prevalencia de múltiples enfermedades no transmisibles en adultos mayores es un importante desafío para los proveedores de servicios de salud. La actividad física de los adultos mayores como una forma de vida saludable tiene gran trascendencia en la sociedad, pues la práctica del ejercicio y el deporte promueve la prevención, el tratamiento y la rehabilitación de enfermedades no transmisibles. El objetivo de esta investigación es incrementar los conocimientos sobre la repercusión de los cambios del envejecimiento en la funcionabilidad del adulto mayor, que permita incidir en su bienestar desde la actividad física. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante búsquedas electrónicas y en bibliotecas de revistas médicas nacionales y extranjeras indexadas en SciELO, Imbiomed y Pubmed en un horizonte de diez años en idioma español e inglés. Se consultaron artículos científicos y libros de textos con información relacionada con envejecimiento poblacional y actividad física, actividad física y enfermedades no transmisibles. Se puede concluir que la actividad física terapéutica es un acto profesional sanitario, que permite al individuo alcanzar la mayor capacidad funcional posible, logrando su máxima autonomía, a los efectos de posibilitar su mayor integración a la sociedad.


RESUMO À medida que a população envelhece, a prevalência de doenças crónicas e deficiências aumenta. Cuba é um dos países mais antigos da América Latina; em 2050 espera-se que seja um dos mais antigos do mundo. O custo das doenças e o seu impacto no estado funcional são mais elevados em pacientes mais velhos do que em pessoas mais jovens. A elevada prevalência de múltiplas doenças não transmissíveis em adultos mais velhos é um grande desafio para os prestadores de cuidados de saúde. A atividade física dos adultos mais velhos como um estilo de vida saudável é de grande importância na sociedade, uma vez que a prática de exercício e esporte promove a prevenção, tratamento e reabilitação de doenças não transmissíveis. O objetivo desta investigação é aumentar o conhecimento sobre a repercussão das mudanças do envelhecimento na funcionalidade dos adultos mais velhos, o que permite influenciar o seu bem-estar através da atividade física. Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica através de pesquisas electrónicas e em bibliotecas de revistas médicas nacionais e estrangeiras indexadas em SciELO, Imbiomed e Pubmed num horizonte de dez anos em língua espanhola e inglesa. Foram consultados artigos científicos e livros escolares com informações relacionadas com o envelhecimento da população e a atividade física; atividade física e doenças não transmissíveis. Pode-se concluir que a atividade física terapêutica é um ato profissional de saúde, que permite ao indivíduo atingir a maior capacidade funcional possível, alcançando a máxima autonomia, a fim de tornar possível uma melhor integração na sociedade.


ABSTRACT As the population ages, the prevalence of chronic and disabling diseases increases. Cuba is one of the oldest countries in Latin America, is expected to be one of the oldest in the world by 2050. The cost of diseases and their impact on functional status are higher in elderly patients than in younger people. The high prevalence of multiple Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases in older adults is a major challenge for health service providers. The physical activity of older adults as a healthy way of life has great significance in society, since the practice of exercise and sports promotes the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of noncommunicable diseases. The objective of our investigation is to increase knowledge about the impact of aging changes on the functionality of the elderly, which can influence their well-being from physical activity. A literature review was carried out through electronic searches and in libraries of national and foreign medical journals indexed in SciELO, Imbiomed and Pubmed in a 10-year horizon in Spanish and English. Thesis on completion of studies and textbooks with information related to population aging and physical activity, physical activity and noncommunicable diseases were consulted. As a conclusion, we can say that the Therapeutic physical activity is a professional health act, which allows the individual to achieve the greatest possible functional capacity, to achieve maximum autonomy, in order to enable their greater integration into society.

10.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813981

RESUMEN

Zanthoxylum pistaciifolium Griseb. is a tree endemic to Cuba, occasionally used in herbal medicine. Previously, the antitrypanosomal activity of a n-hexane-2-butanone extract of Z. pistaciifolium leaves and of its constituent skimmianine were published. In the current study a more thorough examination of the respective extract is performed, which led to the isolation and identification of three flavonoids, more specifically, the flavonol-3-O-methylethers kaempferol-3-O-methylether (1) and novel compounds kaempferol-3-O-methylether-5-O-ß-D-glucoside (2) and kaempferol-8-hydroxy-3,7-O-dimethylether-5-O-ß-D-glucoside (3). All compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activity and cytotoxicity towards MRC-5 SV2 cells. Compound 1 showed a moderate to weak activity against Trypanosoma cruzi (IC50 30.8 µM), T. brucei (IC50 15.4 µM) and Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 53.8 µM), but also showed cytotoxicity (CC50 19.0 µM). Compounds 2 and 3 did not display activity in any of the assays (IC50 and CC50 > 64 µM).

11.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803011

RESUMEN

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) classification comprises up to 10 genotypes with specific geographical distribution worldwide, further subdivided into 40 subgenotypes, which have different impacts on liver disease outcome. Though extensively studied, the classification of subgenotype A sequences remains ambiguous. This study aimed to characterize HBV isolates from West African patients and propose a more advanced classification of subgenotype A. Fourteen HBV full-length genome sequences isolated from patients from The Gambia and Senegal were obtained and phylogenetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV genotype A sequences isolated from Senegalese and Gambian patients exhibited separate clusters from the other known and confirmed subgenotypes A (A1, A2, A6). Most of the sequences (10/14) clustered with an isolate from Cuba, reported as subgenotype A4 (supported by maximal bootstrap value). Four isolates from The Gambia and Senegal clustered separately from all other subgenotypes and samples sequenced in the study. Three of which from The Gambia, designated as an expanding clade of subgenotype A4, exhibited a mean inter-subgenotypic nucleotide divergence over the entire genome sequence higher than 4% in comparison with the other subgenotypes and the other isolates sequenced in the study, except with subgenotype A4 isolates (3.9%), and this was supported by a maximal bootstrap value. The last one from Senegal seemed to be an expanding subgenotype close to the new clade of A4. Amino acid analysis unveiled a novel motif specific to these isolates. This study revealed an expanding evolution of HBV subgenotype A and novel amino acid motifs. It also highlighted the need for a consensus regarding the analysis and classification of HBV sequences.

12.
Infect Dis Rep ; 13(1): 219-229, 2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803222

RESUMEN

Infections represent an important problem in neonates because of the high mortality. An increase in neonatal infections has been found in Cuban hospitals in recent years. The aim of this study was to provide evidence on the clinical and microbiological behavior of Gram-negative bacilli that cause neonatal infections in hospitals of Havana, Cuba. It was carried out as a descriptive cross-sectional investigation from September 2017 to July 2018 in The Tropical Medicine Institute "Pedro Kouri" (IPK). Sixty-one Gram-negative bacilli isolated from neonates with infections in six Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospitals of Havana were analyzed for their species and antimicrobial susceptibility. Late-onset infections were more common than early-onset ones and included urinary tract infection in the community (87%) and sepsis in hospitals (63.3%). Catheter use (47%) and prolonged stay (38%) were the most frequent risk factors. Species of major pathogens were Escherichia coli (47%) and Klebsiella spp. (26%). The isolated Gram-negative bacilli showed high resistance rates to third-generation cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin, while being more susceptible to carbapenems, fosfomycin, colistin and amikacin. The present study revealed the clinical impact of Gram-negative bacilli in neonatology units in hospitals of Havana. Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibilities to the isolates from neonates is necessary for selection of appropriate empirical therapy and promotion of the rational antibiotic use.

13.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790396

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For community-living older people, the ability to estimate total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) with validated predictive equations based on anthropometry is limited. To our knowledge no studies exist for non-Caucasian populations OBJECTIVE: To design and validate an anthropometry-based equation to estimate TDEE using doubly-labelled water (DLW) as the criterion measure, and to assess the performance of three other published equations in community-living older people from rural and urban areas of Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Senegal, Cuba, and Mexico METHODS: This cross-sectional study measured anthropometry and TDEE using DLW in 69 men and 43 women aged 60-89 years. TDEE was also estimated with an anthropometry-based equation derived from the sub-sample of Mexico (n = 38) and with three other published equations. Predictive accuracy of the equations was tested by an external validation procedure RESULTS: TDEE by DLW in the six country sample was 2411 ± 41 kcal/day (mean ± SE) in men and 1939 ± 51 kcal/day in women. The best new Mexican equation was TDEE, kcal/d = [223.4 + (27.9 × weight, kg) + (239.7 × sex)]; where sex: Man = 1 and Woman = 0; having high precision; R2 = 0.89, lowest RMSE = 149.2, and Cp value of 2.0. This new Mexican equation estimated TDEE accurately in the five country sample and at country level after correction for Guatemalan older men, while the published equations performed poorly CONCLUSIONS: The Mexican equation performed better that other published equations and is recommended to accurately estimate energy requirements for community-living older people in five Latin American and one African country.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791996

RESUMEN

This study investigated the relationship between race and psychological distress among Latinxs in the United States. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2010-2018, we estimated the relative risk ratios (RRR) of experiencing psychological distress among White, Black and Other Latinxs from Mexico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Results revealed that Black Latinxs experienced higher levels of psychological distress than their White counterparts. Additional analysis among and within groups showed that Puerto Ricans and Dominicans reported higher psychological distress than Mexicans, and that race was associated with the distress of Cubans and Mexicans, but not with the distress of Puerto Ricans and Dominicans. Future work on the effect of racial self-identification on Latinxs' mental health-related outcomes, such as psychological distress, should include multidimensional measures of racial identity, such as self-reported and ascribed race, racial ideology, as well as measures of skin color and discrimination. Integrating racialization experiences during clinical assessments would help practitioners to gain a more comprehensive picture of how these identities and experiences may shape the stress, distress, and mental health outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety) of different racial and ethnic Latinx groups in the U.S.

15.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(3): E258-264, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818378

RESUMEN

The United States has not yet decided to ensure that every citizen has access to health care services at reasonable cost. The United States spends more on health care than any other country by far. Yet the health status of the US population, when compared with that of like nations, remains poor. The US system does not operate efficiently, fares poorly in terms of health equity, and has an illness and injury care industry with many uncoordinated "systems" focused on treating individuals rather than on improving health status. There are lessons for us in Cuba's health system.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871294

RESUMEN

Introduction: Heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been suggested in terms of epidemiology, phenotypes and genetics between geographic areas and populations. However, there is limited information in Latin America. We conducted a systematic review that aimed to describe the epidemiology, frequency of genetic mutations, clinical characteristics and survival of ALS patients in this region. Methods: We reviewed Medline, Scopus, Scielo and LILACS databases up to April 2020. The search terms "Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis" or "Motor Neuron Disease" were used in combination with the list of Latin American countries from the United Nations. All observational studies were included. A methodological overview was performed using the principles of descriptive epidemiology. Results: Overall, 1364 publications were identified and 36 studies were selected, covering 13 Latin American countries. According to the original reports, ALS occurrence varied among countries with a standardized incidence ranging from 0.3 per 100,000 person-years follow up (PYFU) in Ecuador to 3.6 per 100,000 PYFU in Uruguay. A low proportion of the C9orf72 repeat expansion was reported in Cuba and Brazil. We identified age at onset between 50 and 60 years. Survival time was higher than 40 months in half of the studies. Data from multiethnic populations reported a higher risk of developing ALS in Caucasians compared to admixed and Black populations. Conclusion: This review provides a perspective of ALS variability across Latin America and highlights specific differences when comparing to Europe and North America. However, we cannot draw firm conclusions because of different methodological concerns within the studies.

17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 245, 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821384

RESUMEN

Studies to assess variability factors of heavy metals in soils are essential to understand their behavior in the environment and for the assessment of contaminated areas. In this context, this research aimed to study the factors that influence the variability of heavy metal levels and their bioavailability in pasture areas in the Alturas de Nazareno region, Mayabeque, Cuba, as well as the transfer to plants. Forty-five points were distributed in a natural pasture and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm) as a function of relief and soil type. Pseudo-total heavy metal contents were determined according to method 3051A of USEPA, geochemical fractionation according to the Community Bureau of Reference method, and plant digestion according to method 3052 of USEPA. Soil samples were separated into two groups, according to cluster analysis. The type of soil associated with the pH and Ca attributes were the factors that most influenced the variability of the total and bioavailable levels of metals in natural pasture soils in the region of Alturas de Nazareno. Group 1 showed the lowest heavy metal contents and the highest pH and calcium values, which were predominantly associated with carbonate soils. Group 2 had the highest contents of heavy metals and Fe, corresponding mainly to the soil Ferralítico Rojo. The concentration of metals in plants was directly related to their bioavailable content in the soil, where G2 represents the group with the highest risk of transferring metals to the food chain.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Cuba , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
18.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807540

RESUMEN

Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v), the main causative agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), can be isolated from both the eyes and lower alimentary tract. However, the molecular features of CVA24v in feces is not well-documented. In this study, we compared the VP1 and 3C sequences of CVA24v strains isolated from feces during AHC epidemics in Cuba in 1997, 2003, and 2008-2009 with those obtained from conjunctival swabs during the same epidemic period. The sequence analyses of the 3C and VP1 region of stool isolates from the three epidemics showed a high degree of nucleotide identity (ranging from 97.3-100%) to the corresponding conjunctival isolates. The phylogenetic analysis showed that fecal CVA24v isolates from the 1997 and 2003 Cuban outbreaks formed a clade with CVA24v strains isolated from conjunctival swabs in Cuba and other countries during the same period. There were three amino acid changes (3C region) and one amino acid change (VP1 region) in seven CVA24v strains isolated sequentially over 20 days from fecal samples of one patient, suggesting viral replication in the intestine. Despite these substitutions, the virus from the conjunctival swab and fecal samples were genetically very similar. Therefore, fecal samples should be considered as a reliable alternative sample type for the routine molecular diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of CVA24v, also during outbreaks of AHC.

19.
Zootaxa ; 4963(1): zootaxa.4963.1.13, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903573

RESUMEN

García Coy (1994) described the hystrignathid nematode Longior alius García Coy, 1994 parasitizing the passalid beetle Antillanax pertyi (Kaup, 1869) from Guantánamo province, Eastern Cuba. Morffe García (2011) continued the studies on Cuban Longior and described L. longior Morffe García, 2011. Morffe et al. (2018) redescribed L. longior with the aid of SEM and molecular techniques. In their research the authors studied Longior individuals from the same host species and a locality close to the type locality of L. alius and compared their morphology, measurements and DNA markers with other material of L. longior. As a result of this analysis Morffe et al. (2018) concluded that L. alius and L. longior are conspecific and proposed L. alius as a synonym of L. longior.

20.
Preprint en Portugués | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-2179

RESUMEN

Aim: To analyze the repercussions of Nursing, the structuring and resolution of National Health Systems in facing the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in selected countries.Method: Reflection article on the confrontation of COVID-19 by the National Health Systems of China, United States of America, Italy, United Kingdom, Portugal, Cuba and Brazil, from information disseminated in different media and in the literature.Results: The response of health systems depended more on political decisions than on their structuring and organization. Nursing, being the front line, was the profession most affected in number of cases and deaths.Final Considerations: The reflection shows that the countries' economic and political issues interfered in the response to COVID-19 and what the role played by Nursing is essential in the front line to face the pandemic.


Objectivo: Analizar las repercussiones para la Enfermería, la estructuración y resolución de Sistemas Nacionales de Salud ante el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) en países seleccionados.Método: Artículo de reflexión sobre el enfrentamiento del COVID-19 por parte de los Sistemas Nacionales de Salud de China, Estados Unidos de América, Italia, Reino Unido, Portugal, Cuba y Brasil, a partir de información difundida en diferentes medios y en la literatura.Resultados: La respuesta de los sistemas de salud dependió más de decisiones políticas que de su estruturación y organización. La enfermería, al ser la primera línea, fue la profesión más afectada en número de casos y muertes.Consideraciones Finales: La reflexión muestra que los problemas económicos y políticos de los países interfirieron en la respuesta a COVID-19 y cuál es el papel que juega la Enfermería en primera línea para enfrentar la pandemia.


Objetivo: Analisar as repercussões para a Enfermagem, a estruturação e a resolutividade de Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde no enfrentamento do novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2) em países selecionados.Método: Artigo de reflexão sobre o enfrentamento da COVID-19 pelos Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde da China, Estados Unidos da América, Itália, Reino Unido, Portugal, Cuba e Brasil, a partir de informações divulgadas em diferentes meios e na literatura.Resultados: A resposta dos sistemas de saúde dependeu mais de decisões políticas do que da estruturação e organização dos mesmos. A Enfermagem, por ser linha de frente, foi a profissão mais atingida em número de casos e óbitos.Considerações Finais: A reflexão demonstra que questões econômicas e políticas dos países interferiram na resposta à COVID-19 e o que o papel exercido pela Enfermagem é essencial na linha de frente ao enfrentamento da pandemia.

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