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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 208, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931091

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, available metrics for malaria surveillance have been insufficient to measure the performance of passive case detection adequately. An indicator for malaria suspected cases with malaria test (MSCT) is proposed to measure the rate of testing on persons presenting to health facilities who satisfy the definition of a suspected malaria case. This metric does not rely on prior knowledge of fever prevalence, seasonality, or external denominators, and can be used to compare detection rates in suspected cases within and between countries, including across settings with different levels of transmission. METHODS: To compute the MSCT, an operational definition for suspected malaria cases was established, including clinical and epidemiological criteria. In general, suspected cases included: (1) persons with fever detected in areas with active malaria transmission; (2) persons with fever identified in areas with no active transmission and travel history to, or residence in areas with active transmission (either national or international); and (3) persons presenting with fever, chills and sweating from any area. Data was collected from 9 countries: Belize, Colombia (in areas with active transmission), Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama (September-March 2020). A sample of eligible medical records for 2018 was selected from a sample of health facilities in each country. An algorithm was constructed to assess if a malaria test was ordered or performed for cases that met the suspected case definition. RESULTS: A sample of 5873 suspected malaria cases was obtained from 239 health facilities. Except for Nicaragua and Colombia, malaria tests were requested in less than 10% of all cases. More cases were tested in areas with active transmission than areas without cases. Travel history was not systematically recorded in any country. CONCLUSIONS: A statistically comparable, replicable, and standardized metric was proposed to measure suspected malaria cases with a test (microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) that enables assessing the performance of passive case detection. Cross-country findings have important implications for malaria and infectious disease surveillance, which should be promptly addressed as countries progress towards malaria elimination. Local and easy-to-implement tools could be implemented to assess and improve passive case detection.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 840, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mesoamerica is severely affected by an epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of non-traditional origin (CKDnt), an epidemic with a marked variation within countries. We sought to describe the spatial distribution of CKDnt in Mesoamerica and examine area-level crop and climate risk factors. METHODS: CKD mortality or hospital admissions data was available for five countries: Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica and linked to demographic, crop and climate data. Maps were developed using Bayesian spatial regression models. Regression models were used to analyze the association between area-level CKD burden and heat and cultivation of four crops: sugarcane, banana, rice and coffee. RESULTS: There are regions within each of the five countries with elevated CKD burden. Municipalities in hot areas and much sugarcane cultivation had higher CKD burden, both compared to equally hot municipalities with lower intensity of sugarcane cultivation and to less hot areas with equally intense sugarcane cultivation, but associations with other crops at different intensity and heat levels were not consistent across countries. CONCLUSION: Mapping routinely collected, already available data could be a first step to identify areas with high CKD burden. The finding of higher CKD burden in hot regions with intense sugarcane cultivation which was repeated in all five countries agree with individual-level studies identifying heavy physical labor in heat as a key CKDnt risk factor. In contrast, no associations between CKD burden and other crops were observed.

3.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(2): 154-158, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906132

RESUMEN

Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and remains a regional problem despite improvements in environmental health conditions that have helped to control its transmission. To know more about its prevalence in heart disease patients, we carried out a survey in our national (El Salvador) reference hospital. We reviewed the Chagas Lab's records 2013-2015 to find out how many of the patients admitted to the Hospital's Heart Unit were serologically positives for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and which the associated diagnoses were. A total of 1472 patients were tested along the 36-month study period. Out of 557 (37.8%) patients with positive serology for Chagas infection, 97 (17.4%) were eventually admitted to the Heart Unit. Among these 97 Chagas infected patients with heart disease, 40 (41.2%) met the criteria for permanent pacemaker placement, while only 13 of 191 (6.8%) patients with non-chagasic heart disease met these criteria. The frequency of heart atrioventricular block associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection was higher than frequencies reported in South American studies.


Asunto(s)
Bloqueo Atrioventricular , Enfermedad de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Bloqueo Atrioventricular/epidemiología , Bloqueo Atrioventricular/etiología , Enfermedad de Chagas/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , El Salvador , Humanos , América Latina
4.
J Community Health ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907903

RESUMEN

The goal of this study was to measure food insecurity among families with children in a low-income district of Lima, Peru and to identify the formal and informal food resources available to them that may affect their food security status. In June-July 2019, we collected data from 329 randomly selected households in Villa El Salvador (Lima, Peru). Following a mixed methods approach, we found that the percentage of households using food assistance programs (FAPs) increased with increasing levels of food insecurity, but two FAPs were heavily used by households regardless of food (in)security. The main reasons for using FAPs included financial need, already being signed up in the program, and believing that the food was of nutritional value; the main reasons for non-use were finding the program unnecessary, dislike or poor perceived quality of the food, and not being able to sign up for the program. Similarly, informal food resources, such as buying food on credit or receiving food from someone outside the household, were incrementally used with increased levels of food insecurity. Our study clarifies the relationship between level of household food insecurity and FAP use - FAPs more commonly used by food insecure households were used because of financial need, whereas the FAPs most commonly used by food secure households were those with automatic enrollment. At a programmatic level, our research highlights the need for making nutritious and preferred foods available in FAPs and standardizing the application of enrollment criteria.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e048287, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795312

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To translate a symptom screening tool developed for paediatric patients receiving cancer therapies called Symptom Screening in Pediatrics Tool (SSPedi) into Argentinian Spanish and to evaluate the understandability and cultural relevance of the translated version of SSPedi among children with cancer and paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. METHODS: We conducted a multiphase, descriptive study to translate SSPedi into Argentinian Spanish. Using two translators, forward and backward translations were performed. The translated version was evaluated by Spanish-speaking paediatric patients 8-18 years of age receiving cancer treatments in two centres in Argentina and El Salvador. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was patient self-reported difficulty with understanding of the SSPedi instructions and each symptom using a 5-point Likert scale. Secondary outcomes were incorrect understanding of the SSPedi instructions, symptoms and response scale determined by cognitive interviews with the patients and rated using a 4-point Likert scale. Cultural relevance was assessed qualitatively. RESULTS: There were 30 children enrolled and included in cognitive interviews; 16 lived in Argentina and 14 lived in El Salvador. The most common types of Spanish spoken were Central American (17, 57%) followed by South American (10, 33%) and Castilian (3, 10%). No changes to Argentinian Spanish SSPedi were required based on the outcomes or qualitative comments. No issues with cultural relevance were identified by any of the respondents. CONCLUSIONS: We translated and finalised Argentinian Spanish SSPedi. Future research will focus on its use to describe bothersome symptoms by Argentinian Spanish-speaking children.

6.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2021(176): 227-244, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834587

RESUMEN

There has been a record surge of unaccompanied immigrant minors (UAMs) entering the United States, with 86% of those apprehended at the US-Mexico border originating from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. A majority of immigrant children are separated from either one or both parents at various points during the migration process. Although average separations last 4 or more years, and may be deeply distressing, there is little research on family separations among Central American UAMs. Further, little is known about the developmental impact of separations from extended family networks, or about reunification. To address these empirical gaps, this study used community-participatory qualitative methods to deeply explore the lived experiences and emotional repercussions of family separation and reunification. The sample included 42 adolescents who had all recently migrated to the Western United States from Central America. Thematic analyses revealed that separation experiences are distressing, multifaceted, and have important developmental implications for Central American UAMs. Results illustrate the socioemotional toll that family separation and reunification can have on this vulnerable population, and highlight the need for culturally responsive, developmentally informed, and contextually appropriate care focused on family reunification in order to foster healthy psychosocial adjustment among UAMs.

7.
Zootaxa ; 4951(1): zootaxa.4951.1.3, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903414

RESUMEN

This paper is primarily a compilation of published data on the staphylinid beetle species reported for El Salvador. It is based on taxonomic and ecological literature, with inclusion of some new records from different entomological collections. Thirty eight genera and 96 species are reported in the list, including a first country record: Eulissus chalybaeus. Country-level distribution outside of El Salvador, locality references and topographic zones are included for each species. In the list, three endemic species are recorded: Seeversiella badia, S. minima and Stenus salvadorensis. It is remarkable that 14 genera (37%) and 52 species (54%) have only been reported at a country level in the literature, without a specific locality of collection, indicating the need for local inventories of this coleopteran family in the salvadoran territory.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53563

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To describe the current status of regulatory reliance in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by assessing the countries’ regulatory frameworks to approve new medicines, and to ascertain, for each country, which foreign regulators are considered as trusted regulatory authorities to rely on. Methods. Websites from LAC regulators were searched to identify the official regulations to approve new drugs. Data collection was carried out in December 2019 and completed in June 2020 for the Caribbean countries. Two independent teams collected information regarding direct recognition or abbreviated processes to approve new drugs and the reference (trusted) regulators defined as such by the corresponding national legislation. Results. Regulatory documents regarding marketing authorization were found in 20 LAC regulators’ websites, covering 34 countries. Seven countries do not accept reliance on foreign regulators. Thirteen regulatory authorities (Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and the unique Caribbean Regulatory System for 15 Caribbean States) explicitly accept relying on marketing authorizations issued by the European Medicines Agency, United States Food and Drug Administration, and Health Canada. Ten countries rely also on marketing authorizations from Australia, Japan, and Switzerland. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico are reference authorities for eight LAC regulators. Conclusions. Regulatory reliance has become a common practice in the LAC region. Thirteen out of 20 regulators directly recognize or abbreviate the marketing authorization process in case of earlier approval by a regulator from another jurisdiction. The regulators most relied upon are the European Medicines Agency, United States Food and Drug Administration, and Health Canada.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir el estado actual de la utilización de las decisiones de autoridades regulatorias de otras jurisdicciones en América Latina y el Caribe mediante la evaluación de los marcos regulatorios nacionales para la aprobación de nuevos medicamentos y establecer los organismos regulatorios extranjeros que se consideran autoridades regulatorias confiables para cada país. Métodos. Se realizaron búsquedas en los sitios web de las autoridades regulatorias de América Latina y el Caribe para identificar las regulaciones oficiales para la aprobación de nuevos medicamentos. La recopilación de datos se llevó a cabo en diciembre del 2019 y se completó en junio del 2020 para los países del Caribe. Dos equipos independientes recopilaron información sobre el reconocimiento directo o los procedimientos abreviados para la aprobación de nuevos medicamentos y los autoridades regulatorias de referencia (confiables) así definidos en la legislación nacional correspondiente. Resultados. Se encontraron documentos regulatorios sobre la aprobación de nuevos productos en los sitios web de veinte organismos regulatorios de América Latina y el Caribe, que abarcaban 34 países. Siete países no aceptan la utilización de decisiones de autoridades regulatorias extranjeras. Trece autoridades regulatorias (Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, México, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, República Dominicana, Uruguay y el sistema regulador único para quince Estados del Caribe) aceptan de manera explícita confiar las decisiones para aprobación de nuevos medicamentos emitidas por la Agencia Europea de Medicamentos, la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de Estados Unidos y Salud Canadá. Diez países aceptan también utilizar las autorizaciones para la comercialización de Australia, Japón y Suiza. Argentina, Brasil, Chile y México son autoridades de referencia para ocho autoridades regulatorias en la región. Conclusiones. La utilización de las decisiones de autoridades regulatorias de otras jurisdicciones se han convertido en una práctica común en América Latina y el Caribe. Trece de veinte autoridades regulatorias reconocen directamente o abrevian el proceso de aprobación de nuevos medicamentos en caso de que hayan recibido previamente la aprobación por parte de un organismo regulatorio de otra jurisdicción. La Agencia Europea de Medicamentos, la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de Estados Unidos y Salud Canadá son las autoridades regulatorias de otras jurisdicciones en las cuales los reguladores de América Latina y el Caribe confían más.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever a prática atual de uso de decisões regulatórias de outras jurisdições na América Latina e no Caribe (ALC) mediante avaliação os marcos regulatórios dos países para aprovação de novos medicamentos e verificar, para cada país, quais entidades reguladoras estrangeiras são consideradas autoridades reguladoras de confiança por cada país. Métodos. Foi realizada uma pesquisa nos sites das autoridades reguladoras da ALC para identificar as regulamentações oficiais para aprovação de novos medicamentos. A coleta de dados foi feita em dezembro de 2019 e concluída em junho de 2020 para os países do Caribe. Dois grupos independentes coletaram informações sobre o reconhecimento direto ou o procedimento abreviado para aprovação de novos medicamentos e as autoridades reguladoras de referência (de confiança) definidas como tal pela respectiva legislação nacional. Resultados. Documentos regulatórios relacionados à aprovação de novos produtos foram obtidos de 20 sites de órgãos reguladores da ALC, abrangendo 34 países. Sete países não admitem o uso de decisões regulatórias de entidades reguladoras externas. Treze autoridades reguladoras (na Argentina, Colômbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Equador, Guatemala, México, Panamá, Paraguai, Peru, República Dominicana, Uruguai e o Sistema Regulador do Caribe unificado para 15 Estados caribenhos) admitem explicitamente a admissibilidade de decisões regulatórias para aprovação de novos medicamentos de outras jurisdições, quais sejam: Agência Europeia de Medicamentos (EMA), Agência Reguladora de Alimentos e Medicamentos (FDA) dos EUA e Health Canada. Dez países também aceitam decisões para autorização de comercialização da Austrália, Japão e Suíça. Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México são autoridades de referência para oito agências reguladoras. Conclusões. O uso de decisões regulatórias de outras jurisdições tornou-se prática comum na América Latina e Caribe. Treze das 20 agências reguladoras reconhecem diretamente ou abreviam o procedimento de aprovação de novos medicamentos no caso de tal aprovação já haver sido concedida por uma autoridade reguladora de outra jurisdição. A EMA, a FDA e a Health Canada são as autoridades estrangeiras nas quais as agências reguladoras da América Latina e Caribe mais confiam.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Agencias Gubernamentales , Aprobación de Drogas , United States Food and Drug Administration , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Agencias Gubernamentales , Aprobación de Drogas , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Agencias Gubernamentales , Aprobación de Drogas , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , Región del Caribe
11.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802717

RESUMEN

The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is a vulnerable species from Central and South America, and is considered possibly extinct in Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Uruguay. Due to the species' conservation and reproductive importance, this research aimed to characterize the morphology, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural feature of the giant anteater prostate gland. For this, we collected 11 giant anteater prostate glands and performed macroscopic, morphological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis. Nine prostate glands from an adult subject and two from young subjects were studied. Grossly, the adult giant anteater prostate gland is divided in two distinct zones; the central zones (composed mainly of ducts) and the peripheral zones (of acini formed by secretory cells). The secretory cells showed positive periodic acid-Schiff staining. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical characterization revealed a similar human prostate pattern, with p63 staining basal cells, uroplakin III (UPIII) superficial cells of prostatic urethra, androgen receptor (AR) expressing nucleus of secretory and stromal cells, and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) staining prostatic epithelial cells. Overall, our research provided an in-depth morphological description of the giant anteater's prostate gland, providing valuable information for futures studies focused on giant anteater conservation.

12.
Infant Ment Health J ; 2021 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843073

RESUMEN

A pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in El Salvador of an intervention ('Thula Sana') previously shown to enhance maternal sensitivity and infant security of attachment in a South African sample. In El Salvador, trained community workers delivered the intervention from late pregnancy to 6 months postpartum as part of a home-visiting programme. The sample comprised 64 pregnant adolescent women, aged 14-19 years, living in predominantly rural settings. They were randomised to receive either the intervention or normal care. Demographic information was collected at baseline and, immediately post-intervention, blind assessments were made of parental sensitivity and infant emotion regulation. The intervention was found to have a substantial positive impact on maternal sensitivity. Further, compared to control group, infants in the intervention group showed more regulated behaviour: in a social challenge task they showed more attempts to restore communication, and in a non-social challenge task they showed more social and goal-directed behaviour. This replication and extension of the South African findings in a small El Salvador sample shows promise and justifies the conduct of a large-scale RCT in a Central or South American context.

13.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(1): 14-18, jan.-abr. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1148160

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Este trabalho tem como propósito relatar, a partir de um olhar acadêmico, as experiências vivenciadas no programa "Partiu Estágio" do governo da Bahia, direcionado à gestão da atenção básica e produção técnico-científica com o Telessaúde Redes Brasil. Metodologia: A vivência ocorreu no período de novembro de 2017 a julho de 2018, no município de Salvador, Bahia, e teve a participação de 07 estudantes de diferentes cursos de graduação. Ocorreram visitas, estudos de imersão teórica, rodas de conversas e dinâmicas, visando o entendimento da realidade do Sistema Único de Saúde e do programa Telessaúde. Resultados: O programa "Partiu Estágio" promoveu a aproximação entre universitários e Atenção Básica, enquanto o Telessaúde viabilizou a integração dos sistemas de informação em saúde. No período de experiência identificouse pontos positivos como a possibilidade de acompanhamento das ações de saúde do SUS e o funcionamento do Telessaúde, entretanto, existem fragilidades, especialmente, no que concerne à estrutura do Telessaúde e verbas para ampliação do programa. Conclusão: A relevância dos programas abordados é imprescindível, pois impacta na operacionalização da Atenção Básica. Ressalta-se a relevância de aproximar estudantes de cursos de graduação, voltados para saúde, a experimentarem os espaços de aprendizagem no SUS e na Atenção Primária(AU)


Objective: This study aimed to report, from an academic perspective, the experiences of the "Partiu Estágio" program of the Bahia government, aimed at the management of basic care and technical-scientific production with Telehealth Networks Brazil. Methodology: The experience occurred in the period from November 2017 to July 2018, in the city of Salvador, Bahia, and had the participation of 07 students from different undergraduate courses. Visits, theoretical immersion studies, conversation wheels and dynamics, aimed at understanding the reality of the Unified Health System and the Telehealth program. Results: The "Partiu Estágio" program promoted the rapprochement between university students and Primary Care, while Telehealth enabled the integration of health information systems. During the period of experience, positive points were identified such as the possibility of monitoring health actions of the SUS and the operation of Telehealth, as well as participation in the process of promoting the continuity of care of the population by the permeability of available resources, regardless of the place where assistance was generated. However, there are weaknesses, especially with regard to the structure of telehealth and funds to expand the program Conclusion: The relevance of the programs addressed is essential, as it impacts on the operationalization of Primary Care. It is important to highlight the relevance of bringing undergraduate, health-oriented students to experience the learning spaces in SUS and Primary Care(AU)


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Estudiantes de Medicina , Telemedicina , Sistema Único de Salud , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas
14.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 83(4): 545-554, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778915

RESUMEN

From May to November 2013, ticks were collected from wild and domestic hosts that were sampled by convenience in different localities of El Salvador. Among 48 localities, in total 1181 ticks were collected from 200 vertebrate animals, comprising 13 species of wild hosts (amphibian, reptiles, mammals) and five species of domestic mammals, plus four samples from humans and four samples from the environment. Through morphological analysis (corroborated by molecular analyses in a few cases), the following ten tick species were identified: Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cf. parvum, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma scutatum, Dermacentor dissimilis, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Among a sample of 211 tick specimens tested for rickettsial infection by molecular methods, we identified: 'Candidatus Rickettsia colombianensi' in 10% of the A. dissimile ticks and 11% of the A. scutatum ticks; Rickettsia amblyommatis in 77% of the A. mixtum ticks, 50% of the A. cf. parvum ticks, 8% of the D. nitens ticks, and 11% of the Amblyomma spp. nymphs; and Rickettsia bellii in 3% of the A. dissimile ticks and 17% of the A. ovale ticks. The tick fauna of El Salvador is currently represented by 12 reported species.


Asunto(s)
Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Garrapatas , Animales , El Salvador , Rickettsia/genética
15.
Zootaxa ; 4920(1): zootaxa.4920.1.1, 2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756673

RESUMEN

We revise the genus Acanthoctenus Keyserling, 1877 recognizing thirteen valid species, of which five are new species and two are re-validated. Further, we find one new synonymy and transfer one species. We describe Acanthoctenus alux sp. nov. from Guatemala, A. chickeringi sp. nov. and A. lamarrei sp. nov. from Panama, A. manauara sp. nov. from Brazil and A. torotoro sp. nov. from Bolivia. We revalidate Acanthoctenus dumicola Simon, 1906 stat. res. from Venezuela, and A. virginea (Kraus, 1955) stat. res., comb. nov. from El Salvador. We transfer Acanthoctenus mammifer to Viracucha mammifer (Mello-Leitão, 1939) comb. nov., from Brazil. Acanthoctenus maculatus Petrunkevitch, 1925 and Gephyroctenus kolosvaryi Caporiacco, 1947 are considered species inquirendae in Acanthocteninae and Ctenidae, respectively, and A. obauratus Simon, 1906 and A. rubrotaeniatus Mello-Leitão, 1947 are considered incertae sedis in Acanthocteninae and Acantheinae, respectively. We also describe for the first time the female of Acanthoctenus spiniger Keyserling, 1877, the type species of the genus. We provide illustrations of male and female diagnostic characters, genitalia, habitus, and measurements to support the genus re-description and further identification of its species. We yield a distributional map of the specimens recorded and the description of the natural history of Acanthoctenus manauara sp. nov.


Asunto(s)
Arañas , Distribución Animal , Animales , Femenino , Masculino
16.
Zookeys ; 1024: 157-196, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786006

RESUMEN

A revision of the Central American species of the genus Brachiacantha was undertaken to update the knowledge of the Central American species of the genus. Material of several collections was reviewed, using original descriptions and keys, and comparing with the type material. Twenty-five species of the genus Brachiacantha were found in Central American material, including nine new species: B. nubes Nestor-Arriola, Toledo-Hernández and Solís, sp. nov., B. dentata Nestor-Arriola, Toledo-Hernández and Solís, sp. nov., B. isthmena Nestor-Arriola, Toledo-Hernández and Solís, sp. nov., B. aurantiapleura Nestor-Arriola, Solís and Toledo-Hernández, sp. nov., B. invertita Nestor-Arriola, Toledo-Hernández and Solís, sp. nov., B. papiliona Nestor-Arriola, Toledo-Hernández and Solís, sp. nov., B. tica Nestor-Arriola, Toledo-Hernández and Solís, sp. nov., B. hexaspina González, Vetrovec and Nestor-Arriola, sp. nov., and B. mimica Nestor-Arriola and Toledo-Hernández, sp. nov. Nomenclatural changes include Brachiacantha gorhami (Weise), comb. nov., B. guatemalensis (Gorham), comb. nov., and Brachiacantha duodecimguttata Leng, syn. nov. for B. lepida Mulsant. The male genitalia of the species B. fenestrata Gorhan, B. octostigma Mulsant, B. aperta Weise, and B. cachensis Gorhan are described and illustrated for the first time. New records include B. indubitabilis Crotch and B. bipartita Mulsant (Costa Rica and Guatemala), B. gorhami (Weise) (El Salvador), and B. cachensis Gorham (Panamá). A key to the species is included.

17.
Preprint en Portugués | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-1943

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the association between social position and access to health services. Methods: Cross-sectional study in selected health units of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression were used. Results: 467 users participated, 75.6% did not finish high school; 78.7% had <2 minimum wages; 51.8% had intermediate/qualified occupations. Low income was associated with arriving at the health unit the night before or before 8 am. (odds ratio = 2.09 ­ 95%IC 1.13;3.87) and spend more time making an appointment (odds ratio = 2.13 ­ 95%IC 1.05;4.31). Elementary occupation was associated with scheduling with face-to-face appointment scheduling (odds ratio = 1.68 ­ 95%IC 1.14;2.45). Education and social trajectory showed no significant association with the use of health services. Conclusion: Social inequalities in access to services remained after intervention to improve accessibility.


Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre posição social e acesso aos serviços de saúde. Métodos: Estudo transversal em unidades da rede básica de saúde de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, onde foi implementado um plano para melhorar a acessibilidade. Empregou-se teste qui-quadrado de Pearson e regressão logística. Resultados: Participaram 467 usuários, dos quais 75,6% não concluíram o ensino médio, 78,7% tinham renda inferior a dois salários mínimos e 51,8% exerciam ocupações intermediárias/qualificadas. Renda baixa associou-se a chegar na unidade de saúde na noite anterior ou antes das 8h (odds ratio = 2,09 ­ IC95% 1,13;3,87) e dispender mais tempo para marcar consulta (odds ratio = 2,13 ­ IC95% 1,05;4,31). Ocupação elementar associou-se ao agendamento presencial da consulta (odds ratio = 1,68 ­ IC95% 1,14;2,45). Escolaridade e trajetória social não mostraram associação significante com utilização de serviços de saúde. Conclusão: Permaneceram desigualdades sociais no acesso aos serviços após intervenção para melhoria da acessibilidade.

19.
Int J Legal Med ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742257

RESUMEN

In the present work, an extensive analysis of the X-chromosomal pool of Native American and Mestizo groups of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Panama) has been carried out. Allele and haplotype frequency databases, as well as other forensic parameters for these populations, are presented. The admixture analysis supports the tri-hybrid composition in terms of ancestry in the Mestizo populations, with a predominant Native American contribution (54-69%), followed by European (19-28%) and African contributions (12-19%). Pairwise FST genetic distances highlight the genetic proximity between the northernmost Central American populations, especially among admixed populations. The unique and complex nature of this area, where populations from different origins intercrossed, as well as the informativity of X-STR data, highpoint the great interest of this genetic study. Furthermore, the X-chromosome databases for Central American populations here provided will be not only useful for forensic and population purposes not only in the target countries but also in the host countries.

20.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 167, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741050

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus spread across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Public health programs promoted vector control behaviors, including covering water storage containers with lids. Such approaches disrupt Zika transmission by eliminating the habitats of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water. METHODS: A quantitative household survey and observation checklist with trained enumerators were undertaken between August and October 2018 in selected urban/peri-urban USAID implementation communities in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. The survey included questions regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to Zika virus. An accompanying checklist was implemented to observe water storage containers, including for short-term and long-term water use. The characteristics of these containers were tabulated, including the presence of a lid. The lids were examined for key features to determine their potential effectiveness to prevent mosquito breeding: fully covering and sealing the container, not having holes, and not having water on them (potentially creating a secondary breeding site). Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the effectiveness of lid types and characteristics on the presence of larvae. RESULTS: Overall, in adjusted models, using an effective lid versus no lid was associated with a 94% decrease in odds of larval presence in long-term water storage containers (odds ratio = 0.06; 95% confidence interval [0.029, 0.152]); however, similar impacts were not observed for washbasins in the adjusted models. Models adjusted for household wealth, receiving a visit from a vector control technician, scrubbing the container in the last 7 days, and perception of more mosquitoes around. CONCLUSIONS: Effective lids, if made available and coupled with complementary behavioral messaging, may reduce transmission of Zika and other Aedes mosquito-borne diseases in the LAC region.

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