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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822107

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) can be transmitted sexually, but the risk of sexual transmission remains unknown. Most evidence of sexual transmission is from partners of infected travelers returning from areas with ZIKV circulation. METHODS: We used data from the U.S. national arboviral disease surveillance system (ArboNET) on travel- and sexually-acquired ZIKV disease cases during 2016-2017 to develop individual-level simulations for estimating risk of male-to-female, male-to-male, and female-to-male sexual transmission of ZIKV via vaginal and/or anal intercourse. We specified parametric distributions to characterize individual-level variability of parameters for ZIKV persistence and sexual behaviors. RESULTS: Using ZIKV RNA persistence in semen/vaginal fluids to approximate infectiousness duration, male-to-male transmission had the highest estimated probability [1.3% (95% CI: 0.4-6.0) per anal sex act], followed by male-to-female and female-to-male transmission [0.4% (95% CI: 0.3-0.6) per vaginal/anal sex act and 0.1% (95% CI:0-0.8) per vaginal sex act, respectively]. Models using viral isolation in semen vs. RNA detection to approximate infectiousness duration predicted greater risk of sexual transmission. CONCLUSIONS: While likely insufficient to maintain sustained transmission, the estimated risk of ZIKV transmission through unprotected sex is not trivial and is especially important for pregnant women, as ZIKV infection can cause severe congenital disorders.

2.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549211006986, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798396

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Levels of knowledge about the sexual transmission of Zika virus are consistently low in populations at risk of a mosquito-borne outbreak, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant or intend to become pregnant. We investigated the effectiveness of sources of public health messaging about sexual transmission to women who are pregnant or intend to become pregnant in Arizona. METHODS: In 2017, we conducted an Arizona-statewide survey 15 months after the initial release of US guidelines on sexual transmission of Zika virus. We used Poisson regression, adjusting for demographic factors, to estimate the likelihood among women who were pregnant or intended to become pregnant of knowing that Zika virus is sexually transmitted relative to other women of childbearing age. We used multinomial logistic regression models to explore associations with most used health information sources, either in person (eg, medical providers) or online (eg, Facebook), categorized by extent of dependability. RESULTS: Women who were pregnant or intended to become pregnant had similarly poor knowledge of the sexual transmission of Zika virus as compared with other women of childbearing age (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.14 [95% CI, 0.83-1.55]). Only about one-third of all respondents reported knowledge of sexual transmission. Reliance on high- vs low-dependability information sources, whether in person or online, did not predict the extent of Zika virus knowledge among women who were pregnant or intended to become pregnant. CONCLUSION: As late as the second year of local Zika virus transmission in the United States, in 2017, women in Arizona were not receiving sufficient information about sexual transmission, even though it was available. To prepare for possible future outbreaks, research should explore which aspects of Zika information campaigns were ineffective or inefficient.

3.
Insects ; 12(4)2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808172

RESUMEN

Arbovirus transmission studies are dependent on the ability to estimate the titer of virus transmitted from infectious mosquitoes to a host. There are several methods for estimating virus titer in mosquito saliva, including (1) using forced salivation (FS) whereby the infectious mosquito's proboscis is forced into a capillary tube containing media to collect and test their saliva for virus, and (2) by quantifying virus expectorated into host tissues or into the blood contained in an artificial feeder immediately after blood feeding. We studied FS and bloodmeals to estimate and compare titers of Zika virus and chikungunya virus transmitted by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Infectious virus and viral genomes of both viruses were detected more often from individual mosquitoes using immersion oil for the FS media compared to fetal bovine serum (FBS) plus glycerol, but the FS media had no influence on virus quantification from positive samples. FS virus titers were equivalent when comparing individuals or groups of mosquitoes that never received a blood meal compared to those that were blood fed immediately prior, showing that blood feeding does not influence FS. This suggested that performing FS on mosquitoes after blood feeding might be an efficient way to estimate virus transmitted during blood feeding. However, detecting virus from the blood remaining in an artificial feeder post-blood feeding was mostly unsuccessful relative to quantifying virus from FS of the post-blood fed mosquitoes. In contrast, immunocompromised mice always became infected after being fed on by Zika-infected mosquitoes, even when no infectious virus was detected in their saliva by FS post-blood feed. Due to this discrepancy, we tested the ingested bloodmeals of individual mosquitoes that fed on artificial blood feeders for virus, and compared these to virus in their saliva harvested from FS and to virus in their bodies. These experiments revealed ~50-100 times higher virus titers in the dissected bloodmeals compared to those detected in the same mosquitoes' saliva, demonstrating how mosquitoes re-ingest much of their saliva during artificial blood feeding, and highlighting a large increase in virus transmission during Aedes aegypti blood feeding. Both FS and the dissected bloodmeals of artificially blood-fed mosquitoes showed that the quantity of viral RNA expectorated by mosquitoes was 2-5 logs more than the quantity of infectious virus. The results from this study add critical information to understanding and quantifying the transmission of Aedes aegypti arboviruses.

4.
Insects ; 12(4)2021 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801709

RESUMEN

Mosquito-borne viruses are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Assessing risk for viral transmission often involves characterization of the vector competence of vector-virus pairings. The most common determination of vector competence uses discreet, terminal time points, which cannot be used to investigate variation in transmission aspects, such as biting behavior, over time. Here, we present a novel method to longitudinally measure individual biting behavior and Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Individual mosquitoes were exposed to ZIKV, and from 9 to 24 days post-exposure, individuals were each offered a 180 µL bloodmeal every other day. Biting behavior was observed and characterized as either active probing, feeding, or no bite. The bloodmeal was then collected, spun down, serum collected, and tested for ZIKV RNA via qRT-PCR to determine individuals' vector competence over time. This included whether transmission to the bloodmeal was successful and the titer of expectorated virus. Additionally, serum was inoculated onto Vero cells in order to determine infectiousness of positive recovered sera. Results demonstrate heterogeneity in not only biting patterns but expectorated viral titers among individual mosquitoes over time. These findings demonstrate that the act of transmission is a complex process governed by mosquito behavior and mosquito-virus interaction, and herein we offer a method to investigate this phenomenon.

5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20200670, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681889

RESUMEN

Arboviral diseases are disseminated all over the world. In Brazil, they remain neglected, alerting public authorities to possible outbreaks. Over here, we report the epidemiological indicators of Dengue from 2010 to 2015, Zika between 2015 and 2016, and Chikungunya from 2014 to 2016, within 19 municipalities of Southwestern Region of Bahia, Brazil. The data were collected from Brazilian national public information systems (SISFAD, SINAN, and IBGE) and by Endemic Control Agents. The analysis consisted of a description of vector characteristics, Home Infestation Index and characterization of human reported cases. The years 2011 and 2013 were recorded as having the highest frequencies of positive properties for the presence of the arboviruse vectors. Most municipalities presented high annual values of Home Infestation Index indicating an alert situation (62.28%). In the evaluated period, there were (i) 9,196 cases of Dengue, (ii) 636 cases of Zika and (iii) 224 cases of Chikungunya reported. This is the first report of the epidemiological characteristics of these arboviruses in the 19 municipalities of Bahia. It is believed that the data collected may contribute to public health policies aimed at controlling future epidemics of these arboviruses.


Asunto(s)
Arbovirus , Fiebre Chikungunya , Dengue , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Brasil/epidemiología , Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , Dengue/epidemiología , Humanos , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
6.
Bull Math Biol ; 83(5): 43, 2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743086

RESUMEN

In this paper, we propose a periodic reaction-diffusion model of Zika virus with seasonal and spatial heterogeneous structure in host and vector population. We introduce the basic reproduction ratio [Formula: see text] for this model and show that the disease-free periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable if [Formula: see text], while the system admits a globally asymptotically stable positive periodic solution if [Formula: see text]. Numerically, we study the Zika transmission in Rio de Janeiro Municipality, Brazil, and investigate the effects of some model parameters on [Formula: see text]. We find that the neglect of seasonality underestimates the value of [Formula: see text] and the maximum carrying capacity affects the spread of Zika virus.

7.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 30(spe1): e2020609, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729407

RESUMEN

This article addresses vector, sexual and vertical transmission of Zika virus, a topic covered in the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. Although in Brazil Zika virus is transmitted most predominantly by Aedes aegypti, the vertical and sexual transmission routes are of significant importance for reproductive health. Sexual transmission demands the use of specific prophylactic interventions, including the use of male or female condoms, especially among couples planning pregnancy. Vertical transmission is linked to severe structural abnormalities of the central nervous system and there is still no vaccine or known pharmacological resources that can prevent it. As the disease is predominantly asymptomatic, failure to comply with basic principles of care and guidelines related to the spread of infection transcends the severity of the symptoms of the disease.

9.
J Med Entomol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554254

RESUMEN

Recurrence of local transmission of Zika virus in Puerto Rico is a major public health risk to the United States, where mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes mediovittatus (Coquillett) are abundant. To determine the extent to which Ae. mediovittatus are capable of transmitting Zika virus and the influence of viremia, we evaluated infection and transmission in Ae. mediovittatus and Ae. aegypti from Puerto Rico using serial dilutions of infectious blood. Higher doses of infectious blood resulted in greater infection rates in both mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti females were up to twice as susceptible to infection than Ae. mediovittatus, indicating a more effective midgut infection barrier in the latter mosquito species. Aedes aegypti exhibited higher disseminated infection (40-95%) than Ae. mediovittatus (<5%), suggesting a substantial midgut escape barrier in Ae. mediovittatus. For Ae. aegypti, transmission rates were low over a range of doses of Zika virus ingested, suggesting substantial salivary gland barriers.

10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(1): 233-240, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533844

RESUMEN

Objective was to analyze the knowledge and attitude of high risk pregnant women about zika. This is a cross-sectional study, quantitative, with a sample of 201 high risk women who perform prenatal the Ambulatory Medical Specialties. A self-administered instrument, was applied after consultation with the doctor. Inclusion criteria were the presence of pregnant women on the day of the interview and their consent to participate. Exclusion criteria were those who did not agree to participate and were not performing prenatal care during the study period. For the data analysis we used chi square and fisher exact, in software Epi info 7.1 and Bioestat 5.0. Of the pregnant women, 76% believed that their neighborhood was likely to be infected by the virus and used measures to control mosquito proliferation, such as not leaving standing water (n = 154). In relation to knowledge, there was an association between Zika and microcephaly (p≤ 0.0001) and the need for more information (p = 0.0439). To prevent infection, 76% took no action, there was an association between the need for knowledge about the subject and the actions taken to combat the virus (p = 0.0049). We conclude that pregnant women's knowledge and attitude about zika is failed.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594740

RESUMEN

As breastfeeding is of utmost importance for child development and survival, identifying whether breast milk is a route of transmission for human viruses is critical. Based on the principle of Koch's postulate, we propose an analytical framework to determine the plausibility of viral transmission by breast milk. This framework is based on five criteria: viral infection in children receiving breast milk from infected mothers; the presence of virus, viral antigen, or viral genome in the breast milk of infected mothers; the evidence for the virus in breast milk being infectious; the attempts to rule out other transmission modalities; and the reproduction of viral transmission by oral inoculation in an animal model. We searched for evidence in published reports to determine whether the 5 criteria are fulfilled for 16 human viruses that are suspected to be transmissible by breast milk. We considered breast milk transmission is proven if all 5 criteria are fulfilled, as probable if 4 of the 5 criteria are met, as possible if 3 of the 5 criteria are fulfilled, and as unlikely if less than 3 criteria are met. Only five viruses have proven transmission through breast milk: human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1, human immunodeficiency virus, human cytomegalovirus, dengue virus, and Zika virus. The other 11 viruses fulfilled some but not all criteria and were categorized accordingly. Our framework analysis is useful for guiding public health recommendations and for identifying knowledge gaps amenable to original experiments.

12.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557048

RESUMEN

Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection highlight the urgent need to evaluate the efficacy of current public health measures to educate susceptible groups about how to prevent infection, modes of viral transmission, and consequences of infection. We performed a cross-sectional study in the city of Jundiaí, São-Paulo, from March 2016 to August 2017. In 315 high-risk pregnant women we evaluated the rate of ZIKV infection, knowledge of pathways of ZIKV transmission, and the use of protective measures. Data were analyzed and correlated with sociodemographic variables. The rate of ZIKV infection was 10.8%. ZIKV transmission by mosquitoes was the best-known means of virus acquisition, while transmission of ZIKV by sexual intercourse as well as mother-fetus transmission was known by less than half of the women. The use of insect repellent, reported by 53% of participants, was correlated with higher education and personal directives from health professionals. Condom use was reported by 19.5% of subjects. Improved strategies to increase awareness of ZIKV infection and its consequences, designed to appeal to specific, targeted populations, are clearly necessary to more accurately prevent the spread of this infection and diminish adverse consequences in the pregnant population.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Mujeres Embarazadas , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control , Infección por el Virus Zika/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Riesgo , Adulto Joven , Virus Zika , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
13.
J Virol ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536175

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) has the unusual capacity to circumvent natural alternating mosquito-human transmission and be directly transmitted human-to-human via sexual and vertical routes. The impact of direct transmission on ZIKV evolution and adaptation to vertebrate hosts is unknown. Here we show that molecularly barcoded ZIKV rapidly adapted to a mammalian host during direct transmission chains in mice, coincident with the emergence of an amino acid substitution previously shown to enhance virulence. In contrast, little to no adaptation of ZIKV to mice was observed following chains of direct transmission in mosquitoes or alternating host transmission. Detailed genetic analyses revealed that ZIKV evolution in mice was generally more convergent and subjected to more relaxed purifying selection than in mosquitoes or alternate passages. These findings suggest that prevention of direct human transmission chains may be paramount to resist gains in ZIKV virulence.Importance We used experimental evolution to model chains of direct and indirect Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission by serially passaging a synthetic swarm of molecularly barcoded ZIKV within and between mosquitoes and mice. We observed that direct mouse transmission chains facilitated a rapid increase in ZIKV replication and enhanced virulence in mice. These findings demonstrate that ZIKV is capable of rapid adaptation to a vertebrate host and indicate that direct human-to-human transmission could pose a greater threat to public health than currently realized.

14.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466915

RESUMEN

Mosquito-borne arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as the dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are important human pathogens that are responsible for significant global morbidity and mortality. The recent emergence and re-emergence of mosquito-borne viral diseases (MBVDs) highlight the urgent need for safe and effective vaccines, therapeutics, and vector-control approaches to prevent MBVD outbreaks. In nature, arboviruses circulate between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors; therefore, disrupting the virus lifecycle in mosquitoes is a major approach for combating MBVDs. Several strategies were proposed to render mosquitoes that are refractory to arboviral infection, for example, those involving the generation of genetically modified mosquitoes or infection with the symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia. Due to the recent development of high-throughput screening methods, an increasing number of drugs with inhibitory effects on mosquito-borne arboviruses in mammalian cells were identified. These antivirals are useful resources that can impede the circulation of arboviruses between arthropods and humans by either rendering viruses more vulnerable in humans or suppressing viral infection by reducing the expression of host factors in mosquitoes. In this review, we summarize recent advances in small-molecule antiarboviral drugs in mammalian and mosquito cells, and discuss how to use these antivirals to block the transmission of MBVDs.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/virología , Antivirales/farmacología , Infecciones por Arbovirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Arbovirus/virología , Arbovirus/efectos de los fármacos , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , Aedes/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Arbovirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Arbovirus/clasificación , Células Cultivadas , Descubrimiento de Drogas/métodos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Control de Mosquitos/métodos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/virología , Replicación Viral/efectos de los fármacos
15.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477428

RESUMEN

We systematically searched regional and international databases and screened 1658 non-duplicate records describing women with suspected or confirmed ZIKV infection, intending to breastfeed or give breast milk to an infant to examine the potential of mother-to-child transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) through breast milk or breastfeeding-related practices. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria and inform this analysis. These studies reported on 97 mother-children pairs who provided breast milk for ZIKV assessment. Seventeen breast milk samples from different women were found positive for ZIKV via RT-PCR, and ZIKV replication was found in cell cultures from five out of seven breast milk samples from different women. Only three out of six infants who had ZIKV infection were breastfed, no evidence of clinical complications was found to be associated with ZIKV RNA in breast milk. This review updates our previous report by including 12 new articles, in which we found no evidence of ZIKV mother-to-child transmission through breast milk intake or breastfeeding. As the certainty of the present evidence is low, additional studies are still warranted to determine if ZIKV can be transmitted through breastfeeding.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Leche Humana/virología , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/transmisión , Virus Zika , Lactancia Materna/efectos adversos , Humanos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Infección por el Virus Zika/virología
16.
Sex Transm Dis ; 48(4): 310-314, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492101

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Most estimates of the combined burden and cost of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States have focused on 8 common STIs with established national surveillance strategies (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus, and sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B). However, over 30 STIs are primarily sexually transmitted or sexually transmissible. In this article, we review what is known about the burden of "other STIs" in the United States, including those where sexual transmission is not the primary transmission route of infection. Although the combined burden of these other STIs may be substantial, accurately estimating their burden due to sexual transmission is difficult due to diagnostic and surveillance challenges. Developing better estimates will require innovative strategies, such as leveraging existing surveillance systems, partnering with public health and academic researchers outside of the STI field, and developing methodology to estimate the frequency of sexual transmission, particularly for new and emerging STIs.

17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(1): 233-240, jan. 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153758

RESUMEN

Resumo Objetivou analisar o conhecimento e a atitude das gestantes de alto risco sobre a zika. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, quantitativo, com amostra de 201 gestantes de alto risco, que realizam pré-natal no Ambulatório Médico de Especialidades. Aplicou-se um instrumento auto administrado, aplicados após a consulta com o médico. Os critérios de inclusão utilizados foram a presença das gestantes no dia da entrevista e seu consentimento de participação. Os de exclusão as que não aceitaram participar e não estarem realizando o pré natal no período do estudo. Para análise de dados, utilizou-se qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher, nos softwares Epi info 7.1 e Bioestat 5.0. Das gestantes, 76% acreditavam que, em seu bairro, é provável a infecção pelo vírus e utilizam medidas para controlar a proliferação do mosquito, como não deixar água parada (n = 154). Em relação ao conhecimento, houve associação entre a zika e a microcefalia (p ≤ 0,0001) e o apontamento da necessidade de mais informações (p = 0,0439). Para impedir o contágio, 76% não tomaram nenhuma atitude; houve, ainda, associação entre a necessidade de conhecimento sobre o assunto e as ações realizadas no combate ao vírus (p = 0,0049). Conclui-se que o conhecimento e a atitude das gestantes sobre a zika é falho.


Abstract Objective was to analyze the knowledge and attitude of high risk pregnant women about zika. This is a cross-sectional study, quantitative, with a sample of 201 high risk women who perform prenatal the Ambulatory Medical Specialties. A self-administered instrument, was applied after consultation with the doctor. Inclusion criteria were the presence of pregnant women on the day of the interview and their consent to participate. Exclusion criteria were those who did not agree to participate and were not performing prenatal care during the study period. For the data analysis we used chi square and fisher exact, in software Epi info 7.1 and Bioestat 5.0. Of the pregnant women, 76% believed that their neighborhood was likely to be infected by the virus and used measures to control mosquito proliferation, such as not leaving standing water (n = 154). In relation to knowledge, there was an association between Zika and microcephaly (p≤ 0.0001) and the need for more information (p = 0.0439). To prevent infection, 76% took no action, there was an association between the need for knowledge about the subject and the actions taken to combat the virus (p = 0.0049). We conclude that pregnant women's knowledge and attitude about zika is failed.

18.
Acta Trop ; 215: 105819, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406443

RESUMEN

The outbreaks caused by the Aedes aegypti-transmitted dengue virus (DENV), zakat virus (ZIKV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) result in a significant impact to the health systems of tropical countries. Furthermore, the occurrence of patients coinfected by at least two of these arboviruses is an aggravating factor in that scenario. On this basis, surveillance tools such as the Rapid Index Survey for Aedes aegypti (LIRAa) are used to estimate vector infestation in order to improve the prediction of human outbreaks. Ae. aegypti eggs were collected in the city of Vitória da Conquista, in Bahia State, Brazil, and subsequently hatched into larvae, which were analyzed in pools or individually for the presence of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV by molecular biology methods. The detection data for arboviruses were crossed with the LIRAa obtained in each region of the study city. Thirty larvae pools were analyzed, and fourteen (46.6%) of them were detected positive for DENV, ZIKV, and/or CHIKV. Among the individually analyzed larvae (n = 30), nine (30%) were positive for any of these arboviruses, and four (13.3%) were simultaneously coinfected by DENV and ZIKV. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the detection of circulating arboviruses and LIRAa. The simultaneous Ae. aegypti larvae infection by two different arboviruses is an unprecedented finding. This result suggests the occurrence of a vertical arboviruses co-transmission from the female mosquito to its offspring in nature. The occurrence of concomitant circulation of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV in Ae. aegypti from a single study region is another finding of this article. Finally, LIRAa seems to not only estimate vector infestation but also to predict circulation of arboviruses.

19.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395487

RESUMEN

In order to understand the disease burden of sexually transmitted Zika virus (ZIKV), we prospectively followed a cohort of 359 adult and adolescent residents of an urban community in Salvador, Brazil through the 2015 ZIKV epidemic. Later, in 2017, we used a retrospective survey to associate sexual behavior during the epidemic with ZIKV infection as defined by IgG3-NS1 ELISA. We found that males who engaged in casual sexual encounters during the epidemic were more likely (ORa=6.2; 95%CI 1.2-64.1) to be ZIKV positive, suggesting that specific groups may be at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections.

20.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(spe1): e2020609, 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154150

RESUMEN

Resumo Este artigo aborda as transmissões vetorial, sexual e vertical do vírus Zika, tema contemplado no Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas para Atenção Integral às Pessoas com Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis, publicado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil em 2020. Embora no Brasil o vírus Zika seja predominantemente veiculado pelo Aedes aegypti, as vias vertical e sexual de transmissão apresentam expressiva importância para a saúde reprodutiva. A transmissão sexual demanda o uso de intervenções profiláticas específicas, incluindo o uso do preservativo masculino ou feminino, principalmente entre casais que planejam gravidez. A transmissão vertical é ligada a graves anormalidades estruturais do sistema nervoso central e ainda não há vacina e nem recursos farmacológicos conhecidos que possam preveni-la. Como a doença é predominantemente assintomática, o não cumprimento dos princípios básicos de cuidados e orientações relacionadas à dispersão da infecção transcende a gravidade dos sintomas da doença.


Abstract This article addresses vector, sexual and vertical transmission of Zika virus, a topic covered in the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. Although in Brazil Zika virus is transmitted most predominantly by Aedes aegypti, the vertical and sexual transmission routes are of significant importance for reproductive health. Sexual transmission demands the use of specific prophylactic interventions, including the use of male or female condoms, especially among couples planning pregnancy. Vertical transmission is linked to severe structural abnormalities of the central nervous system and there is still no vaccine or known pharmacological resources that can prevent it. As the disease is predominantly asymptomatic, failure to comply with basic principles of care and guidelines related to the spread of infection transcends the severity of the symptoms of the disease.


Resumen Este artículo aborda la transmisión vectorial, sexual y vertical del virus Zika, tema tratado en el Protocolo Clínico y Directrices Terapéuticas para la Atención Integral a Personas con Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual, publicado por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil en 2020. Aunque en Brasil el virus Zika sea principalmente transmitido por Aedes aegypti, las vías vertical y sexual de transmisión son de gran importancia para la salud reproductiva. La transmisión sexual exige el uso de intervenciones profilácticas específicas, incluido el uso de preservativos masculinos o femeninos, especialmente entre las parejas que planean un embarazo. La transmisión vertical está ligada a graves anomalías estructurales del sistema nervioso central y todavía no existe una vacuna o recursos farmacológicos conocidos que puedan prevenirla. Como la enfermedad es predominantemente asintomática, el incumplimiento de los principios básicos de atención y las pautas relacionadas con la propagación de la infección trasciende la gravedad de los síntomas de la enfermedad.

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