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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222282, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596860

RESUMEN

Aquaculture of bivalve shellfish and seaweed represents a global opportunity to simultaneously advance coastal ecosystem recovery and provide substantive benefits to humanity. To identify marine ecoregions with the greatest potential for development of shellfish and seaweed aquaculture to meet this opportunity, we conducted a global spatial analysis using key environmental (e.g., nutrient pollution status), socioeconomic (e.g., governance quality), and human health factors (e.g., wastewater treatment prevalence). We identify a substantial opportunity for strategic sector development, with the highest opportunity marine ecoregions for shellfish aquaculture centered on Oceania, North America, and portions of Asia, and the highest opportunity for seaweed aquaculture distributed throughout Europe, Asia, Oceania, and North and South America. This study provides insights into specific areas where governments, international development organizations, and investors should prioritize new efforts to drive changes in public policy, capacity-building, and business planning to realize the ecosystem and societal benefits of shellfish and seaweed aquaculture.

2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3265-3276, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621212

RESUMEN

Ecosystem services (ESs) are the research highlight and hot topic in ecology, geography and environmental economics. Based on the literature database on ecosystem services from Web of Science, Citespace, Carrot 2 and textual analysis were used to review the progresses of ESs research during 1997-2018. The results showed that ESs research institutions and its publications increased quickly in the latest 20 years. The main leading countries on ecosystem services research were the United States, UK, Germany, China and Australia, with the United States being the first in terms of literature volume and the influence. Although the research of ESs in China started relatively late, its development was rapid and the scientific research output increased significantly. Meanwhile, there was a huge gap to the international level, the quality and influence of literature should be improved, and the international cooperation and exchange need to be enhanced too. The hotspots and frontiers of ecosystem services mainly included evaluation methods and models, climate change, biodiversity, land use change, trade-off and synergy, scientific research for decision-making and management. The further research and practice trends include the mechanism of ESs, the indicators and methods for ESs evaluation, the spatiotemporal dynamics of ESs trade-offs and synergies and influencing factors, the coupling relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being, and the scientific research and social needs for sustainable development for decision-making and management.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , China , Ecología , Humanos
3.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 38, 2019 09 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511000

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Farming practices vary from farmer to farmer and from place to place depending on a number of factors including the agroclimatic condition, infrastructure (e.g. irrigation facilities) and management mechanisms (private versus state management). These together affect the functioning and sustainability of the ecosystems. For the sustainability of ecosystems, farmers need to employ ecosystem-based farm practices. This paper examines the ecosystem-based farm management practices (EBFMPs) in private and state-managed irrigation schemes. It also analyses the drivers of farmers' willingness to pay for EBFMPs sustainability. The study employed mixed methods design, using both qualitative and quantitative techniques of data collection through key informant interviews, focus group discussions and semi-structured questionnaires administered to 300 households. The various EBFMPs adopted by farmers were examined and descriptively presented. The Chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID) and multiple linear regression were used to assess the predictors of farmers' willingness to pay for EBFMPs to enhance the health of agroecosystems. Compost application, conservative tilling, conservation of vegetation, mulching, crop rotation, intercropping with legumes, efficient drainage systems and bunding were the EBFMPs captured in this paper. RESULTS: Farmers in privately-managed irrigation schemes (PIS) more often apply EBFMPs compared with those in state-managed irrigation schemes (SIS). The paper also found that farmers' willingness to pay to sustain EBFMPs for healthy ecosystems is significantly determined by the type of irrigation scheme they cultivate in (that is, PIS or SIS), their level of education, marital status and perception of soil fertility. CONCLUSIONS: Policy makers, implementers, and other stakeholders need to consider the capacity building of irrigation farmers, especially those in SIS in northern Ghana by educating them on agricultural production and ecosystem nexus to enhance the level of usage and willingness to pay for EBFMPs sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Ecosistema , Agricultores , Granjas , Ghana , Humanos
4.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(8): 523-533A, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384071

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the long-term impact of a community-led total sanitation campaign in rural India. Methods: Local organizations in Odisha state, India worked with researchers to evaluate a community-led total sanitation campaign, which aimed to increase the demand for household latrines by raising awareness of the social costs of poor sanitation. The intervention ran from February to March 2006 in 20 randomly-selected villages and 20 control villages. Within sampled villages, we surveyed a random subset of households (around 28 households per village) at baseline in 2005 and over the subsequent 10-year period. We analysed changes in latrine ownership, latrine functionality and open defecation among approximately 1000 households. We estimated linear probability models that examined differences between households in intervention and control villages in 2006, 2010 and 2016. Findings: In 2010, 4 years after the intervention, ownership of latrines was significantly higher (29.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, CI: 17.5 to 41.2) and open defecation was significantly lower (-6.8 percentage points; 95% CI: -13.1 to -1.0) among households in intervention villages, relative to controls. In 2016, intervention households continued to have higher rates of ever owning a latrine (26.3 percentage points; 95% CI: 20.9 to 31.8). However, latrine functionality and open defecation were no longer different across groups, due to both acquisition of latrines by control households and abandonment and deterioration of latrines in intervention homes. Conclusion: Future research should investigate how to maintain and rehabilitate latrines and how to sustain long-term behaviour change.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Población Rural , Saneamiento/métodos , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Defecación , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , India , Pobreza , Características de la Residencia
5.
Water Res ; 165: 114989, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434014

RESUMEN

Piped water supply in Guwahati covers less than 30% of the city's population for which the Government of India proposes four new water supply projects, but astonishingly, they faced vehement public protest. The reason for the protest was attributed to lack of trust and need of public representation in the governing body. Besides, public participation is not a mandatory clause in water supply projects and, hence, was not carried out a priori to the project implementation. In an effort to address this, the present study aims to develop a framework incorporating public participation as a mandatory clause in water supply projects. In doing so, secondary data was collected from studies worldwide on public participation in water supply projects and analyzed to identify critical success factors (CSFs). South-West Guwahati water supply project was taken up as a study area, and a semi-structured questionnaire was designed to generate primary data on public participation. Thematic analysis was employed to identify the CSFs from primary data influencing public participation in the project. Finally, a framework was formulated following the identified CSFs from primary and secondary data and the review of various theories on public participation. The framework is developed to achieve effective public participation in six levels viz. inform, educate, consult, involve, collaborate, and capacity building. Each level satisfies a set of CSFs and ultimately all CSFs addresses to deemphasize the effects of disincentives in water supply projects. Further, the framework was validated by 16 experts and received an exceptionally copacetic rating for all six validation aspects. Copacetic expert ratings demonstrated appropriateness, objectivity, replicability, practicality, reliability, and suitability of framework for water supply projects.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad , Abastecimiento de Agua , Humanos , India , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 77, 2019 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382967

RESUMEN

The Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) Research Programme consortium is a programme funded by the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID) that aims to contribute to achieving universal access to effective, sustainable, and equitable sanitation and hygiene worldwide. The capacity development component is an important pillar for this programme and different strategies were designed and implemented during the various phases of SHARE. This paper describes and reflects on the capacity-building strategies of this large multi-country research consortium, identifying lessons learnt and proposing recommendations for future global health research programmes. In the first phase, the strategy focused on increasing the capacity of individuals and institutions from low- and middle-income countries in conducting their own research. SHARE supported six PhD students and 25 MSc students, and organised a wide range of training events for different stakeholders. SHARE peer-reviewed all proposals that researchers submitted through several rounds of funding and offered external peer-review for all the reports produced under the partner's research platforms. In the second phase, the aim was to support capacity development of a smaller number of African research institutions to move towards their independent sustainability, with a stronger focus on early and mid-career scientists within these institutions. In each institution, a Research Fellow was supported and a specific capacity development plan was jointly developed.Strategies that yielded success were learning by doing (supporting institutions and postgraduate students on sanitation and hygiene research), providing fellowships to appoint mid-career scientists to support personal and institutional development, and supporting tailored capacity-building plans. The key lessons learnt were that research capacity-building programmes need to be driven by local initiatives tailored with support from partners. We recommend that future programmes seeking to strengthen research capacity should consider targeted strategies for individuals at early, middle and later career stages and should be sensitive to other institutional operations to support both the research and management capacities.

7.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(10): 1887-1896, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294705

RESUMEN

The paper discusses how citizen science within an ecosystem services (ESS) framework may enhance evaluation of de-centralized water solutions. In a demonstration case in Oslo, citizens were engaged in long-term monitoring and evaluation of two solutions for treatment of combined sewer overflows. The citizens participated in the design of the study, systematic observations, and final evaluation, via interviews and workshops. A wealth of real-time information was collected, supplementing simulation data and water sampling results. The concept of ESS drew attention to benefits that tend to be ignored in standard evaluations. It is, however, most elaborate for ecological services, and less developed for social aspects. Involving the citizens complemented the framework in these areas, while providing new insights into the contextual interactions influencing ESS and benefits of local treatment. Both solutions, a cross-flow lamella settler and a high-rate filtration system, were quite efficient in removing suspended solids, with a strong impact on visual appearance. A range of wider benefits were identified. These were difficult to monetize, but the citizens' evaluation provided an alternative measure. The study highlights the benefits of citizen science in local water management and suggests the need for more research on beneficiaries in ESS evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Ecosistema , Humanos , Investigación , Aguas Residuales/química , Agua
8.
Disabil Health J ; 12(4): 718-721, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167740

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In low-income countries, like Malawi, approaches aimed at improving access to household sanitation for persons with disabilities have been limited, and often do not include post-intervention process evaluations. 6% of Malawi's population reports defecating outside rather than in a sanitation facility, and 4% of its population live with a disability; these groups of individuals live predominantly in rural areas. OBJECTIVE: This article describes a post-program evaluation of an inclusive Community-Led Total Sanitation program that specifically responds to household-level needs of people with disabilities in Rumphi District, Malawi. METHODS: Data collected from safety and accessibility audits of household latrines used by persons with disabilities and interviews with implementers at 18 months post-intervention were used to determine sustainability. RESULTS: The household latrine audit results show that existing conditions for sanitation access are still not optimal for persons with disabilities and that changes may require more time to be implemented. Some of the training program steps had more lasting impact on the implementers than other steps, such as the squatting exercise. There was limited evidence implementers had made additional changes or innovations or had transferred their knowledge more widely to other implementers. There is also a need to ensure local vernacular is available to mitigate the social stigma associated with people with disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: Implications for future replication show the need to invest in training a wider group of people to assist with implementation and to keep the program simple and focused on more active learning methods to make sustainable behavioral changes.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Composición Familiar , Servicios de Salud para Personas con Discapacidad , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Población Rural , Saneamiento , Cuartos de Baño , Participación de la Comunidad , Defecación , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pobreza , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Investigación Cualitativa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(10): 5877-5886, 2019 05 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013057

RESUMEN

China proposed the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), an unprecedented development strategy in terms of scope and scale, to increase the connectivity with the rest of the world by infrastructure development and trade activities. Recently, more attention has been directed to the environmental implications of the international trade activities under this initiative, which contributes to the development of a green, i.e. environmentally friendly, partnership. This study examines the evolution of virtual water trade in relation to agricultural products between China and BRI countries during 2000-2016. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method is adopted for uncovering the driving factors underlying the trade imbalance, as well as the major virtual water exports. Results reveal that China has experienced the shift from a net virtual water exporter to a net importer. At the regional level, Southeastern Asia and Southern Asia are the major net virtual water exporters to China, and Eastern Asia is the major importer. For the selected export countries, an increase in proportion of trade in relation to domestic production significantly contributes to their virtual water export, while water intensity could decrease virtual water export for most export countries. As for the driving forces behind the imbalance of virtual water trade, trade structure was an obvious positive effect, while the effects of water intensity, product structure, and trade scale shifted in favor of virtual water outflows from BRI countries to China in 2008. Massive global water loss has incurred, indicating the inefficiency of this partnership in relation to freshwater. A closer trade relationship is established between China and BRI countries, and relevant environment implications are identified. Policy implications are proposed in terms of trade structure, relationship of trade and domestic production, and international cooperation. This study provides valuable insights into the equity and sustainability of historic trade activities with respect to freshwater resources.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Agua , Asia , China , Lejano Oriente
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917551

RESUMEN

In recent years, the algae-bacteria symbiotic system has played a significant role in the sustainable development of wastewater treatment. With the continuous expansion of research outputs, publications related to wastewater treatment via algal-bacterial consortia appear to be on the rise. Based on SCI-EXPANDED database, this study investigated the research activities and tendencies of algae-bacteria symbiotic wastewater treatment technology by bibliometric method from 1998 to 2017. The results indicated that environmental sciences and ecology was the most productive subject categories, followed by engineering. Bioresource Technology was the most prominent journal in this field with considerable academic influence. China (146), USA (139) and Spain (76) had the largest amount of publications. Among them, USA was in a leading position in international cooperation, with the highest h-index (67) in 79 countries/territories. The cooperation between China and USA was the closest. The cooperative publishing rate of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was 83.33%, but most of them were in cooperation with domestic institutions, while international cooperation was relatively limited. Methane production, biofuel production, and extracellular polymeric substance were future focal frontiers of research, and this field had gradually become a multi-perspective and inter-disciplinary approach combining biological, environmental and energy technologies.


Asunto(s)
Organismos Acuáticos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Edición/estadística & datos numéricos , Simbiosis , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Bibliometría , Cooperación Internacional
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(2): 439-448, 2019 Feb 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915794

RESUMEN

Quantitative evaluation of ecosystem service value and its spatial mapping is an effective way to determine priority conservation areas of cultural ecosystem services (CES). We used a combination of questionnaires and structured interviews with public participatory GIS (PPGIS) in Gongqing Forest Park in Shanghai to connect non-monetary CES values with spatially explicit information. This method applied spatial indicators of abundance, diversity and rarity to quantitatively assess the value of CES and their spatial distribution, and identified priority CES areas. The results showed the value of CES varied among landscape types. Relatively open grassland, riverside, and shrub areas were associated with high aesthetic value. Riverside areas were associated with the CES category concerned with inspiration and supporting social relationships. High diversity values mainly distributed in riverside areas, while forest and grassland areas were associated with high rarity values. The areas with the highest values for the abundance, diversity, and rarity indices were overlaid with eight gradient thresholds, which indicated that defining the 25% of ecological areas with the highest overall rating as CES priority areas was an effective threshold for CES identification and management. The methodology in this study leveraged PPGIS to spatially refe-rence, quantify, and user perception to establish relationships between landscape attributes, space, and experience. These results could provide an important basis for identifying, planning for, and managing priority conservation areas in urban protected areas.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , China , Participación de la Comunidad , Bosques
12.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(4): 615-627, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744955

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization has recommended Water Safety Plans (WSPs), a holistic risk assessment and risk management approach, for drinking-water suppliers across low-, middle- and high-income countries, since publishing its 2004 Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. While rapid WSP adoption has occurred, capacity is still catching up to implementation needs. Many countries and regions lack case examples, legal requirements, and training resources for WSPs, corresponding to widespread capacity shortfall in the water supply sector. We undertook a comprehensive review of the literature on capacity building and training for WSPs, with the goal of providing recommendations for multiple stakeholder groups at the scales of individual utilities, national governments, and intermediate units of governance. We propose a WSP training taxonomy and discuss it in relation to the stages of learning (introduction, practice, and reinforcement); describe the importance of customizing training to the target group, local language and circumstances; highlight the relevance of auditing for evaluating change over time; and call for robust methods to monitor WSP capacity development.


Asunto(s)
Creación de Capacidad , Calidad del Agua/normas , Enseñanza , Abastecimiento de Agua
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(4): 1005-1012, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793687

RESUMEN

In 2012, approximately 5.6 million Zambians did not have access to improved sanitation and around 2.1 million practiced open defecation. The Zambia Sanitation and Hygiene Program (ZSHP), featuring community-led total sanitation, began in November 2011 to increase the use of improved sanitation facilities and adopt positive hygiene practices. Using a pre- and post-design approach with a population-level survey, after 3 years of implementation, we evaluated the impact of ZSHP in randomly selected households in 50 standard enumeration areas (representing 26 of 65 program districts). We interviewed caregivers of children younger than 5 years old (1,204 and 1,170 female caregivers at baseline and end line, respectively) and inspected household toilet facilities and sites for washing hands. At end line, 80% of households had access to improved sanitation facilities versus 64.1% at baseline (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.18-1.31) and 14.1% did not have a toilet facility compared with 19.4% at baseline. At end line, 10.6% of households reported living in an open defecation-free certified village compared with 0.3% at baseline (PR = 32.0; 95% CI: 11.9-86.4). In addition, at end line, 33.4% of households had a specific place for washing hands and 61.4% of caregivers reported handwashing with a washing agent after defecation or before preparing food compared with 21.1% (PR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.39-1.82) and 55.2% (PR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04-1.19) at baseline, respectively. Community-led total sanitation implementation in Zambia led to improvements in access to improved sanitation facilities, reduced open defecation, and better handwashing practices. There is however a need for enhanced investment in sanitation and hygiene promotion.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad , Higiene/normas , Saneamiento/métodos , Adulto , Cuidadores/educación , Preescolar , Defecación , Diarrea/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Saneamiento/normas , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven , Zambia/epidemiología
14.
J Environ Manage ; 236: 54-67, 2019 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711742

RESUMEN

As the efficient utilization of water resources in the agricultural systems of northwest Iran is an indispensable issue for achieving the conservation of Lake Urmia (LU), this study is intended to examine the determinants of water-saving behavior (WSB), desire and intention to revive LU. The theoretical framework of the study consists of the incorporation of the theory of goal-directed behavior and the theory of capacity building. The data were gathered from a face-to-face farm-level survey of 367 farmers who were selected by the method of stratified random sampling. The first-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) serves to ensure that the acceptable values of internal consistency for research indices are obtained, the respective measures are assessed in the form of the factor loading and Cronbach's alpha (.83≤α≤.98). Using SPSS software, the qualitative data were refined and provided for path analysis, which was performed in AMOS software. The goodness of fit test provides evidence that the proposed model fits with data well. The results disclose that attitude towards water saving has a positive impact on the intention to revive LU and WSB. Furthermore, PBC, the performance of NGOs in executing the water interventions and desire to participate in NGOs influence WSB indirectly via desire and intention to revive LU. In conclusion, management implications are delivered to make practical contributions to the revivification of LU in accordance with research findings.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Lagos , Agricultura , Agricultores , Humanos , Irán
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 147: 245-253, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297166

RESUMEN

The Adriatic Sea, a semi-enclosed and vulnerable environment, deserves special attention regarding the risk of introducing Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens via ships' ballast water as new species findings occur at an alarming rate. This species introduction vector was addressed with the 2004 International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, which entered into force in 2017. The efficient implementation of this convention calls for Adriatic States' cooperation on environmental specifics that have not been dealt with neither by national nor by international measures yet. Based on legal and institutional data gathered, and considering the regional maritime traffic and environmental specifics, this paper reveals that the integration of current environmental law commitments as well as a better dialogue between public institutions from shipping and environmental sectors may foster the implementation of ballast water management obligations through appropriate Adriatic States' cooperation.


Asunto(s)
Política Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Navíos , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Organismos Acuáticos , /métodos , Cooperación Internacional , Especies Introducidas , Mar Mediterráneo , Navíos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Purificación del Agua/legislación & jurisprudencia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 1): 1566-1575, 2019 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308842

RESUMEN

Approaching water, energy, and food, as interconnected system of systems, as an alternative to traditional silo-based resources planning and management approaches continues to fall short of expectations of its research-backed benefits. The lack of nexus applications in policy and decision making can be related to numerous factors, with the main barrier being the complex nature of "nexus" systems combined with the disarray of tools attempting to model its interconnections. The paper aims to provide a method for comparing the perceived complexity of nexus tools identified by international organizations as well as primary literature sources. Eight separate criteria are introduced and discussed as measures of a tool "complexity index" and used to score the relative simplicity, or complexity, of a given tool. The result of this process is used to identify trends within existing nexus-assessment tools while guiding potential users towards appropriate tool(s) best-suited for their case study needs and objectives. The main objectives of this paper are to: 1) categorize nexus assessment tools according to a criteria-set which allows for suitable tool selection; 2) identify a method for rapid evaluation of the trade-offs for choosing different tools (simple-complex spectrum). The results of the comparative analysis of the selected nexus assessment tools concur with literature citing a growing gap between nexus research and applications in actual policy and decision-making settings. Furthermore, results suggest that tools receiving higher complexity scores, while being able to capture details to specific resource interactions, are unable to cover a larger number of interactions and system components simultaneously, as compared to lower complexity score tools. Lastly, the outcome of the analysis point towards the need for integrating more preliminary assessment capabilities, i.e. diagnostics, guidelines, and capacity building, into existing tools that improve the communication and translation of model outputs into policy and decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Alimentos , Cadena Alimentaria , Programas Informáticos , Agua
18.
Healthc Q ; 21(SP): 73-82, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566408

RESUMEN

Patient and citizen engagement is taking root in a number of healthcare organizations. These initiatives show promising results but require a supportive environment to bring systemic and sustainable impacts. In this synthesis article, we propose an ecosystemic perspective on engagement in health, outlining key elements at the individual, organizational and systemic levels supporting reciprocal and effective relationships among all partners to provide conditions for the co-production of health and care. We argue that growing a healthy engagement ecosystem requires: (1) building local and national "hubs" to facilitate learning and capacity building across engagement domains, populations and contexts; (2) supporting reciprocal partnerships based on co-leadership; and (3) strengthening capacities for research, evaluation and co-training of all partners to support reflective engagement practices that bring about effective change.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad/métodos , Participación del Paciente/métodos , Canadá , Creación de Capacidad/métodos , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/organización & administración
19.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 12(2): 215-221, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270231

RESUMEN

PROBLEM: Larger societal forces created a narrative about Flint's water emergency that cast African American Flint community members primarily as victims, underplaying their extensive efforts toward solutions. This narrative exacerbates, rather than ameliorates, the emergency's root cause: disregard for their perspectives. PURPOSE: This article describes 1) the largely unsung efforts of African American community members to identify and resolve the emergency, and 2) the development of the Narrative Group as a way to document community perspectives and promote change through equitable inclusion of community in decision making. KEY POINTS: To maximize public health benefit, Flint community members are asking public health professionals to partner with them in ways that 1) attribute credit equitably and ethically, 2) engage community priorities and solutions, 3) share data, expertise, and information, and 4) equitably allocate philanthropic and public funds for related research and services. CONCLUSIONS: Response effort processes are as important for long-term health outcomes as response effort content.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos , Participación de la Comunidad , Agua Potable/efectos adversos , Intoxicación por Plomo/etiología , Humanos , Michigan
20.
Sustain Sci ; 13(5): 1415-1426, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220918

RESUMEN

The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus has become a popular, and potentially powerful, frame through which to analyse interactions and interdependencies between these three systems. Though the case for transdisciplinary research in this space has been made, the extent of stakeholder engagement in research remains limited with stakeholders most commonly incorporated in research as end-users. Yet, stakeholders interact with nexus issues in a variety of ways, consequently there is much that collaboration might offer to develop nexus research and enhance its application. This paper outlines four aspects of nexus research and considers the value and potential challenges for transdisciplinary research in each. We focus on assessing and visualising nexus systems; understanding governance and capacity building; the importance of scale; and the implications of future change. The paper then proceeds to describe a novel mixed-method study that deeply integrates stakeholder knowledge with insights from multiple disciplines. We argue that mixed-method research designs-in this case orientated around a number of cases studies-are best suited to understanding and addressing real-world nexus challenges, with their inevitable complex, non-linear system characteristics. Moreover, integrating multiple forms of knowledge in the manner described in this paper enables research to assess the potential for, and processes of, scaling-up innovations in the nexus space, to contribute insights to policy and decision making.

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