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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9382, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931650

RESUMEN

When Caribbean long-spined sea urchins, Diadema antillarum, are stable at high population densities, their grazing facilitates scleractinian coral dominance. Today, populations remain suppressed after a mass mortality in 1983-1984 caused a loss of their ecosystem functions, and led to widespread declines in ecosystem health. This study provides three lines of evidence to support the assertion that a lack of habitat complexity on Caribbean coral reefs contributes to their recovery failure. Firstly, we extracted fractal dimension (D) measurements, used as a proxy for habitat complexity, from 3D models to demonstrate that urchins preferentially inhabit areas of above average complexity at ecologically relevant spatial scales. Secondly, controlled behaviour experiments showed that an energetically expensive predator avoidance behaviour is reduced by 52% in complex habitats, potentially enabling increased resource allocation to reproduction. Thirdly, we deployed a network of simple and cost-effective artificial structures on a heavily degraded reef system in Honduras. Over a 24-month period the adult D. antillarum population around the artificial reefs increased by 320% from 0.05 ± 0.01 to 0.21 ± 0.04 m-2 and the juvenile D. antillarum population increased by 750% from 0.08 ± 0.02 to 0.68 ± 0.07 m-2. This study emphasises the important role of habitat structure in the ecology of D. antillarum and as a barrier to its widespread recovery.

2.
Malar J ; 20(1): 208, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931091

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, available metrics for malaria surveillance have been insufficient to measure the performance of passive case detection adequately. An indicator for malaria suspected cases with malaria test (MSCT) is proposed to measure the rate of testing on persons presenting to health facilities who satisfy the definition of a suspected malaria case. This metric does not rely on prior knowledge of fever prevalence, seasonality, or external denominators, and can be used to compare detection rates in suspected cases within and between countries, including across settings with different levels of transmission. METHODS: To compute the MSCT, an operational definition for suspected malaria cases was established, including clinical and epidemiological criteria. In general, suspected cases included: (1) persons with fever detected in areas with active malaria transmission; (2) persons with fever identified in areas with no active transmission and travel history to, or residence in areas with active transmission (either national or international); and (3) persons presenting with fever, chills and sweating from any area. Data was collected from 9 countries: Belize, Colombia (in areas with active transmission), Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama (September-March 2020). A sample of eligible medical records for 2018 was selected from a sample of health facilities in each country. An algorithm was constructed to assess if a malaria test was ordered or performed for cases that met the suspected case definition. RESULTS: A sample of 5873 suspected malaria cases was obtained from 239 health facilities. Except for Nicaragua and Colombia, malaria tests were requested in less than 10% of all cases. More cases were tested in areas with active transmission than areas without cases. Travel history was not systematically recorded in any country. CONCLUSIONS: A statistically comparable, replicable, and standardized metric was proposed to measure suspected malaria cases with a test (microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) that enables assessing the performance of passive case detection. Cross-country findings have important implications for malaria and infectious disease surveillance, which should be promptly addressed as countries progress towards malaria elimination. Local and easy-to-implement tools could be implemented to assess and improve passive case detection.

3.
Violence Against Women ; : 10778012211008995, 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938325

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in Latin America, including Honduras, is serious. To help IPV victims, a community-based educational program has been implemented. This study aims to examine the impact of IPV training among teachers and health care professionals (n = 160) on increases in IPV knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy when dealing with IPV victims using a pretest and posttest design. We found that the treatment group who received IPV training showed significantly lower justification for IPV, higher gender equality attitudes, and higher IPV knowledge as well as higher confidence levels in identifying IPV victims and safety planning for victims. We concluded that the IPV training program using the community-based approaches has the potential to help IPV victims in Honduras. More efforts should be made to increase the educational opportunities the community members can receive.

4.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(1): 61-68, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844794

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains as the second cause of death by an infectious disease preceded by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Currently, laboratory techniques and methodologies of diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing are constantly changing. Therefore, it has been recommended the introduction of rapid assays based on the amplification of nucleic acids test (NAAT's) through a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Based on this principle, outstands spoligotyping - as a genotype and molecular epidemiology tool in tuberculosis - it is standardized to use isolated bacteria for the study of Mycobacterium genome through the amplification of 43 non-repetitive sequences, located at the direct repetitive region 1 (RD1). AIM: Evaluation of spoligotyping from acid fast staining smears as an independent option from bacterial isolation to characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using sputum samples from TB patients from National Cardiopulmonary Institute in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. METHOD: Of 37 patients with positive culture (and smear microscopy) for M. tuberculosis, 50 expectoration samples were obtained. Microbiological and molecular tests were performed in respiratory samples containing mycobacterial DNA from sputum smears, concentrates and solid culture, for identification and genotype analysis by spoligotyping technique. RESULTS: Spoligotyping was positive in 37/37 of positive culture samples (S: 100%), in 36/37 (S: 97.3%) of smear-positive samples and in 6/10 (S: 60%) of concentrate samples sputum. The intensity of positive smear microscopy had a direct relationship with the sensitivity of spoligotyping. DISCUSSION: This study combined the potential of a molecular epidemiology tool to analyse DNA from sputum samples in smears acid fast staining, it visualizes diagnosis and genotyping platform in developing countries gathering innovation and high sensitivity in the hibridization of specific olignonucleotides from positive smears (P+, P++, P+++). However, the low specificity showed the need to improve better agreement among genetic patterns compared to the standardized bacterial isolation from M. tuberculosis strains.

5.
Zootaxa ; 4950(3): zootaxa.4950.3.1, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903424

RESUMEN

Mexican species of three pimpline genera, Neotheronia Krieger (24 species), Nomosphecia Gupta (two species) and Xanthopimpla Saussure (one species) are reviewed. Five species of Neotheronia are described as new to science: N. altacima sp. nov., N. bonita sp. nov., N. juanitae sp. nov., N. tequila sp. nov. and N. zaldivari sp. nov. Neotheronia septemtrionalis Krieger, 1905 is found to be a junior synonym of N. nigrolineata (Brullé, 1846) (syn. nov.). Seven species of Neotheronia are new records from Mexico: N. bostrandae Gauld, N. charli Gauld, N. donovani Gauld, N. hespenheidei Gauld, N. lizzae Gauld, N. lloydi Gauld and N. matamorosi (Brullé). Moreover, Neotheronia concolor Krieger, N. lineata (Fabricius), N. mellosa (Cresson) and N. nigrolineata (Brullé) are recorded for the first time from Honduras, and N. rosai Gauld is recorder for the first time from Guatemala. South American species Neotheronia cristata Krieger is excluded from the Mexican fauna. Identification keys to species of Neotheronia and Nomosphecia occurring in Mexico are provided.

6.
Zootaxa ; 4965(1): zootaxa.4965.1.9, 2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903501

RESUMEN

A new genus and three new species of the subfamily Lamiinae are described and illustrated: Osckayia oaxacae gen. nov., sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca); Pseudastylopsis albus sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca) and Honduras (Cortés); and Urgleptes albomaculatus sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca). New country record for Acanthoderes (Acanthoderes) giesberti Chemsak Hovore, 2002 is provided.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906234

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of currently available anthelminthics against Trichuris trichiura infections is significatively lower than for other soil-transmitted helminths (STH). The combination of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ALB) has shown significant improvements in efficacy. METHODS: Safety and efficacy randomized controlled clinical trial comparing 3 experimental regimens against ALB monotherapy for the treatment of T. trichiura infections in northern Honduras. Infected children were randomized to one of the following treatments: (Arm 1) single-dose ALB 400 mg; (Arm 2) single-dose ALB 400 mg/IVM 600 µg/kg; (Arm 3) ALB 400 mg for 3 consecutive days; or (Arm 4) ALB 400 mg/IVM 600 µg/kg for 3 consecutive days. Efficacy was measured through egg reduction rate (ERR) and cure rate (CR), both assessed 14-21 days after treatment using the Kato-Katz method. Safety was evaluated by analyzing the frequency and severity of adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 176 children were randomized to one of the 4 treatment arms, 117 completed treatment and follow-up. The ERR for Arms 1 to 4 were: 47.7%, 96.7%, 72.1% and 100%, respectively; with p-values <0.001 between IVM groups and ALB only arms. The CRs were 4.2%, 88.6%, 33.3% and 100%, respectively. A total of 48 (85.4% mild) AEs were reported in 36 children. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of ALB and high-dose IVM is a highly effective and well tolerated treatment for the treatment of T. trichiura infections offering a significantly improved treatment for the control of this infection.

8.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113933, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873009

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: The purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of coronavirus awareness, psychological stress responses, and sociodemographic variables on mental health indicators (somatization, depression, and anxiety) in residents of Honduras, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. METHODS: The study used a quantitative, cross-sectional approach. Data was collected online using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18); the Coronavirus Awareness Scale-6 (CAS-6) and a questionnaire that included psychological and sociodemographic questions. The total sample size consisted of 1559 respondents from Honduras (34%), Chile (29%), Costa Rica (17%), Mexico (11%), and Spain (9%). RESULTS: The most common stress domains correspond to family (22.97%), financial (22.53%), academic (16.47%), leisure time constraints (14.23%), health (12.48%), peer group (7.63%), and religious concerns (3.69%). These domains are significantly associated with the respondent's country, sex, employment status, and being or not a health worker. Respondents who reported confinement stress also reported higher scores in anxiety, depression, and somatization. The Global Severity Index was significantly predicted by confinement stress, health, academic, and leisure time-related stress, sex, age, being a health worker, COVID-19 Personal Concern, and Perceived Seriousness. Non-significant predictors were employment status, the number of people at home, presence of older adults and children at home, financial, peer group, family, and religious concerns; the regression model had an R2 of 0.26. Similar analyses were conducted for somatization, depression, and anxiety subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has adverse effects on the mental health of the general population, particularly regarding anxiety, depression, and somatization. Specific populations, such as women and healthcare workers, are at particular risk of suffering a deterioration in mental wellbeing. The implications of the study for public policy are discussed.

9.
Public Health Nurs ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860566

RESUMEN

This paper describes an international, long-term, population health project in rural Honduras among Mayan villagers, focused on collaboration, community building, partnership formation, and improvement of their living situation. Improved housing, health checks, education for their children, and clean water were chosen by the Honduran residents as the projects they thought were most important to improve their health and living conditions. During the short mission trips, the North Americans (NAs) and the villagers worked side-by-side on house building and participated in village life. The Hondurans organized into communities that mutually decided on which families received homes and together worked on each other's homes with the NAs' assistance. Nurse-led health clinics and scholarships for students were provided by the visitors during their time in the villages. Health has improved from better housing and periodic health checks, and most significantly, sustainable community organizing occurred. Public Health Nurses can work towards health equity and population health improvement by basing efforts on what the community partners request and create outcomes through relationships with those who stand to benefit from the improvement.

10.
Mil Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861347

RESUMEN

Diarrhea is a common condition seen among soldiers in both garrison and deployed environments. Although the vast majority of soldiers with diarrhea will recover uneventfully with supportive care, clinicians should also maintain suspicion for less common causes and perform a thorough physical exam. We report the case of a young, healthy soldier with chronic diarrhea and progressively worsening abdominal distention that began during his deployment to Honduras who was subsequently found to have a large intra-abdominal desmoid tumor. Desmoid tumor is a rare and benign neoplasm that typically appears on the extremity, abdominal wall, intra-abdominal space, and occasionally in the chest wall. This tumor may be associated with abdominal distension and gastrointestinal complaints. A large tumor can compress organs, causing local tissue damage and, in rare cases, death.

11.
Mil Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861353

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis and rickettsial diseases are global zoonotic diseases. In severe infection cases, mortality can range from 10% to 30%. Currently most epidemiological data available are based on outbreak investigations and hospital-based studies from endemic countries. The U.S. soldiers at military bases in these countries are highly vulnerable due to the fact that most of them are immunologically naïve to these pathogens. No risk assessment of leptospirosis and rickettsial diseases among U.S. military personnel in Honduras is currently available. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of leptospirosis and rickettsial diseases in U.S. military personnel deployed to Honduras using serological assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of pre- and post-deployment sera from the most recent 1,000 military personnel stationed in Honduras for at least 6 months between 2000 and 2016 was identified for this study. Serum specimens from these eligible subjects were retrieved. All post-deployment serum specimens were screened at a dilution of 1:100 for the presence of IgG antibodies to Leptospira and Rickettsia pathogens. The pre-deployment sera from those individuals with post-deployment IgG antibodies above cutoff (i.e., seropositive) were tested to determine seroconversion. Seroconversion was defined as conversion of an optical density value from below the cutoff (i.e., negative) in a pre-deployed specimen to above the cutoff (i.e., positive) in a post-deployed specimen at a titer of 100. RESULTS: The seropositive post-deployment specimens for antibodies against Leptospira (causing leptospirosis), Rickettsia typhi (causing murine typhus [MT]), spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFGR, causing SFG Rickettsia), Orientia tsutsugamushi (causing scrub typhus [ST]), and Coxiella burnetii (causing Q fever [QF]) were 11.6%, 11.3%, 6%, 5.6%, and 8.0%, respectively. The seroconverted rate in those assigned to Honduras from 2000 to 2016 was 7.3%, 1.9%, 3.9%, 4.3%, and 2.7% for leptospirosis, MT, SFGR, ST, and QF, respectively. Among the seroconverted specimens, 27 showed seroconversion of at least two antibodies. These seroconverted individuals accounted for 8.8% (3 out of 34) of the personnel who looked for medical attention during their deployment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a leptospirosis seroconversion rate of 7.3%, which is higher than the 0.9% and 3.9% seroconversion in Korea and Japan, respectively. The higher rate of seroconversion indicates potential risk of Leptospira exposure. Additional testing of water samples in the pools and pits around the training sites to locate the infected areas is important to eliminate or reduce future exposure to Leptospira during trainings. The rates of seroconversion for ST, MT, spotted fever Rickettsia, and QF were 4.3%, 1.9%, 3.9%, and 2.7%, respectively, indicating the potential exposure to a variety of rickettsial-related pathogens. Testing of vectors for rickettsial pathogens in the areas could inform effective vector control countermeasures to prevent exposure. Proper precaution and protective measures are needed to better protect military personnel deployed to Honduras.

12.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805766

RESUMEN

Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important causes of gastroenteritis in the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. It is caused by the Apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium spp., and mainly affects children and immunocompromised people, in whom it can pose a serious threat to their health, or even be life threatening. In Honduras, there are no data on parasite species or on molecular diversity or Cryptosporidium subtypes. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2019 and March 2020 for the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in 102 patients living with HIV who attended a national hospital in Tegucigalpa. Stool samples were analyzed by direct microscopy, acid-fast stained smears, and a rapid lateral flow immunochromatographic test. All samples that tested positive were molecularly analyzed to identify the species and subtype of the parasite using three different markers: gp60, cowp, and 18Sr. PCR products were also sequenced. Four out of 102 samples (3.92%) were positive for Cryptosporidiumparvum, and all were assigned to subtype IIa. These findings suggest a possible zoonotic transmission in this population.

13.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2021(176): 227-244, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834587

RESUMEN

There has been a record surge of unaccompanied immigrant minors (UAMs) entering the United States, with 86% of those apprehended at the US-Mexico border originating from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. A majority of immigrant children are separated from either one or both parents at various points during the migration process. Although average separations last 4 or more years, and may be deeply distressing, there is little research on family separations among Central American UAMs. Further, little is known about the developmental impact of separations from extended family networks, or about reunification. To address these empirical gaps, this study used community-participatory qualitative methods to deeply explore the lived experiences and emotional repercussions of family separation and reunification. The sample included 42 adolescents who had all recently migrated to the Western United States from Central America. Thematic analyses revealed that separation experiences are distressing, multifaceted, and have important developmental implications for Central American UAMs. Results illustrate the socioemotional toll that family separation and reunification can have on this vulnerable population, and highlight the need for culturally responsive, developmentally informed, and contextually appropriate care focused on family reunification in order to foster healthy psychosocial adjustment among UAMs.

14.
Lancet HIV ; 8(5): e266-e273, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891877

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are few data on life expectancy gains among people living with HIV in low-income and middle-income settings where antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly available. We aimed to analyse life expectancy trends from 2003 to 2017 among people with HIV beginning treatment with ART within the Caribbean, central America, and South America. METHODS: We did a multisite retrospective cohort study and included people with HIV who had started treatment with ART and were aged 16 years or older between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2017, from Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology (CCASAnet) sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru, who contributed person-time data from the age of 20 years until date of death, last contact, database closure, or Dec 31, 2017. We used the Chiang method of abridged life tables to estimate life expectancy at age 20 years for three eras (2003-08, 2009-12, and 2013-17) overall and by demographic and clinical characteristics at ART initiation. We used Poisson regression models to weight mortality rates to account for informative censoring. FINDINGS: 30 688 people with HIV were included in the study; 17 491 (57·0%) were from the Haiti site and 13 197 (43·0%) were from all other sites. There were 2637 deaths during the study period: 1470 in Haiti and 1167 in other sites. Crude and weighted mortality rates decreased among all age groups over calendar eras. From 2003-08 to 2013-17, overall life expectancy for people with HIV at age 20 years increased from 13·9 years (95% CI 12·5-15·2) to 61·2 years (59·0-63·4) in Haiti and from 31·0 years (29·3-32·8) to 69·5 years (67·2-71·8) in other sites. Life expectancies at the end of the study period were within 10 years of those of the general population (69·9 years in Haiti and 78·0 years in all other sites in 2018). Disparities in life expectancy among people with HIV by sex or HIV transmission risk factor, CD4 cell count, level of education, and history of tuberculosis at or before ART initiation persisted across calendar eras. INTERPRETATION: Life expectancy among people with HIV receiving ART has significantly improved in Latin America and the Caribbean. Persistent disparities in life expectancy among people with HIV by demographic and clinical factors at ART initiation highlight vulnerable populations in the region. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7306, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790375

RESUMEN

Capuchin monkeys (genera Cebus and Sapajus) show a wide range distribution, from Honduras to Argentina. The aim of this work was to evaluate the genetic and phenotypic variability of captive specimens putatively belonging to S. cay (SCY) and S. nigritus (SNI) at their southernmost distribution limit. Forty-four individuals held in five captive centers from Argentina were analyzed based on external morphology, karyology and DNA sequences of mitochondrial control region (mtDNA-CR). Three morphotypes associated with their probable geographical origin in SCY and a single morphotype in SNI were found. For SCY we could associate each morphotype with the most frequent karyotype. SNI showed a single phenotype and a homogenous karyotype. Heterochromatin showed geographical patterns within species. A 515-bp mtDNA-CR fragment was sequenced, defining fourteen haplotypes at 59 polymorphic sites. A network constructed with our 14 haplotypes and other 77 from S. apella, S. macrocephalus, S. cay and S. nigritus from bibliography revealed some phylogeographic signals. Our SCY and SNI samples rendered four groups that differed in multiple mutational steps, with SCY being more similar to S. apella than to S. macrocephalus. Also, we identified two genetic divergent SCY groups: samples from NOA and from NEA with high mitochondrial diversity. Our results highlight the relevance of using complementary genetic tools throughout the distribution ranges of SCY and SNI for a better assessment of their diversity.

16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866016

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Understanding trends in the annual incidence, mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for tracheal, bronchus and lung (TBL) cancers globally is important to enable appropriate targeting of resources for prevention, clinical practice improvement, and research. The aim of this study was to determine the global, regional and national burden of TBL cancer in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019 by age, sex and socio-demographic index (SDI). METHODS: Estimates were produced through various data inputs including: cancer registries (n site-years =5,318), vital registration (n site-years=22,553), vital registration-sample (n site-years=825) and verbal autopsies (n site-years=516). Annual Incidence, mortality, and DALYs were estimated and presented as counts and age-standardised rates per 100,000 population. RESULTS: There were 2.3 million (95% UI: 2.1 to 2.5) incident cases of TBL cancer, with an age-standardised annual incidence rate of 27.7 (95% UI: 25.3 to 30), which decreased by 2.6% (95% UI: -12.4 to 6.5) between 1990 and 2019. TBL cancer was responsible for 2 million (95% UI: 1.9 to 2.2) deaths globally with an age-standardised death rate of 25.2 (95% UI: 23.2 to 27), a decrease of 7.8% (95% UI: -15.9 to 0.2) between 1990 and 2019. Moreover, TBL accounted for 45.9 million (95% UI: 42.3 to 49.3) DALYs at the global level, with an age-standardised rate of 551.6 (95% UI: 509 to 593.1) DALYs per 100,000 population. The standardised DALY rate declined by 16.2% (95% UI: -24 to -8.2) from 1990 to 2019. Greenland [77.7 (95% UI: 64.4 to 90.6)], Monaco [75.6 (95% UI: 61.4 to 90.8)] and Montenegro [56.7 (95% UI: 46.5 to 68.9)] had the three highest age-standardised annual incidence rates. The aforementioned three countries also had the three highest age-standardised death and DALY rates of TBL cancer. Honduras [68% (95% UI: 14.5 to 137.7)], Cabo Verde [62.2% (95% UI: 24.1 to 101.3)] and Monaco [58.2% (95% UI: 19.2 to 109.7)] showed the largest increase in age-standardised annual incidence rates for TBL cancer during 1990-2019. The largest increases were seen in age-standardised death rates of TBL cancer in Honduras [67.1 % (95% UI: 14.7 to 133.1)], Cabo Verde [64.4 % (95% UI: 25 to 103.4)] and Mozambique [49.9 % (95% UI: 7.9 to 101.3)]. Age-standardised annual incidence and death rates were higher in males than females and increased with population aging. There were non-linear, but generally positive associations between age-standardised DALY rates with corresponding SDI of countries. Globally, smoking (62.4%), ambient particulate matter (15.3%) and high fasting plasma glucose (9.9%) had the top three highest percent of attributable DALYs due to TBL cancer in 2019 for both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a decline in burden globally but with some countries showing an increase. These results are crucial to set priorities for prevention and treatment of TBL cancer and would be beneficial for policy makers, government officials, clinicians and researchers.

17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 234: 113734, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799075

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to agrochemicals, some of which are known or suspected carcinogens, is a major health hazard for subsistence agricultural workers and their families. These impacts are more prevalent in low-and-middle income countries (LMIC) due to weak regulations, lack of awareness of the risks of contamination, predominant use of handheld backpack style spraying equipment, general lack of personal protective equipment (PPE), and low literacy about proper agrochemical application techniques. Reducing exposure to agrochemicals was identified as a paramount concern by rural Hondurans working with a community-engaged research initiative. Fluorescent tracer dyes have been described as a means of visualizing and quantifying dermal exposure to agricultural chemicals, and exposure models adapted for LMIC have been developed previously. Tracer dyes have also been used in educational simulations to promote pesticide safety. However, studies evaluating the effectiveness of these educational dye interventions in reducing future exposure have been lacking. AIM: To evaluate whether observing one's own chemical contamination after applying agrochemicals changed the amount of occupational dermal exposure during a subsequent chemical application. METHODS: We employed a multi-modal community intervention in a rural village in Honduras that incorporated chemical safety education and use of a fluorescent tracer dye during pesticide application on two consecutive occasions, and compared dermal exposure between the intervention group (previous dye experience and safety education, n = 6) and the control group (safety education only, n = 7). RESULTS: Mean total visual score (TVS) of the tracer dye, which accounts for both extent and intensity of whole-body contamination, was lower among those who had previously experienced the dye intervention (mean TVS = 41.3) than among participants who were dye-naïve (mean TVS = 78.4), with a difference between means of -37.10 (95% CI [-66.26, -7.95], p = 0.02). Stratifying by body part, contamination was significantly lower for the anterior left lower extremity and bilateral feet for the dye-experienced group vs. dye-naïve, with most other segments showing a trend toward decreased contamination as well. CONCLUSION: Participants who had previously experienced the dye intervention were significantly less contaminated than the dye-naïve control group during a subsequent spraying event. The findings of this small pilot study suggest that a multi-modal, community-based approach that utilizes fluorescence-augmented contamination for individualized learning (FACIL) may be effective in reducing dermal exposure to carcinogenic agrochemicals among subsistence farmers in Honduras and other LMIC.

18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 575, 2021 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757471

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea poses serious health problems among under-five children (U5C) in Low-and Medium-Income Countries (LMIC) with a higher prevalence in rural areas. A gap exists in knowledge on factors driving rural-non-rural inequalities in diarrhoea development among U5C in LMIC. This study investigates the magnitude of rural-non-rural inequalities in diarrhoea and the roles of individual-level and neighbourhood-level factors in explaining these inequalities. METHODS: Data of 796,150 U5C, from 63,378 neighbourhoods across 57 LMIC from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (2010-2018) was analysed. The outcome variable was the recent experience of diarrhoea while independent variables consist of the individual- and neighbourhood-level factors. Data were analysed using multivariable Fairlie decomposition at p < 0.05 in Stata Version 16 while visualization was implemented in R Statistical Package. RESULTS: Two-thirds (68.0%) of the children are from rural areas. The overall prevalence of diarrhoea was 14.2, 14.6% vs 13.4% among rural and non-rural children respectively (p < 0.001). From the analysis, the following 20 countries showed a statistically significant pro-rural inequalities with higher odds of diarrhoea in rural areas than in nonrural areas at 5% alpha level: Albania (OR = 1.769; p = 0.001), Benin (OR = 1.209; p = 0.002), Burundi (OR = 1.399; p < 0.001), Cambodia (OR = 1.201; p < 0.031), Cameroon (OR = 1.377; p < 0.001), Comoros (OR = 1.266; p = 0.029), Egypt (OR = 1.331; p < 0.001), Honduras (OR = 1.127; p = 0.027), India (OR = 1.059; p < 0.001), Indonesia (OR = 1.219; p < 0.001), Liberia (OR = 1.158; p = 0.017), Mali (OR = 1.240; p = 0.001), Myanmar (OR = 1.422; p = 0.004), Namibia (OR = 1.451; p < 0.001), Nigeria (OR = 1.492; p < 0.001), Rwanda (OR = 1.261; p = 0.010), South Africa (OR = 1.420; p = 0.002), Togo (OR = 1.729; p < 0.001), Uganda (OR = 1.214; p < 0.001), and Yemen (OR = 1.249; p < 0.001); and pro-non-rural inequalities in 9 countries. Variations exist in factors associated with pro-rural inequalities across the 20 countries. Overall main contributors to pro-rural inequality were neighbourhood socioeconomic status, household wealth status, media access, toilet types, maternal age and education. CONCLUSIONS: The gaps in the odds of diarrhoea among rural children than nonrural children were explained by individual-level and neighbourhood-level factors. Sustainable intervention measures that are tailored to country-specific needs could offer a better approach to closing rural-non-rural gaps in having diarrhoea among U5C in LMIC.

19.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 167, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741050

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus spread across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Public health programs promoted vector control behaviors, including covering water storage containers with lids. Such approaches disrupt Zika transmission by eliminating the habitats of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water. METHODS: A quantitative household survey and observation checklist with trained enumerators were undertaken between August and October 2018 in selected urban/peri-urban USAID implementation communities in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. The survey included questions regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to Zika virus. An accompanying checklist was implemented to observe water storage containers, including for short-term and long-term water use. The characteristics of these containers were tabulated, including the presence of a lid. The lids were examined for key features to determine their potential effectiveness to prevent mosquito breeding: fully covering and sealing the container, not having holes, and not having water on them (potentially creating a secondary breeding site). Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the effectiveness of lid types and characteristics on the presence of larvae. RESULTS: Overall, in adjusted models, using an effective lid versus no lid was associated with a 94% decrease in odds of larval presence in long-term water storage containers (odds ratio = 0.06; 95% confidence interval [0.029, 0.152]); however, similar impacts were not observed for washbasins in the adjusted models. Models adjusted for household wealth, receiving a visit from a vector control technician, scrubbing the container in the last 7 days, and perception of more mosquitoes around. CONCLUSIONS: Effective lids, if made available and coupled with complementary behavioral messaging, may reduce transmission of Zika and other Aedes mosquito-borne diseases in the LAC region.

20.
Zootaxa ; 4917(1): zootaxa.4917.1.1, 2021 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756684

RESUMEN

The New World Jerusalem crickets currently consist of 4 genera: Stenopelmatus Burmeister, 1838, with 33 named entities; Ammopelmatus Tinkham, 1965, with 2 described species; Viscainopelmatus Tinkham, 1970, with 1 described species, and Stenopelmatopterus Gorochov, 1988, with 3 described species. We redefine the generic boundaries of these 4 genera, synonymize Stenopelmatopterus under Stenopelmatus, and synonymize Viscainopelmatus under Ammopelmatus. We then discuss, and illustrate, all the types of the species of Stenopelmatus, all of which only occur south of the United States' border.                We recognize as valid the following 5 described Mexican and Central American species: S. ater, S. piceiventris, S. sartorianus, S. talpa, and S. typhlops. We declare the following 13 described Mexican and Central American Stenopelmatus taxa as nomen dubium: S. calcaratus, S. erythromelus, S. guatemalae, S. histrio, S. lessonae, S. lycosoides, S. mexicanus, S. minor, S. nieti, S. sallei, S. sumichrasti, S. toltecus, and S. vicinus. We designate a neotype for S. talpa and lectotypes for S. ater, S. guatemalae, S. histrio, S. lessonae, S. mexicanus, S. minor, S. nieti, S. sallei, S. sumichrasti, and S. toltecus. We assign a type locality for S. piceiventris. We concur with the previous synonymy of S. politus under S. sartorianus. We describe 14 new species of Stenopelmatus from Mexico, Honduras and Ecuador, based on a combination of adult morphology, DNA, calling song drumming pattern, distribution, and karyotype: S. chiapas sp. nov., S. cusuco sp. nov., S. diezmilpies sp. nov., S. durango sp. nov., S. ecuadorensis sp. nov., S. faulkneri sp. nov., S. honduras sp. nov., S. hondurasito sp. nov., S. mineraldelmonte sp. nov., S. nuevoleon sp. nov., S. perote sp. nov., S. saltillo sp. nov., S. sanfelipe sp. nov., and S. zimapan sp. nov.                  We transfer the following 16 described United States taxa, plus S. cephalotes from the "west coast of North America", from Stenopelmatus to Ammopelmatus: A. cahuilaensis, A. californicus, A. cephalotes, A. fasciatus, A. fuscus, A. hydrocephalus, A. intermedius, A. irregularis, A. longispinus, A. mescaleroensis, A. monahansensis, A. navajo, A. nigrocapitatus, A. oculatus, A. pictus, and A. terrenus, along with the Mexican taxon A. comanchus: these species will be discussed in a subsequent paper (Weissman et al. in prep).                We believe that all new Jerusalem cricket species descriptions should include, at a minimum, calling drum (most important) and DNA information.


Asunto(s)
Ortópteros/clasificación , Distribución Animal , Animales , América Central , México
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