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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 61, 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962699

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), endemic in Guatemala, mostly affects poor people living in the northern region. A national control program that includes surveillance, diagnose, and treatment offered free of cost by the Ministry of Health (MoH) has been in place since 2003. However, the incidence is increasing and treatment rates are not optimal, suggesting that current efforts are not being effective. This study aimed to understand barriers and facilitators of CL control in Guatemala as experienced and perceived by key stakeholders in order to comprehend what works well and does not and suggest evidence-informed interventions. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Cobán municipality, the most endemic of Guatemala, situated in the Department of Alta Verapaz. Data were collected during May and June 2019 via focus groups and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, including local and national health personnel and residents of four communities of the endemic region. Thematic and content analysis of the collected data was conducted using NVIVO. RESULTS: Three overarching issues hamper the effectiveness of current CL efforts: resource scarcity, treatment challenges, and knowledge-action gaps. Scarce economic resources from the MoH and community residents negatively impact incidence, detection of cases and treatment rates in that preventive action is insufficient and healthcare access is low. In addition, local health workers often lack specialized CL training and access to the national CL control guidelines. With regards to the population living in the study area, misunderstanding of disease causation, shame associated with CL lesions, treatment pain fear, and long (often uncertain) waiting times for diagnose and treatment negatively affect people's willingness to seek help, treatment adherence, and their trust on the healthcare provided. CONCLUSIONS: Culturally sensitive CL preventive action must be developed. Given the scarce economic resources available for CL control in the country, the involvement of trained community health workers and the inclusion of thermotherapy as a treatment option is also advised. Other cost-effective actions include: ensuring all health workers receive CL training and have access to national CL control guidelines, improving national procurement system to avoid treatment shortages, and provision of motorized vehicles to increase active surveillance and treatment rates.

2.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2021 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962902

RESUMEN

Adequate nutrition during the complementary feeding period is critical for optimal child growth and development and for promoting long-term educational attainment and economic potential. To prioritize limited public health resources, there is a need for studies that rigorously assess the influence of multicomponent integrated nutrition interventions in children younger than age 2 years in different contexts. This study aimed to describe the rationale and protocol for the Saqmolo' Project using the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines. The Saqmolo' (ie, "egg" in the Mayan language, Kaqchiquel) Project is an individually randomized, partially blinded, controlled comparative effectiveness trial to evaluate the influence of adding delivery of a single whole egg per day to local standard nutrition care (ie, growth monitoring, medical care, deworming medication, multiple micronutrient powders for point-of-use food fortification [chispitas], and individualized complementary and responsive feeding education for caregivers) for 6 months, compared with the local standard nutrition care package alone, on child development, growth, and diet quality measures in rural indigenous Mayan infants aged 6 to 9 months at baseline (N = 1,200). The study is being executed in partnership with the Wuqu' Kawoq/Maya Health Alliance, a primary health care organization located in central Guatemala. Primary outcomes for this study are changes in global development scores, assessed using the Guide for Monitoring Global Development and the Caregiver Reported Child Development Instruments. Secondary outcomes include changes in infant hemoglobin, anthropometric measures (including z scores for weight for age, length for age, weight for length, and head circumference for age), and diet quality as measured using the World Health Organization's infant and young child feeding indicators. The results of the Saqmolo' Project may help to inform public health decision making regarding resource allocation for effective nutrition interventions during the complementary feeding period.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945085

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We examined breast milk of mothers and urine of infants before and after introduction of supplementary foods for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and the association between AFM1 with maternal and infant diet. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among mothers and infants ages 0-6 months and 7-12 months from June-October 2014. Sociodemographic, dietary, birth, and health data were collected. A breast milk sample was collected from each mother and a urine sample from each infant at baseline (time point 1) and monthly for 2 time points thereafter; samples collected at baseline and time point 3 were tested for AFM1. RESULTS: Almost 5% of breast milk and 15.7% of urine samples tested AFM1-positive. The median AFM1 in breast milk was 0.020 ng/mL and in urine 0.077 ng/mg creatinine. At time point 3, infants of 5 of the 6 mothers in each group who were AFM1-positive in breast milk were also AFM1-positive in urine. Mothers' consumption of cooked maize/maize dough ≥ 3 days per week (OR 2.96, 95% CI = 1.19-7.34) and mothers' consumption of tamales made from maize ≥ 3 days per week (OR 0.28, 95% CI = 0.10-0.73) were significantly associated with AFM1 in infant urine. CONCLUSION: This is the first study in Guatemala documenting aflatoxin exposure in both breast milk of lactating mothers and infants´ urine during the first year of life. This may have important implications in understanding the multicausality of the high rates of stunting among children < 5 years old in Guatemala.

4.
Malar J ; 20(1): 208, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931091

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, available metrics for malaria surveillance have been insufficient to measure the performance of passive case detection adequately. An indicator for malaria suspected cases with malaria test (MSCT) is proposed to measure the rate of testing on persons presenting to health facilities who satisfy the definition of a suspected malaria case. This metric does not rely on prior knowledge of fever prevalence, seasonality, or external denominators, and can be used to compare detection rates in suspected cases within and between countries, including across settings with different levels of transmission. METHODS: To compute the MSCT, an operational definition for suspected malaria cases was established, including clinical and epidemiological criteria. In general, suspected cases included: (1) persons with fever detected in areas with active malaria transmission; (2) persons with fever identified in areas with no active transmission and travel history to, or residence in areas with active transmission (either national or international); and (3) persons presenting with fever, chills and sweating from any area. Data was collected from 9 countries: Belize, Colombia (in areas with active transmission), Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama (September-March 2020). A sample of eligible medical records for 2018 was selected from a sample of health facilities in each country. An algorithm was constructed to assess if a malaria test was ordered or performed for cases that met the suspected case definition. RESULTS: A sample of 5873 suspected malaria cases was obtained from 239 health facilities. Except for Nicaragua and Colombia, malaria tests were requested in less than 10% of all cases. More cases were tested in areas with active transmission than areas without cases. Travel history was not systematically recorded in any country. CONCLUSIONS: A statistically comparable, replicable, and standardized metric was proposed to measure suspected malaria cases with a test (microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) that enables assessing the performance of passive case detection. Cross-country findings have important implications for malaria and infectious disease surveillance, which should be promptly addressed as countries progress towards malaria elimination. Local and easy-to-implement tools could be implemented to assess and improve passive case detection.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 840, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mesoamerica is severely affected by an epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of non-traditional origin (CKDnt), an epidemic with a marked variation within countries. We sought to describe the spatial distribution of CKDnt in Mesoamerica and examine area-level crop and climate risk factors. METHODS: CKD mortality or hospital admissions data was available for five countries: Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica and linked to demographic, crop and climate data. Maps were developed using Bayesian spatial regression models. Regression models were used to analyze the association between area-level CKD burden and heat and cultivation of four crops: sugarcane, banana, rice and coffee. RESULTS: There are regions within each of the five countries with elevated CKD burden. Municipalities in hot areas and much sugarcane cultivation had higher CKD burden, both compared to equally hot municipalities with lower intensity of sugarcane cultivation and to less hot areas with equally intense sugarcane cultivation, but associations with other crops at different intensity and heat levels were not consistent across countries. CONCLUSION: Mapping routinely collected, already available data could be a first step to identify areas with high CKD burden. The finding of higher CKD burden in hot regions with intense sugarcane cultivation which was repeated in all five countries agree with individual-level studies identifying heavy physical labor in heat as a key CKDnt risk factor. In contrast, no associations between CKD burden and other crops were observed.

6.
J Palliat Med ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844951

RESUMEN

Objectives: The purpose of this multicenter study was to characterize the association between spirituality, religiosity, spiritual pain, symptom distress, coping, and quality of life (QOL) among Latin American advanced cancer patients. Methods: Three hundred twenty-five advanced cancer patients from palliative care clinics in Chile, Guatemala, and the United States completed validated assessments: Faith, Importance and Influence, Community, and Address (FICA) (spirituality/religiosity), Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale-Financial/Spiritual (ESAS-FS), including spiritual pain, Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated (PSWQ-A), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Brief-coping strategies (COPE) and Brief religious coping (RCOPE) and RCOPE, respectively, and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being, Expanded version (FACIT-Sp-Ex). Results: Median age: 58 years (range: 19-85); 60% female; and 62% Catholic and 30% Christian, but not Catholic. Three hundred fifteen patients (97%) considered themselves spiritual and 89% religious, with median intensities of 7 (interquartile range [IQR]: 5-10) and 7 (5-9), respectively (0-10 scale, 10 = "very much"). Median importance of spirituality/religiosity was 10 (IQR: 8-10). The frequency and associations between spirituality/religiosity and various items were as follows: helps to cope with illness (98%; r = 0.66303; p < 0.0001), positive effect on physical symptoms (81%; r = 0.42067; p < 0.0001), and emotional symptoms (84%; r = 0.16577; p < 0.0001). One hundred ninety-five patients (60%) reported that their spiritual/religious needs had not been supported by the medical team. Spiritual pain was reported in 162/311 patients (52%), with median intensity of 6 (IQR: 5-8). Spiritual pain was associated with pain (p = 0.0225), depression (p < 0.0001), anxiety (p < 0.0001), worry (p < 0.001), behavioral disengagement (p = 0.0148), FACIT-Sp-Ex score (p = 0.0002), and negative RCOPE (p < 0.0001). Significance of Results: Spirituality and religiosity are frequent, intense, and rarely addressed among Latin American patients. Spirituality/religiosity was associated with positive COPE and higher QOL. Spiritual pain was also frequent and associated with physical and psychosocial distress. These patients need increased spiritual/religious support.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790396

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For community-living older people, the ability to estimate total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) with validated predictive equations based on anthropometry is limited. To our knowledge no studies exist for non-Caucasian populations OBJECTIVE: To design and validate an anthropometry-based equation to estimate TDEE using doubly-labelled water (DLW) as the criterion measure, and to assess the performance of three other published equations in community-living older people from rural and urban areas of Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Senegal, Cuba, and Mexico METHODS: This cross-sectional study measured anthropometry and TDEE using DLW in 69 men and 43 women aged 60-89 years. TDEE was also estimated with an anthropometry-based equation derived from the sub-sample of Mexico (n = 38) and with three other published equations. Predictive accuracy of the equations was tested by an external validation procedure RESULTS: TDEE by DLW in the six country sample was 2411 ± 41 kcal/day (mean ± SE) in men and 1939 ± 51 kcal/day in women. The best new Mexican equation was TDEE, kcal/d = [223.4 + (27.9 × weight, kg) + (239.7 × sex)]; where sex: Man = 1 and Woman = 0; having high precision; R2 = 0.89, lowest RMSE = 149.2, and Cp value of 2.0. This new Mexican equation estimated TDEE accurately in the five country sample and at country level after correction for Guatemalan older men, while the published equations performed poorly CONCLUSIONS: The Mexican equation performed better that other published equations and is recommended to accurately estimate energy requirements for community-living older people in five Latin American and one African country.

8.
Addiction ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844362

RESUMEN

AIMS: To describe mortality in the Americas from 2013 to 2015 inclusive resulting from diseases, conditions and injuries which are 100% attributable to alcohol consumption. DESIGN AND SETTING: Mortality registry, population-based study. The data come from 30 of the 35 countries of the Americas for the triennium of 2013 to 2015. PARTICIPANTS AND CASES: A total of 18 673 791 deaths coded by three-digit ICD-10 codes were analyzed. MEASUREMENTS: Cause (underlying), and age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated by sex and country. FINDINGS: From 2013 to 2015 inclusive, among 30 of the 35 countries of the Americas, an average of 85 032 deaths per year were entirely attributable to alcohol. Men accounted for 83.1% of all 100% alcohol-attributable deaths, and death rates were higher for men than for women across all countries; however, the ratios of 100% alcohol-attributable deaths by sex varied by country. The majority of all 100% alcohol-attributable deaths occurred among those aged under 60 years (64.9%) and were due to liver disease (63.9%) followed by neuropsychiatric disorders (27.4%). Age-adjusted 100% alcohol-attributable mortality rates were highest in Nicaragua (23.2 per 100 000) and Guatemala (19.0 per 100 000), although the majority of all 100% alcohol-attributable deaths occurred in the United States 36.9%), Brazil (24.8%), and Mexico (18.4%). CONCLUSIONS: From 2013 to 2015, more than 85 000 deaths in the Americas were 100% attributable to alcohol. Most of those occurred in people under 60 years and the highest mortality rates occurred in the United States, Brazil and Mexico.

9.
Reumatol Clin ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875392

RESUMEN

The causes of mortality among rheumatic diseases vary widely between geographic areas and cannot be generalized, however, they are frequently associated with the aggressiveness of the clinical presentation and the secondary effects of the therapy used. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the causes of death in a group of patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease. For this purpose, a retrospective study was carried out over a period of 10 years (2009 to 2019), deceased patients were included from a referral centre in Guatemala City, the records were reviewed in search of demographic and clinical variables. In total, 185 deceased patients were identified from 898 admissions during that period, 85.9% were women and the main disease reported was systemic lupus erythematosus in 49.7% of the cases. Among the causes of mortality, infections were reported in 53% and those attributed to disease activity in 15% of cases. The main conclusion is that that most of the deaths were of infectious origin.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876178

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adequate gestational weight gain (GWG) is essential for healthy fetal growth. However, in low- and middle-income countries, where malnutrition is prevalent, little information is available about GWG and how it might be modified by nutritional status and interventions. OBJECTIVE: We describe GWG and its associations with fetal growth and birth outcomes. We also examined the extent to which prepregnancy BMI, and preconception and early weight gain modify GWG, and its effects on fetal growth. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the Women First Trial, including 2331 women within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guatemala, India, and Pakistan, evaluating weight gain from enrollment to ∼12 weeks of gestation and GWG velocity (kg/wk) between ∼12 and 32 weeks of gestation. Adequacy of GWG velocity was compared with 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, according to maternal BMI. Early weight gain (EWG), GWG velocity, and adequacy of GWG were related to birth outcomes using linear and Poisson models. RESULTS: GWG velocity (mean ± SD) varied by site: 0.22 ± 0.15 kg/wk in DRC, 0.30 ± 0.23 in Pakistan, 0.31 ± 0.14 in Guatemala, and 0.39 ± 0.13 in India, (P <0.0001). An increase of 0.1 kg/wk in maternal GWG was associated with a 0.13 cm (95% CI: 0.07, 0.18, P <0.001) increase in birth length and a 0.032 kg (0.022, 0.042, P <0.001) increase in birth weight. Compared to women with inadequate GWG, women who had adequate GWG delivered newborns with a higher mean length and weight: 47.98 ± 2.04 cm compared with 47.40 ± 2.17 cm (P <0.001) and 2.864 ± 0.425 kg compared with 2.764 ± 0.418 kg (P <0.001). Baseline BMI, EWG, and GWG were all associated with birth length and weight. CONCLUSIONS: These results underscore the importance of adequate maternal nutrition both before and during pregnancy as a potentially modifiable factor to improve fetal growth.

11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(4): 1245-1257, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886754

RESUMEN

The scope of this study was to assess the forms used to report suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR) to the pharmacovigilance system in Brazil and twelve other Latin-American countries. The study comprised three stages. In the first stage, the forms were attributed a score relating to the presence of critical items to generate ADR notification. In the second stage, the variables of the forms were quantified and classified regarding feasibility to contribute to an appropriate assessment of causality. In the last stage, hierarchical clustering was used to identify similar forms. The Venezuelan form achieved the highest score (18 points). The median number of variables in the forms of each country was 41 [26 (Guatemala) to 95 (Brazil)]. Most of the variables of the form were classified as life-critical and the majority contribute as an alternative explanation to causality assessment. Four clusters were identified (1, 2, 3 and 4). The forms of Brazil and Bolivia formed two distinct groups, 1 and 3 respectively. The results of this study indicate the need to change the forms of the different countries studied or even delete some variables, making them more appropriate for the process of assessment of ADR causality.

12.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2021(176): 227-244, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834587

RESUMEN

There has been a record surge of unaccompanied immigrant minors (UAMs) entering the United States, with 86% of those apprehended at the US-Mexico border originating from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. A majority of immigrant children are separated from either one or both parents at various points during the migration process. Although average separations last 4 or more years, and may be deeply distressing, there is little research on family separations among Central American UAMs. Further, little is known about the developmental impact of separations from extended family networks, or about reunification. To address these empirical gaps, this study used community-participatory qualitative methods to deeply explore the lived experiences and emotional repercussions of family separation and reunification. The sample included 42 adolescents who had all recently migrated to the Western United States from Central America. Thematic analyses revealed that separation experiences are distressing, multifaceted, and have important developmental implications for Central American UAMs. Results illustrate the socioemotional toll that family separation and reunification can have on this vulnerable population, and highlight the need for culturally responsive, developmentally informed, and contextually appropriate care focused on family reunification in order to foster healthy psychosocial adjustment among UAMs.

13.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834192

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Pathology and laboratory medicine (PALM) services in low- and middle-income countries are essential to combat the increasing prevalence of cancer in addition to providing documentation of cancer types and trends for future allocation of public health resources. There are many ways PALM as a whole can engage on the global health front. This study summarizes the efforts and results of a global health educational and clinical elective for pathology residents in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. METHODS: Pathology residents led and implemented the project, working alongside an in-country pathologist and project collaborator to instill project sustainability and allow for future capacity building. RESULTS: An educational elective was established between the pathology departments of the University of Virginia and Hospital Regional de Occidente in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Two residents at a time engaged in a month-long educational elective assisting and learning from the in-country pathologist in anatomic pathology clinical work. CONCLUSIONS: The project is an example of a global health initiative centering on the enhancement of PALM services in a low-resource environment via a bidirectional, sustainable educational exchange.

14.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837603

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in thyroid cancer incidence and mortality in Latin America. METHODS: Ecological study of time series, with incidence data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer for the 1990-2012 period and mortality data of 16 countries obtained from WHO for the 1995-2013 period. The trends of incidence rates were analysed by the Joinpoint regression. Average annual percentage change and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for incidence and mortality. RESULTS: Incidence and mortality from thyroid cancer in Latin America were higher in women, with the highest incidence rate in women in Quito (Ecuador) aged 40-59 years: 42.2 new cases per 100 000 inhabitants, and mortality of 4.8/100 000 in women over 60. Thyroid cancer incidence increased in women of all age groups in Cali (Colombia), Costa Rica and Quito (Ecuador); and in men in Costa Rica. Incidence rates were stable above the age of 60 years in Cali, in Goiania (Brazil), Quito (Ecuador) and Valdivia (Chile) in men, and in women in Goiania (Brazil) and Valdivia (Chile). Mortality among women increased in Ecuador (AAPC = 3.28 CI 95% 1.36; 5.24), Guatemala (AAPC = 6.14 CI 95% 2.81; 9.58) and Mexico (AAPC = 0.67 CI 95% 0.16; 1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid cancer incidence in Latin America is high and rising in women. Mortality remains stable in most countries of Latin America.

15.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53774

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To present a methodology for the simultaneous setting of quantitative targets that reflect both an improvement in the national average of an indicator for Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG3), as well as a reduction in its geographic inequality. Methods. A five-step algorithm was developed: (a) calculate the national average annual percent change (AAPC) for an SDG3 indicator; (b) normatively define geographic strata from the subnational distribution of the indicator in a baseline year; (c) apply a proportional progressivity criterion to the AAPC to project the stratum-specific indicator value for the target year; (d) set the national target as the weighted average of the indicator in the subnational territorial units for the target year; and (e) set the inequality reduction targets by calculating the absolute and relative gaps between the bottom and top strata for the target year. Results. The algorithm was applied to SDG indicator 3.1.1 (maternal mortality ratio, MMR), disaggregated by Guatemala’s 22 departments at the baseline year 2014 (MMR = 113 per 100,000 live births). By sustaining the AAPC rate attained from 2009 to 2014 (-4.3%) and focalizing its actions with territorial progressivity, by 2030 the country could reduce its MMR to 53 per 100,000 and its absolute and relative inequality gaps by 72% and 48%, respectively. Conclusions. The proposed methodology allows for simultaneously setting targets for overall progress and inequality reduction in health, making explicit the primacy of the equity principle contained in the SDG commitment to leave no one behind, whose urgency takes on renewed relevance in the current pandemic scenario.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Presentar una metodología para la formulación simultánea de metas cuantitativas que reflejen tanto la mejoría del promedio nacional de un indicador del tercer Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS3) como la reducción de su desigualdad geográfica. Métodos. Se definió un algoritmo en cinco pasos: a) cálculo del cambio porcentual anual promedio (CPAP) nacional para un indicador del ODS3; b) definición normativa de estratos geográficos a partir de la distribución subnacional del indicador en un año base; c) aplicación de un criterio de progresividad proporcional del CPAP para proyectar el indicador estrato-específico al año meta; d) establecimiento de la meta nacional como el promedio ponderado del indicador en las unidades territoriales subnacionales al año meta; y e) formulación de metas de reducción de desigualdad mediante el cálculo de las brechas absoluta y relativa entre los estratos extremos al año meta. Resultados. Se aplicó el algoritmo al indicador ODS 3.1.1 (razón de mortalidad materna, RMM), desagregado por los 22 departamentos de Guatemala para el año base 2014 (RMM = 113 por 100 000 nacidos vivos). Sosteniendo la intensidad promedio de CPAP observada entre 2009 y 2014 (-4,3%) y focalizando sus acciones con progresividad territorial, el país reduciría al 2030 su RMM a 53 por 100 000 nacidos vivos y sus brechas absoluta y relativa en 72% y 48%, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La metodología propuesta permite formular simultáneamente metas de reducción de las desigualdades geográficas en salud y hacer explícita la primacía del principio de equidad expresado en el compromiso de no dejar a nadie atrás que identifica a los ODS, cuya urgencia cobra renovada relevancia en el escenario pospandémico actual.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Apresentar uma metodologia para a formulação simultânea de metas quantitativas que reflitam tanto a melhoria da média nacional de um indicador do terceiro Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS3) quanto a redução das desigualdades geográfica nesse indicador. Métodos. Estabelecemos um algoritmo em cinco etapas: (a) cálculo da variação percentual anual média (VPAM) em um país para um indicador do ODS3, (b) definição normativa de estratos geográficos a partir da distribuição subnacional do indicador em um ano base, (c) aplicação de um critério de progressividade proporcional da VPAM para projetar o indicador específico do estrato para o ano base, (d) estabelecimento da meta nacional como a média ponderada do indicador nas unidades territoriais subnacionais para o ano alvo e (e) estabelecimento de metas para a redução das desigualdades calculando a disparidade absoluta e relativa entre os estratos extremos para o ano alvo. Resultados. Aplicamos o algoritmo ao indicador ODS 3.1.1 (razão de mortalidade materna, RMM), desagregado pelos 22 departamentos da Guatemala para o ano base de 2014 (RMM = 113 por 100.000 nascidos vivos). Se mantiver a intensidade média da VPAM observada entre 2009 e 2014 (-4,3%) e concentrar as suas ações com progressividade territorial, o país reduzirá, até 2030, a sua RMM para 53 por 100.000 e sua disparidade absoluta e relativa em 72% e 48%, respectivamente. Conclusões. A metodologia proposta permite formular simultaneamente metas para a redução das desigualdades geográficas em saúde e explicitar a primazia do princípio da equidade expresso no compromisso de não deixar ninguém para trás consagrado nos ODS, cuja urgência assume uma relevância renovada no atual cenário pós-pandêmico.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Equidad en Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Mortalidad Materna , Guatemala , Desarrollo Sostenible , Desarrollo Sostenible , Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio , Equidad en Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Mortalidad Materna , Desarrollo Sostenible , Desarrollo Sostenible , Equidad en Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Mortalidad Materna , Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio
16.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53563

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To describe the current status of regulatory reliance in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by assessing the countries’ regulatory frameworks to approve new medicines, and to ascertain, for each country, which foreign regulators are considered as trusted regulatory authorities to rely on. Methods. Websites from LAC regulators were searched to identify the official regulations to approve new drugs. Data collection was carried out in December 2019 and completed in June 2020 for the Caribbean countries. Two independent teams collected information regarding direct recognition or abbreviated processes to approve new drugs and the reference (trusted) regulators defined as such by the corresponding national legislation. Results. Regulatory documents regarding marketing authorization were found in 20 LAC regulators’ websites, covering 34 countries. Seven countries do not accept reliance on foreign regulators. Thirteen regulatory authorities (Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and the unique Caribbean Regulatory System for 15 Caribbean States) explicitly accept relying on marketing authorizations issued by the European Medicines Agency, United States Food and Drug Administration, and Health Canada. Ten countries rely also on marketing authorizations from Australia, Japan, and Switzerland. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico are reference authorities for eight LAC regulators. Conclusions. Regulatory reliance has become a common practice in the LAC region. Thirteen out of 20 regulators directly recognize or abbreviate the marketing authorization process in case of earlier approval by a regulator from another jurisdiction. The regulators most relied upon are the European Medicines Agency, United States Food and Drug Administration, and Health Canada.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir el estado actual de la utilización de las decisiones de autoridades regulatorias de otras jurisdicciones en América Latina y el Caribe mediante la evaluación de los marcos regulatorios nacionales para la aprobación de nuevos medicamentos y establecer los organismos regulatorios extranjeros que se consideran autoridades regulatorias confiables para cada país. Métodos. Se realizaron búsquedas en los sitios web de las autoridades regulatorias de América Latina y el Caribe para identificar las regulaciones oficiales para la aprobación de nuevos medicamentos. La recopilación de datos se llevó a cabo en diciembre del 2019 y se completó en junio del 2020 para los países del Caribe. Dos equipos independientes recopilaron información sobre el reconocimiento directo o los procedimientos abreviados para la aprobación de nuevos medicamentos y los autoridades regulatorias de referencia (confiables) así definidos en la legislación nacional correspondiente. Resultados. Se encontraron documentos regulatorios sobre la aprobación de nuevos productos en los sitios web de veinte organismos regulatorios de América Latina y el Caribe, que abarcaban 34 países. Siete países no aceptan la utilización de decisiones de autoridades regulatorias extranjeras. Trece autoridades regulatorias (Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, México, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, República Dominicana, Uruguay y el sistema regulador único para quince Estados del Caribe) aceptan de manera explícita confiar las decisiones para aprobación de nuevos medicamentos emitidas por la Agencia Europea de Medicamentos, la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de Estados Unidos y Salud Canadá. Diez países aceptan también utilizar las autorizaciones para la comercialización de Australia, Japón y Suiza. Argentina, Brasil, Chile y México son autoridades de referencia para ocho autoridades regulatorias en la región. Conclusiones. La utilización de las decisiones de autoridades regulatorias de otras jurisdicciones se han convertido en una práctica común en América Latina y el Caribe. Trece de veinte autoridades regulatorias reconocen directamente o abrevian el proceso de aprobación de nuevos medicamentos en caso de que hayan recibido previamente la aprobación por parte de un organismo regulatorio de otra jurisdicción. La Agencia Europea de Medicamentos, la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de Estados Unidos y Salud Canadá son las autoridades regulatorias de otras jurisdicciones en las cuales los reguladores de América Latina y el Caribe confían más.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever a prática atual de uso de decisões regulatórias de outras jurisdições na América Latina e no Caribe (ALC) mediante avaliação os marcos regulatórios dos países para aprovação de novos medicamentos e verificar, para cada país, quais entidades reguladoras estrangeiras são consideradas autoridades reguladoras de confiança por cada país. Métodos. Foi realizada uma pesquisa nos sites das autoridades reguladoras da ALC para identificar as regulamentações oficiais para aprovação de novos medicamentos. A coleta de dados foi feita em dezembro de 2019 e concluída em junho de 2020 para os países do Caribe. Dois grupos independentes coletaram informações sobre o reconhecimento direto ou o procedimento abreviado para aprovação de novos medicamentos e as autoridades reguladoras de referência (de confiança) definidas como tal pela respectiva legislação nacional. Resultados. Documentos regulatórios relacionados à aprovação de novos produtos foram obtidos de 20 sites de órgãos reguladores da ALC, abrangendo 34 países. Sete países não admitem o uso de decisões regulatórias de entidades reguladoras externas. Treze autoridades reguladoras (na Argentina, Colômbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Equador, Guatemala, México, Panamá, Paraguai, Peru, República Dominicana, Uruguai e o Sistema Regulador do Caribe unificado para 15 Estados caribenhos) admitem explicitamente a admissibilidade de decisões regulatórias para aprovação de novos medicamentos de outras jurisdições, quais sejam: Agência Europeia de Medicamentos (EMA), Agência Reguladora de Alimentos e Medicamentos (FDA) dos EUA e Health Canada. Dez países também aceitam decisões para autorização de comercialização da Austrália, Japão e Suíça. Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México são autoridades de referência para oito agências reguladoras. Conclusões. O uso de decisões regulatórias de outras jurisdições tornou-se prática comum na América Latina e Caribe. Treze das 20 agências reguladoras reconhecem diretamente ou abreviam o procedimento de aprovação de novos medicamentos no caso de tal aprovação já haver sido concedida por uma autoridade reguladora de outra jurisdição. A EMA, a FDA e a Health Canada são as autoridades estrangeiras nas quais as agências reguladoras da América Latina e Caribe mais confiam.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Agencias Gubernamentales , Aprobación de Drogas , United States Food and Drug Administration , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Agencias Gubernamentales , Aprobación de Drogas , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Agencias Gubernamentales , Aprobación de Drogas , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , Región del Caribe
17.
Zootaxa ; 4950(3): zootaxa.4950.3.1, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903424

RESUMEN

Mexican species of three pimpline genera, Neotheronia Krieger (24 species), Nomosphecia Gupta (two species) and Xanthopimpla Saussure (one species) are reviewed. Five species of Neotheronia are described as new to science: N. altacima sp. nov., N. bonita sp. nov., N. juanitae sp. nov., N. tequila sp. nov. and N. zaldivari sp. nov. Neotheronia septemtrionalis Krieger, 1905 is found to be a junior synonym of N. nigrolineata (Brullé, 1846) (syn. nov.). Seven species of Neotheronia are new records from Mexico: N. bostrandae Gauld, N. charli Gauld, N. donovani Gauld, N. hespenheidei Gauld, N. lizzae Gauld, N. lloydi Gauld and N. matamorosi (Brullé). Moreover, Neotheronia concolor Krieger, N. lineata (Fabricius), N. mellosa (Cresson) and N. nigrolineata (Brullé) are recorded for the first time from Honduras, and N. rosai Gauld is recorder for the first time from Guatemala. South American species Neotheronia cristata Krieger is excluded from the Mexican fauna. Identification keys to species of Neotheronia and Nomosphecia occurring in Mexico are provided.

18.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802717

RESUMEN

The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is a vulnerable species from Central and South America, and is considered possibly extinct in Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Uruguay. Due to the species' conservation and reproductive importance, this research aimed to characterize the morphology, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural feature of the giant anteater prostate gland. For this, we collected 11 giant anteater prostate glands and performed macroscopic, morphological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis. Nine prostate glands from an adult subject and two from young subjects were studied. Grossly, the adult giant anteater prostate gland is divided in two distinct zones; the central zones (composed mainly of ducts) and the peripheral zones (of acini formed by secretory cells). The secretory cells showed positive periodic acid-Schiff staining. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical characterization revealed a similar human prostate pattern, with p63 staining basal cells, uroplakin III (UPIII) superficial cells of prostatic urethra, androgen receptor (AR) expressing nucleus of secretory and stromal cells, and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) staining prostatic epithelial cells. Overall, our research provided an in-depth morphological description of the giant anteater's prostate gland, providing valuable information for futures studies focused on giant anteater conservation.

19.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21255413

RESUMEN

BackgroundLittle is known about the impact of changes in mobility at the sub-city level on subsequent COVID-19 incidence or the contribution of mobility to socioeconomic disparities in COVID-19 incidence. MethodsWe compiled aggregated mobile phone location data, COVID-19 confirmed cases, and features of the urban and social environments to analyze linkages between population mobility, COVID-19 incidence, and educational attainment at the sub-city level among cities with >100,000 inhabitants in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico from March to August 2020. We used mixed effects negative binomial regression to examine longitudinal associations between changes in weekly mobility (lags 1-6 weeks) and subsequent COVID-19 incidence at the sub-city level, adjusting for urban environmental factors. FindingsAmong 1,031 sub-cities representing 314 cities in five Latin American countries, 10% higher weekly mobility was associated with 8.5% (95% CI 7.4% to 9.5%) higher weekly COVID-19 incidence the following week. This association gradually declined as the lag between mobility and COVID-19 incidence increased and was not different from the null at a six-week lag. We found evidence that suggests differences in mobility reductions are a driver of socioeconomic disparities in COVID-19 incidence. InterpretationLower population movement within a sub-city is associated with lower risk of subsequent COVID-19 incidence among residents of that sub-city. Implementing policies that reduce population mobility at the sub-city level may be an impactful COVID-19 mitigation strategy that takes equity into consideration and reduces economic and social disruption at the city or regional level. FundingWellcome Trust

20.
Prev Med ; 148: 106590, 2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930431

RESUMEN

Guatemala is one of the few countries where both heated tobacco products (HTPs) and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) remain unregulated. We used a discrete choice experiment (DCE) administered to 2038 high school students to assess how tobacco product attributes influence their appeal among Guatemalan adolescents. Participants were randomly assigned to evaluate 4 of 32 contrasting sets, each containing 3 packs (1 of each product type). Experimental manipulations included: product type, brand, nicotine content and flavor. Participants then indicated which product they were most and least interested in trying and would be most and least harmful to their health. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of product characteristics on choice. Product type accounted for almost 90% of variation in choices. Respondents were less interested in trying HTPs (B = -0.93; p < 0.001) and viewed them as more harmful (B = 2.77; p < 0.001) compared to cigarettes. They were more interested in trying e-cigarettes (B = 1.22; p < 0.001), which were also perceived as less harmful (B = -1.47; p < 0.001) compared to cigarettes. Products without nicotine were of more interest for trying (B = 0.14; p < 0.001) and perceived as more harmful (B = 0.20; p < 0.001) than those with. Students were more interested in trying a flavor compared to regular tobacco and among the flavors, berry was the highest rated one (B = 0.28; p < 0.001). Finally, in this country with weak tobacco control, e-cigarettes appear to be more appealing and perceived as less harmful than HTPs and cigarettes. Packaging and flavoring regulations are urgently needed on these products as they are a marketing strategy targeting adolescents.

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