Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.874
Filtrar
1.
J Virol ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789994

RESUMEN

The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) spread rapidly into regions where dengue virus (DENV) is endemic, and flavivirus cross-reactive T cell responses have been observed repeatedly in animal models and in humans. Pre-existing cellular immunity to DENV is thought to contribute to protection in subsequent ZIKV infection, but the epitope targets of cross-reactive T cell responses have not been comprehensively identified. Using human blood samples from the DENV-endemic regions of Nicaragua and Sri Lanka that were collected before the global spread of ZIKV in 2016, we employed an in vitro expansion strategy to map ZIKV T cell epitopes in ZIKV-unexposed, DENV-seropositive donors. We identified 93 epitopes across the ZIKV proteome, and we observed patterns of immunodominance that were dependent on antigen size and sequence identity to DENV. We confirmed the immunogenicity of these epitopes through a computational HLA binding analysis, and we showed that cross-reactive T cells specifically recognize ZIKV peptides homologous to DENV sequences. We also found that these CD4 responses were derived from the memory T cell compartment. These data have implications for understanding the dynamics of flavivirus-specific T cell immunity in endemic areas.ImportanceMultiple flaviviruses, including Zika (ZIKV) and the four serotypes of dengue (DENV) viruses, are prevalent in the same large tropical and equatorial areas inhabited by hundreds of millions of people. The interplay of DENV and ZIKV infection is especially relevant, as these two viruses are endemic in largely overlapping regions, have significant sequence similarity, and share the same arthropod vector. Here, we define the targets of pre-existing immunity to ZIKV in unexposed subjects collected in dengue-endemic areas. We demonstrate that pre-existing immunity to DENV could shape ZIKV-specific responses, and DENV-ZIKV cross-reactive T cells can be expanded by stimulation with ZIKV peptides. The issue of potential ZIKV and DENV cross-reactivity is of relevance for understanding patterns of natural immunity, as well as for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines.

2.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801245

RESUMEN

Human septins comprise a family of 13 genes that encode conserved GTP-binding proteins. They form nonpolar complexes, which assemble into higher-order structures, such as bundles, scaffolding structures, or rings. Septins are counted among the cytoskeletal elements. They interact with the actin and microtubule networks and can bind to membranes. Many cellular functions with septin participation have been described in the literature, including cytokinesis, motility, forming of scaffolding platforms or lateral diffusion barriers, vesicle transport, exocytosis, and recognition of micron-scale curvature. Septin dysfunction has been implicated in diverse human pathologies, including neurodegeneration and tumorigenesis. Moreover, septins are thought to affect the outcome of host-microbe interactions. Implication of septins has been demonstrated in fungal, bacterial, and viral infections. Knowledge on the precise function of a particular septin in the different steps of the virus infection and replication cycle is still limited. Published data for vaccinia virus (VACV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), influenza A virus (H1N1 and H5N1), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), and Zika virus (ZIKV), all of major concern for public health, will be discussed here.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801335

RESUMEN

Mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) became a real threat to human health due to the lack of vaccine and effective antiviral treatment. The virus has recently been responsible for a global outbreak leading to millions of infected cases. ZIKV complications were highlighted in adults with Guillain-Barré syndrome and in newborns with increasing numbers of congenital disorders ranging from mild developmental delays to fatal conditions. The ability of ZIKV to establish a long-term infection in diverse organs including the kidneys has been recently documented but the consequences of such a viral infection are still debated. Our study aimed to determine whether the efficiency of ZIKV growth in kidney cells relates to glucose concentration. Human kidney HK-2 cells were infected with different ZIKV strains in presence of normal and high glucose concentrations. Virological assays showed a decrease in viral replication without modifying entry steps (viral binding, internalization, fusion) under high glucose conditions. This decrease replication was associated with a lower virus progeny and increased cell viability when compared to ZIKV-infected HK-2 cells in normal glucose concentration. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that an elevated glucose level influences ZIKV replication level with an effect on kidney cell survival.

4.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801464

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has resulted in the current pandemic. The lack of highly efficacious antiviral drugs that can manage this ongoing global emergency gives urgency to establishing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. We characterized the role of the nucleocapsid protein (N) of SARS-CoV-2 in modulating antiviral immunity. Overexpression of SARS-CoV-2 N resulted in the attenuation of retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptor-mediated interferon (IFN) production and IFN-induced gene expression. Similar to the SARS-CoV-1 N protein, SARS-CoV-2 N suppressed the interaction between tripartate motif protein 25 (TRIM25) and RIG-I. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 N inhibited polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-mediated IFN signaling at the level of Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interfered with the association between TBK1 and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), subsequently preventing the nuclear translocation of IRF3. We further found that both type I and III IFN production induced by either the influenza virus lacking the nonstructural protein 1 or the Zika virus were suppressed by the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. Our findings provide insights into the molecular function of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein with respect to counteracting the host antiviral immune response.

5.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807442

RESUMEN

Flaviviruses circulate worldwide and cause a number of medically relevant human diseases, such as dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Serology plays an important role in the diagnosis of flavivirus infections, but can be impeded by antigenic cross-reactivities among flaviviruses. Therefore, serological diagnosis of a recent infection can be insufficiently specific, especially in areas where flaviviruses co-circulate and/or vaccination coverage against certain flaviviruses is high. In this study, we developed a new IgM assay format, which is well suited for the specific diagnosis of TBE, Zika and dengue virus infections. In the case of TBE and Zika, the IgM response proved to be highly specific for the infecting virus. In contrast, primary dengue virus infections induced substantial amounts of cross-reactive IgM antibodies, which is most likely explained by structural peculiarities of dengue virus particles. Despite the presence of cross-reactive IgM, the standardized nature and the quantitative read-out of the assay even allowed the serotype-specific diagnosis of recent dengue virus infections in most instances.

6.
Vaccine ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814233

RESUMEN

The severe consequences of ZIKV infection and its emergence and re-emergence in several countries have boosted vaccines' development. Yeasts such as Pichia pastoris has been widely employed as antigen carriers for immunization against infectious agents. Components of the yeast cell wall have immunostimulatory properties, and recombinant antigens can be anchored to the cell surface to enhance the presentation to the immune system. Here we aimed at producing and anchoring ZIKV proteins in the P. pastoris surface as a vaccine approach. Expression cassettes were designed with epitopes of the Envelope and NS1 proteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the anchoring of recombinant proteins. Yeasts' ability to stimulate immune cells was evaluated in vitro by incubation with lymphocytes and monocytes isolated from mouse spleen. P. pastoris expressing EnvNS1 epitopes promoted increased levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α cytokines and an increase in the number of CD4+, CD8+, and CD16+ lymphocytes, similarly to ZIKV. This profile is indicative of the activation of immunological cells and suggests an immunogenic potential of the proposed yeast vaccines against ZIKV, reinforcing the possibility of P. pastoris as adjuvant and carrier of antigens.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808706

RESUMEN

The neurological complications of infection by the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuritis. GBS was first associated with recent ZIKV epidemics caused by the emergence of the ZIKV Asian lineage in South Pacific. Here, we hypothesize that ZIKV-associated GBS relates to a molecular mimicry between viral envelope E (E) protein and neural proteins involved in GBS. The analysis of the ZIKV epidemic strains showed that the glycan loop (GL) region of the E protein includes an IVNDT motif which is conserved in voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C (Cav1.2) and Heat Shock 70 kDa protein 12A (HSP70 12A). Both VSCC-alpha 1C and HSP70 12A belong to protein families which have been associated with neurological autoimmune diseases in central nervous system. The purpose of our in silico analysis is to point out that IVNDT motif of ZIKV E-GL region should be taken in consideration for the development of safe and effective anti-Zika vaccines by precluding the possibility of adverse neurologic events including autoimmune diseases such as GBS through a potent mimicry with Heat Shock 70 kDa protein 12A (HSP70 12A).

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810028

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and its associated congenital and other neurological disorders, particularly microcephaly and other fetal developmental abnormalities, constitute a World Health Organization (WHO) Zika Virus Research Agenda within the WHO's R&D Blueprint for Action to Prevent Epidemics, and continue to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) today. ZIKV pathogenicity is initiated by viral infection and propagation across multiple placental and fetal tissue barriers, and is critically strengthened by subverting host immunity. ZIKV immune evasion involves viral non-structural proteins, genomic and non-coding RNA and microRNA (miRNA) to modulate interferon (IFN) signaling and production, interfering with intracellular signal pathways and autophagy, and promoting cellular environment changes together with secretion of cellular components to escape innate and adaptive immunity and further infect privileged immune organs/tissues such as the placenta and eyes. This review includes a description of recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying ZIKV immune modulation and evasion that strongly condition viral pathogenesis, which would certainly contribute to the development of anti-ZIKV strategies, drugs, and vaccines.

9.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834635

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen of public health concern, associated with a dramatic burden in places where the virus caused outbreaks between 2015 and 2017. In the Americas, the ZIKV was first reported in Brazil and rapidly spread through the Americas. Since its first report, a number of studies have been published as we continue to learn, not only about modes of transmission, but also clinical manifestations, risk of congenital anomalies, including microcephaly and neurological malformations in fetuses born from mothers infected during pregnancy. Interventions to reduce the burden of ZIKV infection are restricted to mosquito control, and for Aedes spp mosquitoes the strategies implemented to that end proved to be unsuccessful so far. Hence the lessons we can learn following the ZIKV epidemics become of paramount importance in the development of drug treatments and in search for a vaccine.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802042

RESUMEN

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition of the central nervous system (CNS) that presents with severe communication problems, impairment of social interactions, and stereotypic behaviours. Emerging studies indicate possible associations between viral infections and neurodegenerative and neurobehavioural conditions including autism. Viral infection during critical periods of early in utero neurodevelopment may lead to increased risk of autism in the offspring. This review is aimed at highlighting the association between viral infections, including viruses similar to COVID-19, and the aetiology of autism. A literature search was conducted using Pubmed, Ovid/Medline, and Google Scholar database. Relevant search terms included "rubella and autism", "cytomegalovirus and autism", "influenza virus and autism", "Zika virus and autism", "COVID-19 and autism". Based on the search terms, a total of 141 articles were obtained and studies on infants or children with congenital or perinatal viral infection and autistic behaviour were evaluated. The possible mechanisms by which viral infections could lead to autism include direct teratogenic effects and indirect effects of inflammation or maternal immune activation on the developing brain. Brain imaging studies have shown that the ensuing immune response from these viral infections could lead to disruption of the development of brain regions and structures. Hence, long-term follow up is necessary for infants whose mothers report an inflammatory event due to viral infection at any time during pregnancy to monitor for signs of autism. Research into the role of viral infection in the development of ASD may be one avenue of improving ASD outcomes in the future. Early screening and diagnosis to detect, and maybe even prevent ASD are essential to reduce the burden of this condition.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Virosis , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/etiología , Trastorno Autístico/epidemiología , Trastorno Autístico/etiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Embarazo , Virosis/epidemiología
11.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 50, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706715

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of infectious diseases generate outbreaks of scientific evidence. In 2016 epidemics of Zika virus emerged, and in 2020, a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared patterns of scientific publications for the two infections to analyse the evolution of the evidence. METHODS: We annotated publications on Zika virus and SARS-CoV-2 that we collected using living evidence databases according to study design. We used descriptive statistics to categorise and compare study designs over time. RESULTS: We found 2286 publications about Zika virus in 2016 and 21,990 about SARS-CoV-2 up to 24 May 2020, of which we analysed a random sample of 5294 (24%). For both infections, there were more epidemiological than laboratory science studies. Amongst epidemiological studies for both infections, case reports, case series and cross-sectional studies emerged first, cohort and case-control studies were published later. Trials were the last to emerge. The number of preprints was much higher for SARS-CoV-2 than for Zika virus. CONCLUSIONS: Similarities in the overall pattern of publications might be generalizable, whereas differences are compatible with differences in the characteristics of a disease. Understanding how evidence accumulates during disease outbreaks helps us understand which types of public health questions we can answer and when.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Publicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Publicaciones/tendencias , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control , Virus Zika/aislamiento & purificación , /epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Pandemias , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/tendencias , Virus Zika/fisiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/virología
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773923

RESUMEN

Vaccination during pregnancy is important for active immunity of the mother against serious infectious diseases, and also for passive immunity of the neonate to infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality. As a rule, live vaccines are contraindicated during pregnancy as they may cause fetal viremia/bacteremia. Inactivated vaccines are generally safe. Vaccines safe to be administered to all pregnant ladies are tetanus toxoid (TT; tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) and Flu vaccines. During pre-pregnancy counselling, vaccination for MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) should be offered, with an advice to avoid pregnancy for a month. All pregnant mothers should receive TT and Tdap vaccination during the third trimester. Flu vaccine can be given to all mothers at any gestation, and if not offered during pregnancy, it can be given postpartum. Vaccinations that should be offered to women if at high risk of exposure are for hepatitis A and B, pneumococcal, meningococcal, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis (JE), polio, typhoid, and cholera infections. Vaccines to be given only for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) are smallpox, rabies, and anthrax. Postpartum women should be offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. If not immunized earlier, they should be offered MMR, Tdap, and Flu vaccines. Future vaccines being developed are for malaria, Zika virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), group B streptococcus, CMV, and COVID-19 (SARS-Cov-2).

13.
Epilepsia ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778951

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the overall frequency of epilepsy in children with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) and describe the profile of seizures and the response rate to anti-epileptic treatment in this group of patients. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted following the Cochrane Handbook and preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and LILACS were searched until June 23, 2020. Observational studies that evaluated the frequency of epilepsy in children diagnosed with CZS according to international criteria were included in the study. RESULTS: Fourteen studies evaluating 903 patients diagnosed with CZS were pooled in a meta-analysis. All studies were conducted in Brazil, with reports published between 2016 and 2020, and included children diagnosed with CSZ from 0 to 40 months of age. The overall rate of epilepsy in children diagnosed with CZS was estimated at 60% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.68). The studies included in this review show that the frequency of epilepsy in patients with CSZ varies with age, with higher rates in older children. Epileptic spasms was the primary type of seizure observed in this group, followed by focal and generalized crisis. The response rate to anti-epileptic drugs was considerably low, ranging from 20% of seizure control in the first year and 30% in the second year. SIGNIFICANCE: Children with CZS presented a high cumulative incidence of epilepsy episodes with increased severity and a low response to anti-epileptic therapy, which is associated with the extensive damage caused by the Zika virus on the cortical structures of patients.

14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 265, 2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731022

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increasing arbovirus infections have been a global burden in recent decades. Many countries have experienced the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses is largely unknown or infrequently updated because of the lack of surveillance studies, especially in Africa. METHODS: A surveillance study was conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, on arboviruses, which are a major public health concern in Africa, including: West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Serological and molecular assays were performed to investigate past infection history and the current status of infection, using serum samples collected from healthy individuals and febrile patients, respectively. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence during 2014-2017 was estimated to be 25.3% for WNV, 20.4% for DENV, 40.3% for ZIKV, 60.7% for YFV, 61.2% for CHIKV, and 14.3% for RVFV. No significant differences were found in the seroprevalence of any of the viruses between the male and female populations. However, a focus on the mean age in each arbovirus-seropositive individual showed a significantly younger age in WNV- and DENV-seropositive individuals than in CHIKV-seropositive individuals, indicating that WNV and DENV caused a relatively recent epidemic in the region, whereas CHIKV had actively circulated before. Of note, this indication was supported by the detection of both WNV and DENV genomes in serum samples collected from febrile patients after 2016. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the recent re-emergence of WNV and DENV in Gabon as well as the latest seroprevalence state of the major arboviruses, which indicated the different potential risks of virus infections and virus-specific circulation patterns. This information will be helpful for public health organizations and will enable a rapid response towards these arbovirus infections, thereby preventing future spread in the country.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6492, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753816

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted primarily by infected mosquitos, can cause neurological symptoms such as Guillian-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. We developed several vaccinia virus (VACV) vaccine candidates for ZIKV based on replication-inducible VACVs (vINDs) expressing ZIKV pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) proteins (vIND-ZIKVs). These vIND-ZIKVs contain elements of the tetracycline operon and replicate only in the presence of tetracyclines. The pool of vaccine candidates was narrowed to one vIND-ZIKV containing a novel mutation in the signal peptide of prM that led to higher expression and secretion of E and production of virus-like particles, which was then tested for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in mice. vIND-ZIKV grows to high titers in vitro in the presence of doxycycline (DOX) but is replication-defective in vivo in the absence of DOX, causing no weight loss in mice. C57BL/6 mice vaccinated once with vIND-ZIKV in the absence of DOX (as a replication-defective virus) developed robust levels of E-peptide-specific IFN-γ-secreting splenocytes and anti-E IgG titers, with modest levels of serum-neutralizing antibodies. Vaccinated mice treated with anti-IFNAR1 antibody were completely protected from ZIKV viremia post-challenge after a single dose of vIND-ZIKV. Furthermore, mice with prior immunity to VACV developed moderate anti-E IgG titers that increased after booster vaccination, and were protected from viremia only after two vaccinations with vIND-ZIKV.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 572, 2021 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757480

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Zika virus outbreak has triggered a set of local and global actions for a rapid, effective, and timely public health response. A World Health Organization (WHO) initiative, supported by the Department of Chronic Condition Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections (DCCI) of the Health Surveillance Secretariat (SVS), Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) and other public health funders, resulted in the start of the "Study on the persistence of Zika virus in body fluids of patients with ZIKV infection in Brazil - ZIKABRA study". The ZIKABRA study was designed to increase understanding of how long ZIKV persists in bodily fluids and informing best measures to prevent its transmission. Data collection began in July 2017 and the last follow up visit occurred in 06/26/2020. METHODS: A framework for the ZIKABRA Cooperation initiative is provided through a description and analysis of the mechanisms, strategies and the ethos that have guided the models of international governance and technical cooperation in health for scientific exchange in the context of a public health emergency. Among the methodological strategies, we included a review of the legal documents that supported the ZIKABRA Cooperation; weekly documents produced in the meetings and working sessions; technical reports; memorandum of understanding and the research protocol. CONCLUSION: We highlight the importance of working in cooperation between different institutional actors to achieve more significant results than that obtained by each group working in isolation. In addition, we point out the advantages of training activities, ongoing supervision, the construction of local installed research capacity, training academic and non-academic human resources, improvement of laboratory equipment, knowledge transfer and the availability of the ZIKABRA study protocol for development of similar studies, favoring the collective construction of knowledge to provide public health emergency responses. Strategy harmonization; human resources and health services; timing and recruiting particularities and processing institutional clearance in the different sites can be mentioned as challenges in this type of initiative.

17.
Malar J ; 20(1): 165, 2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761967

RESUMEN

Malaria is a principal cause of illness and death in countries where the disease is endemic. Personal protection against mosquitoes using repellents could be a useful method that can reduce and/or prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. The available repellent products, such as creams, roll-ons, and sprays for personal protection against mosquitoes, lack adequate long-term efficacy. In most cases, they need to be re-applied or replaced frequently. The encapsulation and release of the repellents from several matrices has risen as an alternative process for the development of invention of repellent based systems. The present work reviews various studies about the development and use of repellent controlled-release formulations such as polymer microcapsules, polymer microporous formulations, polymer micelles, nanoemulsions, solid-lipid nanoparticles, liposomes and cyclodextrins as new tools for mosquito-borne malaria control in the outdoor environment. Furthermore, investigation on the mathematical modelling used for the release rate of repellents is discussed in depth by exploring the Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Weibull models, as well as the recently developed Mapossa model. Therefore, the studies searched suggest that the final repellents based-product should not only be effective against mosquito vectors of malaria parasites, but also reduce the biting frequency of other mosquitoes transmitting diseases, such as dengue fever, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika virus. In this way, they will contribute to the improvement in overall public health and social well-being.

18.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 180: 113112, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706158

RESUMEN

Infectious diseases caused by viruses can elevate up to undesired pandemic conditions affecting the global population and normal life function. These in turn impact the established world economy, create jobless situations, physical, mental, emotional stress, and challenge the human survival. Therefore, timely detection, treatment, isolation and prevention of spreading the pandemic infectious diseases not beyond the originated town is critical to avoid global impairment of life (e.g., Corona virus disease - 2019, COVID-19). The objective of this review article is to emphasize the recent advancements in the electrochemical diagnostics of twelve life-threatening viruses namely - COVID-19, Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Influenza, Hepatitis, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Human papilloma virus (HPV), Zika virus, Herpes simplex virus, Chikungunya, Dengue, and Rotavirus. This review describes the design, principle, underlying rationale, receptor, and mechanistic aspects of sensor systems reported for such viruses. Electrochemical sensor systems which comprised either antibody or aptamers or direct/mediated electron transfer in the recognition matrix were explicitly segregated into separate sub-sections for critical comparison. This review emphasizes the current challenges involved in translating laboratory research to real-world device applications, future prospects and commercialization aspects of electrochemical diagnostic devices for virus detection. The background and overall progress provided in this review are expected to be insightful to the researchers in sensor field and facilitate the design and fabrication of electrochemical sensors for life-threatening viruses with broader applicability to any desired pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Técnicas Electroquímicas/métodos , Virosis/diagnóstico , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Humanos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Técnica SELEX de Producción de Aptámeros
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009195, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711018

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a re-emerging virus that constitutes a public health threat due to its recent global spread, recurrent outbreaks, and infections that are associated with neurological abnormalities in developing fetuses and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. To date, there are no approved vaccines against ZIKV infection. Various preclinical and clinical development programs are currently ongoing in an effort to bring forward a vaccine for ZIKV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We have developed a ZIKV vaccine candidate based on Virus-Like-Particles (VLPs) produced in HEK293 mammalian cells using the prM (a precursor to M protein) and envelope (E) structural protein genes from ZIKV. Transient transfection of cells via plasmid and electroporation produced VLPs which were subsequently purified by column chromatography yielding approximately 2mg/L. Initially, immunogenicity and efficacy were evaluated in AG129 mice using a dose titration of VLP with and without Alhydrogel 2% (alum) adjuvant. We found that VLP with and without alum elicited ZIKV-specific serum neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and that titers correlated with protection. A follow-up immunogenicity and efficacy study in rhesus macaques was performed using VLP formulated with alum. Multiple neutralization assay methods were performed on immune sera including a plaque reduction neutralization test, a microneutralization assay, and a Zika virus Renilla luciferase neutralization assay. All of these assays indicate that following immunization, VLP induces high titer nAbs which correlate with protection against ZIKV challenge. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies confirm that ZIKV VLPs could be efficiently generated and purified. Upon VLP immunization, in both mice and NHPs, nAb was induced that correlate with protection against ZIKV challenge. These studies support translational efforts in developing a ZIKV VLP vaccine for evaluation in human clinical trials.

20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 615102, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732238

RESUMEN

The re-emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) caused widespread infections that were linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital malformation in fetuses, and epidemiological data suggest that ZIKV infection can induce protective antibody responses. A more detailed understanding of anti-ZIKV antibody responses may lead to enhanced antibody discovery and improved vaccine designs against ZIKV and related flaviviruses. Here, we applied recently-invented library-scale antibody screening technologies to determine comprehensive functional molecular and genetic profiles of naturally elicited human anti-ZIKV antibodies in three convalescent individuals. We leveraged natively paired antibody yeast display and NGS to predict antibody cross-reactivities and coarse-grain antibody affinities, to perform in-depth immune profiling of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibody repertoires in peripheral blood, and to reveal virus maturation state-dependent antibody interactions. Repertoire-scale comparison of ZIKV VLP-specific and non-specific antibodies in the same individuals also showed that mean antibody somatic hypermutation levels were substantially influenced by donor-intrinsic characteristics. These data provide insights into antiviral antibody responses to ZIKV disease and outline systems-level strategies to track human antibody immune responses to emergent viral infections.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...