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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 208, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931091

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, available metrics for malaria surveillance have been insufficient to measure the performance of passive case detection adequately. An indicator for malaria suspected cases with malaria test (MSCT) is proposed to measure the rate of testing on persons presenting to health facilities who satisfy the definition of a suspected malaria case. This metric does not rely on prior knowledge of fever prevalence, seasonality, or external denominators, and can be used to compare detection rates in suspected cases within and between countries, including across settings with different levels of transmission. METHODS: To compute the MSCT, an operational definition for suspected malaria cases was established, including clinical and epidemiological criteria. In general, suspected cases included: (1) persons with fever detected in areas with active malaria transmission; (2) persons with fever identified in areas with no active transmission and travel history to, or residence in areas with active transmission (either national or international); and (3) persons presenting with fever, chills and sweating from any area. Data was collected from 9 countries: Belize, Colombia (in areas with active transmission), Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama (September-March 2020). A sample of eligible medical records for 2018 was selected from a sample of health facilities in each country. An algorithm was constructed to assess if a malaria test was ordered or performed for cases that met the suspected case definition. RESULTS: A sample of 5873 suspected malaria cases was obtained from 239 health facilities. Except for Nicaragua and Colombia, malaria tests were requested in less than 10% of all cases. More cases were tested in areas with active transmission than areas without cases. Travel history was not systematically recorded in any country. CONCLUSIONS: A statistically comparable, replicable, and standardized metric was proposed to measure suspected malaria cases with a test (microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) that enables assessing the performance of passive case detection. Cross-country findings have important implications for malaria and infectious disease surveillance, which should be promptly addressed as countries progress towards malaria elimination. Local and easy-to-implement tools could be implemented to assess and improve passive case detection.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 840, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mesoamerica is severely affected by an epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of non-traditional origin (CKDnt), an epidemic with a marked variation within countries. We sought to describe the spatial distribution of CKDnt in Mesoamerica and examine area-level crop and climate risk factors. METHODS: CKD mortality or hospital admissions data was available for five countries: Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica and linked to demographic, crop and climate data. Maps were developed using Bayesian spatial regression models. Regression models were used to analyze the association between area-level CKD burden and heat and cultivation of four crops: sugarcane, banana, rice and coffee. RESULTS: There are regions within each of the five countries with elevated CKD burden. Municipalities in hot areas and much sugarcane cultivation had higher CKD burden, both compared to equally hot municipalities with lower intensity of sugarcane cultivation and to less hot areas with equally intense sugarcane cultivation, but associations with other crops at different intensity and heat levels were not consistent across countries. CONCLUSION: Mapping routinely collected, already available data could be a first step to identify areas with high CKD burden. The finding of higher CKD burden in hot regions with intense sugarcane cultivation which was repeated in all five countries agree with individual-level studies identifying heavy physical labor in heat as a key CKDnt risk factor. In contrast, no associations between CKD burden and other crops were observed.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(14)2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811138

RESUMEN

Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease worldwide, and the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes circulate endemically in many tropical and subtropical regions. Numerous studies have shown that the majority of DENV infections are inapparent, and that the ratio of inapparent to symptomatic infections (I/S) fluctuates substantially year-to-year. For example, in the ongoing Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study (PDCS) in Nicaragua, which was established in 2004, the I/S ratio has varied from 16.5:1 in 2006-2007 to 1.2:1 in 2009-2010. However, the mechanisms explaining these large fluctuations are not well understood. We hypothesized that in dengue-endemic areas, frequent boosting (i.e., exposures to DENV that do not lead to extensive viremia and result in a less than fourfold rise in antibody titers) of the immune response can be protective against symptomatic disease, and this can explain fluctuating I/S ratios. We formulate mechanistic epidemiologic models to examine the epidemiologic effects of protective homologous and heterologous boosting of the antibody response in preventing subsequent symptomatic DENV infection. We show that models that include frequent boosts that protect against symptomatic disease can recover the fluctuations in the I/S ratio that we observe, whereas a classic model without boosting cannot. Furthermore, we show that a boosting model can recover the inverse relationship between the number of symptomatic cases and the I/S ratio observed in the PDCS. These results highlight the importance of robust dengue control efforts, as intermediate dengue control may have the potential to decrease the protective effects of boosting.

4.
J Virol ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789994

RESUMEN

The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) spread rapidly into regions where dengue virus (DENV) is endemic, and flavivirus cross-reactive T cell responses have been observed repeatedly in animal models and in humans. Pre-existing cellular immunity to DENV is thought to contribute to protection in subsequent ZIKV infection, but the epitope targets of cross-reactive T cell responses have not been comprehensively identified. Using human blood samples from the DENV-endemic regions of Nicaragua and Sri Lanka that were collected before the global spread of ZIKV in 2016, we employed an in vitro expansion strategy to map ZIKV T cell epitopes in ZIKV-unexposed, DENV-seropositive donors. We identified 93 epitopes across the ZIKV proteome, and we observed patterns of immunodominance that were dependent on antigen size and sequence identity to DENV. We confirmed the immunogenicity of these epitopes through a computational HLA binding analysis, and we showed that cross-reactive T cells specifically recognize ZIKV peptides homologous to DENV sequences. We also found that these CD4 responses were derived from the memory T cell compartment. These data have implications for understanding the dynamics of flavivirus-specific T cell immunity in endemic areas.ImportanceMultiple flaviviruses, including Zika (ZIKV) and the four serotypes of dengue (DENV) viruses, are prevalent in the same large tropical and equatorial areas inhabited by hundreds of millions of people. The interplay of DENV and ZIKV infection is especially relevant, as these two viruses are endemic in largely overlapping regions, have significant sequence similarity, and share the same arthropod vector. Here, we define the targets of pre-existing immunity to ZIKV in unexposed subjects collected in dengue-endemic areas. We demonstrate that pre-existing immunity to DENV could shape ZIKV-specific responses, and DENV-ZIKV cross-reactive T cells can be expanded by stimulation with ZIKV peptides. The issue of potential ZIKV and DENV cross-reactivity is of relevance for understanding patterns of natural immunity, as well as for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines.

5.
Ecohealth ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834316

RESUMEN

Leptospirosis is one of the most important zoonoses in tropical countries, including Nicaragua, where it is considered endemic. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of Leptospira spp in rodents captured from peridomestic sites in leptospirosis endemic regions of Nicaragua. Using live traps, 191 rodents were captured in 2012 and 2013 between April and December. Kidney samples were collected and processed for Leptospira detection from 166 animals by direct culture and isolation. The isolates were tested by PCR for LipL32 and lfb1-F genes specific to pathogenic Leptospira species. The trapping success over all sites was 20.2%, with higher rates of success in rainy season (p < 0.05). Leptospira spp were detected in 22.3% of rodents by direct culture methods. Significant differences (p < 0.01) were found in the frequencies of Leptospira positive rodents per month as well as per region. Of the isolated Leptospira spp, 37.5% were positive for pathogenic species by PCR. The frequency of Leptospira positive rodents by isolation could be used as a predictive indicator for the risk of human leptospirosis in Nicaragua.

6.
Eval Program Plann ; 88: 101948, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857827

RESUMEN

The article exposes the process of design and implementation of a training program for teachers that teach people with Visual Functional Diversity (VFD), taking into account their needs both in training and in the provision of resources in Nicaragua. To verify the effectiveness of the program, a quasi-experimental design was carried out with a non-equivalent pretest and posttest control group. The experimental group received training while the control group did not receive training. The evaluation of the results obtained after the application of the program was carried out through two instruments: an efficacy questionnaire and a satisfaction questionnaire. The results showed significant differences between the experimental and control group after the application of the program (Z = -4,383; p = 0.000) in favor of the experimental group. It is confirmed that the program is effective in training teachers on inclusive education for the visually impaired as the teachers who took part in the training program significantly increased their knowledge in that issue.

8.
Ecology ; : e03367, 2021 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866557

RESUMEN

Thomas Belt ("The Naturalist in Nicaragua" 1874) recorded scale insects (Hemiptera) and biting ants, Azteca, in trees of Cecropia (Urticaceae), but no one has reported bees. Discovery of stingless bees (Meliponini) nesting high in Amazonian Cecropia (Fig. 1, Appendix S1: Fig. S1), with obligatory coccid scale insects, led me to re-cast the evolution of an ant-plant.

9.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21256122

RESUMEN

New information is emerging about SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology and immunity, but little of this information comes from low- and middle-income countries or from patients receiving care in the outpatient setting. The current study investigated the SARS-CoV-2 infection status and antibody responses in 157 patients seeking care for a respiratory disease suggestive of COVID-19 in private healthcare clinics during the first wave (June-October 2020) of infections in Nicaragua. We examined nasal swabs for the presence of viral RNA via RT-PCR and longitudinally collected sera for the changes in SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody levels over six months. Among patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, we evaluated if clinical symptoms were associated with age, hematological parameters and co-morbidities. The combination of PCR and paired serology identified 60 (38%) of the 157 outpatients as acute COVID-19. While both PCR and serology identified the majority (n = 38, 64%) of the acute infections, a notable number of outpatients were identified by RT-qPCR (n = 13, 22%) or by serology (n = 9, 14%) only. During the longitudinal study, we identified 6 new infections by serology among the 97 non-COVID-19 subjects. In conclusion, this study report that more than one third of the outpatients seeking care for acute respiratory disease during the first epidemic wave of SARS-CoV-2 in Nicaragua had an acute mild COVID-19 infection that correlate with prolonged humoral response. This immune response to the RBD antigen, more likely IgG dependent, significantly increased between the acute to convalescent and decay in the late convalescent but still remained seropositive.

10.
J Pers Med ; 11(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809858

RESUMEN

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) constitutes a major health problem and one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Patients with CKD have impaired immune functions that predispose them to an increased risk of infections, as well as virus-associated cancers and a diminished vaccine response. In this study, we aimed to identify clinical and laboratory parameters associated with in-hospital mortality in patients evaluated in the department of emergency (ER) and admitted with the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the Baptist Hospital of Nicaragua (BHN). There were 37 patients with CKD, mean age 58.3 ± 14.1 years, admitted to BHN due to COVID-19, and among them, 24 (65.7%) were males (p = 0.016). During hospitalization, 23 patients with CKD (62.1%) died of complications associated with COVID-19 disease, which was a higher proportion (odds ratio (OR) 5.6, confidence interval (CI) 2.1-15.7, p = 0.001) compared to a group of 70 patients (64.8% males, mean age 57.5 ± 13.7 years) without CKD admitted during the same period in whom 28.5% died of COVID-19. In the entire cohort, the majority of patients presented with bilateral pneumonia, and the most common symptoms at admission were dyspnea, cough, and fever. Serum levels of D-dimer, ferritin and procalcitonin were significantly higher in patients with CKD compared with those without CKD. Multivariate analysis revealed that CKD, age (>60 years), and hypoxia measured in the ER were factors associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Among patients with CKD but not in those without CKD (OR 36.8, CI 1.5-88.3, p = 0.026), an increased monocytes-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) was associated with higher mortality and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounders. The MLR measured in the ER may be useful for predicting in-hospital mortality in patients with CKD and COVID-19 and could contribute to early risk stratification in this group.

11.
Addiction ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844362

RESUMEN

AIMS: To describe mortality in the Americas from 2013 to 2015 inclusive resulting from diseases, conditions and injuries which are 100% attributable to alcohol consumption. DESIGN AND SETTING: Mortality registry, population-based study. The data come from 30 of the 35 countries of the Americas for the triennium of 2013 to 2015. PARTICIPANTS AND CASES: A total of 18 673 791 deaths coded by three-digit ICD-10 codes were analyzed. MEASUREMENTS: Cause (underlying), and age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated by sex and country. FINDINGS: From 2013 to 2015 inclusive, among 30 of the 35 countries of the Americas, an average of 85 032 deaths per year were entirely attributable to alcohol. Men accounted for 83.1% of all 100% alcohol-attributable deaths, and death rates were higher for men than for women across all countries; however, the ratios of 100% alcohol-attributable deaths by sex varied by country. The majority of all 100% alcohol-attributable deaths occurred among those aged under 60 years (64.9%) and were due to liver disease (63.9%) followed by neuropsychiatric disorders (27.4%). Age-adjusted 100% alcohol-attributable mortality rates were highest in Nicaragua (23.2 per 100 000) and Guatemala (19.0 per 100 000), although the majority of all 100% alcohol-attributable deaths occurred in the United States 36.9%), Brazil (24.8%), and Mexico (18.4%). CONCLUSIONS: From 2013 to 2015, more than 85 000 deaths in the Americas were 100% attributable to alcohol. Most of those occurred in people under 60 years and the highest mortality rates occurred in the United States, Brazil and Mexico.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249345, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819284

RESUMEN

Researchers often use moral dilemmas to investigate the specific factors that influence participants' judgments of the appropriateness of different actions. A common construction of such a dilemma is the Trolley Problem, which pits an obvious utilitarian solution against a common deontological dictum to not do harm to others. Cross-cultural studies have validated the robustness of numerous contextual biases, such as judging utilitarian decisions more negatively if they require contact with other individuals (contact bias), they force others to serve as a means to an end (means bias), and if they require direct action rather than inaction (omission bias). However, such cross-cultural research is largely limited to studies of industrialized, nation-state populations. Previous research has suggested that the more intimate community relationships that characterize small-scale populations might lead to important differences, such as an absence of an omission bias. Here we contribute to this literature by investigating perceptions of Trolley Problem solutions among a Mayangna/Miskito community, a small-scale indigenous population in Nicaragua. Compared to previously sampled populations, the Mayangna/Miskito participants report higher levels of acceptance of utilitarian solutions and do not exhibit an omission bias. We also examine the justifications participants offered to explore how Mayangna/Miskito culture might influence moral judgments.

13.
Ann Bot ; 2021 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821947

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Daylength determines flowering dates. However, questions remain regarding flowering dates in the natural environment, such as the synchronous flowering of plants sown simultaneously at highly contrasting latitudes. The daily change in sunrise and sunset times is the cue for the flowering of trees and for the synchronisation of moulting in birds at the equator. Sunrise and sunset also synchronise the cell circadian clock, which is involved in the regulation of flowering. The goal of this study was to update the photoperiodism model with knowledge acquired since its conception. METHODS: A large dataset was gathered, including four 2-year series of monthly sowings of 28 sorghum varieties in Mali and two 1-year series of monthly sowings of eight rice varieties in the Philippines to compare with previously published monthly sowings in Japan and Malaysia, and data from sorghum breeders in France, Nicaragua, and Colombia. An additive linear model of the duration in days to panicle initiation (PI) and flowering time using day length and daily changes in sunrise and sunset times was implemented. KEY RESULTS: Simultaneous with the phyllochron, the duration to PI of field crops acclimated to the mean temperature at seedling emergence within the usual range of mean cropping temperatures. A unique additive linear model combining daylength and daily changes in sunrise and sunset hours was accurately fitted for any type of response in the duration to PI to the sowing date without any temperature input. Once calibrated on a complete and an incomplete monthly sowing series at two tropical latitudes, the model accurately predicted the duration to PI of the concerned varieties from the equatorial to the temperate zone. CONCLUSIONS: Including the daily changes in sunrise and sunset times in the updated photoperiodism model largely improved its accuracy at the latitude of each experiment. More research is needed to ascertain its multi-latitudinal accuracy, especially at latitudes close to the equator.

14.
Parasitol Res ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851247

RESUMEN

Procamallanus is a species-rich genus of parasitic nematodes of marine, brackish, and freshwater fishes, occurring also occasionally in amphibians and reptiles. In the Neotropical region, this genus is highly diverse, with species described from a wide range of fish families. In this study, we reassess the taxonomic status of Procamallanus rebecae with molecular and morphological data and describe a new species endemic to Nicaragua and Costa Rica. We analyzed all Procamallanus isolated from fish from the Nicaraguan lakes and some rivers in Costa Rica after an exhaustive analysis of their freshwater fish endoparasite fauna. Procamallanus rebecae is a host-specific parasite of Middle American cichlids, previously reported in southern Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. We therefore compared these Central American specimens with individuals of P. rebecae collected in cichlids from southeastern Mexico using two genomic regions (28S rDNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, COI). We found high levels of sequence divergence between Procamallanus from the two geographical regions, with up to 9.8 and 10.5% for both genetic markers, respectively. We also analyzed their morphology and found conspicuous differences in the shape of the mouth and the structure of the female cauda. We therefore describe the specimens of Procamallanus from Central American cichlids as a new species. Both Procamallanus species occur in different cichlid species and are allopatrically distributed. The host specificity and ancient association patterns between cichlids and Procamallanus and the jointly colonization of both hosts and parasites during their northern dispersal from South America are briefly discussed.

15.
Int J Legal Med ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742257

RESUMEN

In the present work, an extensive analysis of the X-chromosomal pool of Native American and Mestizo groups of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Panama) has been carried out. Allele and haplotype frequency databases, as well as other forensic parameters for these populations, are presented. The admixture analysis supports the tri-hybrid composition in terms of ancestry in the Mestizo populations, with a predominant Native American contribution (54-69%), followed by European (19-28%) and African contributions (12-19%). Pairwise FST genetic distances highlight the genetic proximity between the northernmost Central American populations, especially among admixed populations. The unique and complex nature of this area, where populations from different origins intercrossed, as well as the informativity of X-STR data, highpoint the great interest of this genetic study. Furthermore, the X-chromosome databases for Central American populations here provided will be not only useful for forensic and population purposes not only in the target countries but also in the host countries.

16.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 83(4): 527-544, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687585

RESUMEN

The ectoparasite Varroa (Acari: Varroidae) is considered to be the main pest of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Nicaragua. The aim of this study was to determine morphotypes and mitochondrial haplotypes of the Varroa mites, related to infestation levels in A. mellifera hives in Nicaragua in a cross-sectional study (2013-2016). Samples were taken from 34 sentinel apiaries in five geographical zones; from 713 Varroa females collected during the study, 153 were selected for measurement of various morphometric characters for further classification into morphotypes. The mitochondrial haplotype was assigned to one of the two (Korean or Japanese), using the restriction by SacI of the PCR product of a fragment of the gene CO-I. Morphometric measurement and sequencing revealed the affiliation to the species Varroa destructor with a mean (± SD) body width of 1699.1 ± 60.2 µm and a body length of 1161.1 ± 34.9 µm. Body characters were significantly different among the 34 apiaries. Varroa destructor samples were classified into four morphotypes, with no significant differences in the geographical zones. As GAGCTC SacI enzyme cleavage sequences were not observed, all PCR products were identified as V. destructor Korean haplotype. The CO-I gene nucleotide sequences from two samples V. destructor showed both 100% similarity with the Korean haplotype and 99.8% similarity to the Japanese haplotype. Although the V. destructor mite was identified as a Korean haplotype, host-parasite association in 2 decades has led into a balance without entering into severe losses in the Nicaraguan apiculture.


Asunto(s)
Varroidae , Animales , Apicultura , Abejas , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Haplotipos , Nicaragua
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672164

RESUMEN

The Normalized Hotspot Indices (NHI) tool is a Google Earth Engine (GEE)-App developed to investigate and map worldwide volcanic thermal anomalies in daylight conditions, using shortwave infrared (SWIR) and near infrared (NIR) data from the Multispectral Instrument (MSI) and the Operational Land Imager (OLI), respectively, onboard the Sentinel 2 and Landsat 8 satellites. The NHI tool offers the possibility of ingesting data from other sensors. In this direction, we tested the NHI algorithm for the first time on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. In this study, we show the results of this preliminary implementation, achieved investigating the Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Klyuchevskoy (Kamchatka; Russia), Shishaldin (Alaska; USA), and Telica (Nicaragua) thermal activities of March 2000-2008. We assessed the NHI detections through comparison with the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA), the manual inspection of satellite imagery, and the information from volcanological reports. Results show that NHI integrated the AVA observations, with a percentage of unique thermal anomaly detections ranging between 8.8% (at Kilauea) and 100% (at Shishaldin). These results demonstrate the successful NHI exportability to ASTER data acquired before the failure of SWIR subsystem. The full ingestion of the ASTER data collection, available in GEE, within the NHI tool allows us to develop a suite of multi-platform satellite observations, including thermal anomaly products from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), which could support the investigation of active volcanoes from space, complementing information from other systems.

18.
Syst Parasitol ; 98(3): 231-246, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772429

RESUMEN

Based on tick specimens collected recently in Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Brazil, we provide morphological descriptions of the nymph and adults of Ornithodoros clarki Jones & Clifford, 1972 from the first three countries, and the larva and nymph of Ornithodoros rondoniensis (Labruna, Terassini, Camargo, Brandão, Ribeiro & Estrada-Peña, 2008) from Brazil. Also, an analysis of mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences was performed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of these tick species. Adults and nymphs of O. clarki and O. rondoniensis are unique among the Argasidae family by presenting exceptionally large spiracular plates with small goblets, and an integument with smooth polygonal mammillae. However, these two species are morphologically distinct based on specific patterns of coxal folds, idiosomal mammillae and pilosity, and female genital flap. In contrast, the larvae of O. clarki and O. rondoniensis are morphologically identical, except for a general larger size of the former species; this slight difference is corroborated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) by using 40 morphometric variables. Phylogenetic analyses including 16S rDNA partial sequences of different Ornithodoros taxa from Central and South America indicate that O. rondoniensis from Brazil diverges from O. clarki from Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama. However, phylogenetic distance separating both alleged species is similar or slightly lower than the distances depicted for conspecific populations of a few other Ornithodoros species. Nonetheless, our primary criterion to maintain O. rondoniensis as a valid species is because its adult and nymphal stages do present distinct morphological traits that easily distinguish these postlarval stages from O. clarki.

19.
Zootaxa ; 4938(1): zootaxa.4938.1.4, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756985

RESUMEN

The Neotropical species of the genus Manota Williston are studied, based on material of 146 specimens from French Guiana, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Dominica and the Dominican Republic. Four new species are described, viz. M. corniculata sp. n. (French Guiana), M. pseudocavata sp. n. (French Guiana), M. truuverki sp. n. (French Guiana) and M. vladi sp. n. (Dominican Republic). Manota defecta Williston, 1896, the type species of the genus, is listed from Dominica, representing the first record since its description more than a century ago from a Southern Caribbean Island, St. Vincent. New records of 13 additional species are provided: M. acutistylus Jaschhof Hippa, 2005 (Dominica), M. aligera Hippa, Kurina Sääksjärvi, 2017 (French Guiana), M. digitata Hippa, Kurina Sääksjärvi, 2017 (French Guiana), M. iota Hippa Kurina, 2013 (French Guiana), M. micula Hippa Kurina, 2013 (French Guiana), M. nordestina Kurina, Hippa Amorim, 2018 (French Guiana), M. parva Jaschhof Hippa, 2005 (Nicaragua), M. pauloides Hippa, Kurina Sääksjärvi, 2017 (Ecuador), M. perplexa Kurina, Hippa Amorim, 2017 (Nicaragua), M. rotundistylus Jaschhof Hippa, 2005 (Ecuador), M. serrulata Hippa, Kurina Sääksjärvi, 2017 (French Guiana), M. spinosa Jaschhof Hippa, 2005 (French Guiana), M. subaristata Kurina, Hippa Amorim, 2017 (Ecuador). The number of Neotropical Manota species has risen to 96.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Estructuras Animales , Animales
20.
Am J Hum Biol ; : e23596, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720476

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) may be involved in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the associations of LTL with MetS and its components among Mesoamerican children and their adult parents, in a region where MetS prevalence is high. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 151 children aged 7-12 years and 346 parents from the capitals of Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Chiapas State, Mexico. We quantified LTL by qPCR on DNA extracted from whole blood. In children, we created an age- and sex-standardized metabolic risk score using waist circumference (WC), the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood pressure, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and serum triglycerides. In adults, MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III definition. We estimated mean differences in metabolic risk score and prevalence ratios of MetS across quartiles of LTL using multivariable-adjusted linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. RESULTS: In children, every 1 LTL z-score was related to an adjusted 0.05 units lower (95% CI: -0.09, -0.02, P = 0.005) MetS risk score, through WC, HOMA-IR, and HDL. Among adults, LTL was not associated with MetS prevalence; however, every 1 LTL z-score was associated with an adjusted 34% lower prevalence of high fasting glucose (95% CI: 3%, 55%, p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Among Mesoamerican children, LTL is associated with an improved metabolic profile; among adults, LTL is inversely associated with the prevalence of high fasting glucose.

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