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1.
Euro Surveill ; 25(12)2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234120

RESUMEN

BackgroundTick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a potentially severe neurological disease caused by TBE virus (TBEV). In Europe and Asia, TBEV infection has become a growing public health concern and requires fast and specific detection.AimIn this observational study, we evaluated a rapid TBE IgM test, ReaScan TBE, for usage in a clinical laboratory setting.MethodsPatient sera found negative or positive for TBEV by serological and/or molecular methods in diagnostic laboratories of five European countries endemic for TBEV (Estonia, Finland, Slovenia, the Netherlands and Sweden) were used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the test. The patients' diagnoses were based on other commercial or quality assured in-house assays, i.e. each laboratory's conventional routine methods. For specificity analysis, serum samples from patients with infections known to cause problems in serology were employed. These samples tested positive for e.g. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, or for flaviviruses other than TBEV, i.e. dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Zika viruses. Samples from individuals vaccinated against flaviviruses other than TBEV were also included. Altogether, 172 serum samples from patients with acute TBE and 306 TBE IgM negative samples were analysed.ResultsCompared with each laboratory's conventional methods, the tested assay had similar sensitivity and specificity (99.4% and 97.7%, respectively). Samples containing potentially interfering antibodies did not cause specificity problems.ConclusionRegarding diagnosis of acute TBEV infections, ReaScan TBE offers rapid and convenient complementary IgM detection. If used as a stand-alone, it can provide preliminary results in a laboratory or point of care setting.

2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228777

RESUMEN

Two confirmed human cases of Zika virus (ZIKV) were reported in the district of Miri, Sarawak, in 2016. Following that, a mosquito-based ZIKV surveillance study was conducted within 200-m radius from the case houses. Mosquito surveillance was conducted using five different methods, that is, BG sentinel trap, modified sticky ovitrap, resting catch, larval surveillance, and conventional ovitrap. A total of 527 and 390 mosquito samples were obtained from the case houses in two localities, namely, Kampung Lopeng and Taman Shang Ri La, Miri, Sarawak, respectively. All mosquitoes collected were identified, which consisted of 11 species. Aedes albopictus, both the adult and larval stages, was the dominant species. Resting catch method obtained the highest number of adult mosquitoes (67%), whereas ovitrap showed the highest catch for larval mosquitoes (84%). Zika virus was detected in both adults and larvae of Ae. albopictus together with adults of Culex gelidus, and Culex quiquefasciatus using the real-time reverse transcriptase PCR technique. It was noteworthy that Ae. albopictus positive with ZIKV were caught and obtained from all four types of collection method. By contrast, Cx. gelidus and Culex quinquefasciatus adults collected from sticky ovitraps were also found positive with ZIKV. This study reveals vital information regarding the potential vectors of ZIKV and the possibility of transovarian transmission of the virus in Malaysia. These findings will be essentials for vector control program managers to devise preparedness and contingency plans of prevention and control of the arboviral disease.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4017, 2020 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132648

RESUMEN

Mosquito borne viral diseases are an emerging threat as evident from the recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) as well as repeated outbreaks of Chikungunya (CHIKV), Yellow fever (YFV) and Japanese encephalitis (JEV) virus in different geographical regions. These four arboviruses are endemic in overlapping regions due to the co-prevalence of the transmitting mosquito vector species Aedes and Culex. Thus, a multivalent vaccine that targets all four viruses would be of benefit to regions of the world where these diseases are endemic. We developed a potential Virus Like Particle (VLP) based multivalent vaccine candidate to target these diseases by using stable cell lines that continuously secrete VLPs in the culture supernatants. Moreover, inclusion of Capsid in the VLPs provides an additional viral protein leading to an enhanced immune response as evident from our previous studies with ZIKV. Immunization of Balb/c mice with different combinations of Capsid protein containing VLPs either as monovalent, bivalent or tetravalent formulation resulted in generation of high levels of neutralizing antibodies. Interestingly, the potential tetravalent VLP vaccine candidate provided strong neutralizing antibody titers against all four viruses. The 293 T stable cell lines secreting VLPs were adapted to grow in suspension cultures to facilitate vaccine scale up. Our stable cell lines secreting individual VLPs provide a flexible yet scalable platform conveniently adaptable to different geographical regions as per the need. Further studies in appropriate animal models will be needed to define the efficacy of the multivalent vaccine candidate to protect against lethal virus challenge.

5.
Antiviral Res ; : 104760, 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135219

RESUMEN

Infection by RNA viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, influenza, and dengue virus (DENV) represent a major burden for human health worldwide. Although RNA viruses replicate in the infected host cell cytoplasm, the nucleus is central to key stages of the infectious cycle of HIV-1 and Influenza, and an important target of DENV nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) in limiting the host antiviral response. We previously identified the small molecule ivermectin as an inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase nuclear entry, subsequently showing ivermectin could inhibit DENV NS5 nuclear import, as well as limit infection by viruses such as HIV-1 and DENV. We show here that ivermectin's broad spectrum antiviral activity relates to its ability to target the host importin (IMP) α/ß1 nuclear transport proteins responsible for nuclear entry of cargoes such as integrase and NS5. We establish for the first time that ivermectin can dissociate the preformed IMPα/ß1 heterodimer, as well as prevent its formation, through binding to the IMPα armadillo (ARM) repeat domain to impact IMPα thermal stability and α-helicity. We show that ivermectin inhibits NS5-IMPα interaction in a cell context using quantitative bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Finally, we show for the first time that ivermectin can limit infection by the DENV-related West Nile virus at low (µM) concentrations. Since it is FDA approved for parasitic indications, ivermectin merits closer consideration as a broad spectrum antiviral of interest.

6.
Viruses ; 12(3)2020 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138181

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent member of the Flaviviridae family which causes severe congenital defects and other major sequelae, but the cellular processes that support ZIKV replication are incompletely understood. Related flaviviruses use the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a membranous platform for viral replication and induce ER stress during infection. Our data suggest that ZIKV activates IRE1α, a component of the cellular response to ER stress. IRE1α is an ER-resident transmembrane protein that possesses a cytosolic RNase domain. Upon activation, IRE1α initiates nonconventional cytoplasmic splicing of XBP1 mRNA. Spliced XBP1 encodes a transcription factor, which upregulates ER-related targets. We find that ZIKV infection induces XBP1 mRNA splicing and induction of XBP1 target genes. Small molecule inhibitors of IRE1α, including those specific for the nuclease function, prevent ZIKV-induced cytotoxicity, as does genetic disruption of IRE1α. Optimal ZIKV RNA replication requires both IRE1α and XBP1. Spliced XBP1 has been described to cause ER expansion and remodeling and we find that ER redistribution during ZIKV infection requires IRE1α nuclease activity. Finally, we demonstrate that inducible genetic disruption of IRE1α and XBP1 impairs ZIKV replication in a mouse model of infection. Together, our data indicate that the ER stress response component IRE1α promotes ZIKV infection via XBP1 and may represent a potential therapeutic target.

7.
J Neurol ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140865

RESUMEN

Axonal variants of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) mainly include acute motor axonal neuropathy, acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy, and pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness. Molecular mimicry of human gangliosides by a pathogen's lipooligosaccharides is a well-established mechanism for Campylobacter jejuni-associated GBS. New triggers of the axonal variants of GBS (axonal GBS), such as Zika virus, hepatitis viruses, intravenous administration of ganglioside, vaccination, and surgery, are being identified. However, the pathogenetic mechanisms of axonal GBS related to antecedent bacterial or viral infections other than Campylobacter jejuni remain unknown. Currently, autoantibody classification and serial electrophysiology are cardinal approaches to differentiate axonal GBS from the prototype of GBS, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Newly developed technologies, including metabolite analysis, peripheral nerve ultrasound, and feature selection via artificial intelligence are facilitating more accurate diagnosis of axonal GBS. Nevertheless, some key issues, such as genetic susceptibilities, remain unanswered and moreover, current therapies bear limitations. Although several therapies have shown considerable benefits to experimental animals, randomized controlled trials are still needed to validate their efficacy.

8.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128708

RESUMEN

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus originally isolated from humans in 1952. Following its re-emergence in Brazil in 2015, an increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly to infected mothers was observed. Microcephaly is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterised phenotypically by a smaller than average head size, and is usually developed in utero. The 2015 outbreak in the Americas led to the World Health Organisation declaring Zika a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Since then, much research into the effects of Zika has been carried out. Studies have investigated the structure of the virus, its effects on and evasion of the immune response, cellular entry including target receptors, its transmission from infected mother to foetus and its cellular targets. This review discusses current knowledge and novel research into these areas, in hope of developing a further understanding of how exposure of pregnant women to the Zika virus can lead to impaired brain development of their foetus. Although no longer considered an epidemic in the Americas, the mechanism by which Zika acts is still not comprehensively and wholly understood, and this understanding will be crucial in developing effective vaccines and treatments.

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2131: 17-30, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162248

RESUMEN

With the increasing frequency of viral epidemics, vaccines to augment the human immune response system have been the medium of choice to combat viral infections. The tragic consequences of the Zika virus pandemic in South and Central America a few years ago brought the issues into sharper focus. While traditional vaccine development is time-consuming and expensive, recent advances in information technology, immunoinformatics, genetics, bioinformatics, and related sciences have opened the doors to new paradigms in vaccine design and applications.Peptide vaccines are one group of the new approaches to vaccine formulation. In this chapter, we discuss the various issues involved in the design of peptide vaccines and their advantages and shortcomings, with special reference to the Zika virus for which no drugs or vaccines are as yet available. In the process, we outline our work in this field giving a detailed step-by-step description of the protocol we follow for such vaccine design so that interested researchers can easily follow them and do their own designing. Several flowcharts and figures are included to provide a background of the software to be used and results to be anticipated.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193549

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The four antigenically distinct serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) share extensive homology with each other and with the closely related Zika flavivirus (ZIKV). The development of polyclonal memory B cells (MBCs) to the four DENV serotypes and ZIKV during DENV infection is not fully understood. METHODS: Here we analyzed polyclonal MBCs at the single-cell level from peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected ~2 weeks or 6-7 months post-primary or post-secondary DENV infection from a pediatric hospital-based study in Nicaragua using a Multi-Color FluoroSpot assay. RESULTS: DENV elicits robust type-specific and cross-reactive MBC responses after primary and secondary DENV infection, with a significantly higher cross-reactive response in both. Reactivity to the infecting serotype dominated the total MBC response. While the frequency and proportion of type-specific and cross-reactive MBCs were comparable between primary and secondary DENV infections, within the cross-reactive response, the breadth of MBC responses against different serotypes was greater after secondary DENV infection. DENV infection also induced cross-reactive MBC responses recognizing ZIKV, particularly after secondary DENV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study sheds light on the polyclonal MBC response to DENV and ZIKV in naïve and DENV-pre-immune subjects, with important implications for natural infections and vaccine development.

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 520-533, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116148

RESUMEN

The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas, followed by the yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreaks in Angola and Brazil highlight the urgent need for safe and efficient vaccines against the ZIKV as well as much greater production capacity for the YFV-17D vaccine. Given that the ZIKV and the YFV are largely prevalent in the same geographical areas, vaccines that would provide dual protection against both pathogens may obviously offer a significant benefit. We have recently engineered a chimeric vaccine candidate (YF-ZIKprM/E) by swapping the sequences encoding the YFV-17D surface glycoproteins prM/E by the corresponding sequences of the ZIKV. A single vaccine dose of YF-ZIKprM/E conferred complete protection against a lethal challenge with wild-type ZIKV strains. Surprisingly, this vaccine candidate also efficiently protected against lethal YFV challenge in various mouse models. We demonstrate that CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells, nor ZIKV neutralizing antibodies are required to confer protection against YFV. The chimeric YF-ZIKprM/E vaccine may thus be considered as a dual vaccine candidate efficiently protecting mice against both the ZIKV and the YFV, and this following a single dose immunization. Our finding may be particularly important in the rational design of vaccination strategies against flaviviruses, in particular in areas where YFV and ZIKV co-circulate.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Virus Zika/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Ratones , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Células Vero , Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/uso terapéutico
12.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178610

RESUMEN

Tropical infectious diseases cause millions of deaths every year in developing countries with about half of the world population living at risk. Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emerging arbovirus that causes Mayaro fever, which is characterized by fever, headache, diarrhea, arthralgia and rash. These symptoms can be clinically indistinguishable from other arboviruses, such as Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya, which makes the diagnosis and treatment of the disease more difficult. Though, Mayaro virus is a potential candidate to cause large-scale epidemics on the scale of ZIKV and CHIKV. Despite this, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral for the treatment of Mayaro fever and for most arboviruses, so the design and development of candidates for antiviral drugs are urgently needed. In this context, this mini review aims to provide an overview towards studies of anti-MAYV derivatives and highlight the importance of the discovery and development of promising drug candidates for Mayaro fever.

13.
Transfusion ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208533

RESUMEN

Umbilical cord blood is an important cellular therapy product used for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but the US Food and Drug Administration guidance regarding donor screening to reduce the risk of Zika transmission has decreased the number of licensed, eligible cord blood units available for transplantation. There is a crucial need for updated travel risk assessment for Zika virus transmission, validated screening tests for Zika virus in umbilical cord blood, and further research on Zika virus transmissibility due to umbilical cord blood products to ensure that umbilical cord blood and related tissues are safe and available for transplantation.

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218189

RESUMEN

Zika Virus (ZIKV) is transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, resulting in asymptomatic infection, or acute illness with a fever and headache, or neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome or fetal microcephaly. Previously, we determined that AgBR1, a mosquito salivary protein, induces inflammatory responses at the bite site, and that passive immunization with AgBR1 antiserum influences mosquito-transmitted ZIKV infection. Here, we show that the active immunization of mice with AgBR1 adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide delays lethal mosquito-borne ZIKV infection, suggesting that AgBR1 may be used as part of a vaccine to combat ZIKV.

15.
Mol Ther ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220305

RESUMEN

Malignant brain tumors are among the most aggressive cancers with poor prognosis and no effective treatment. Recently, we reported the oncolytic potential of Zika virus infecting and destroying the human central nervous system (CNS) tumors in vitro and in immunodeficient mice model. However, translating this approach to humans requires pre-clinical trials in another immunocompetent animal model. Here, we analyzed the safety of Brazilian Zika virus (ZIKVBR) intrathecal injections in three dogs bearing spontaneous CNS tumors aiming an anti-tumoral therapy. We further assessed some aspects of the innate immune and inflammatory response that triggers the anti-tumoral response observed during the ZIKVBR administration in vivo and in vitro. For the first time, we showed that there were no negative clinical side effects following ZIKVBR CNS injections in dogs, confirming the safety of the procedure. Furthermore, the intrathecal ZIKVBR injections reduced tumor size in immunocompetent dogs bearing spontaneous intracranial tumors, improved their neurological clinical symptoms significantly, and extended their survival by inducing the destruction specifically of tumor cells, sparing normal neurons, and activating an immune response. These results open new perspectives for upcoming virotherapy using ZIKV to destroy and induce an anti-tumoral immune response in CNS tumors for which there are currently no effective treatments.

16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007994, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142512

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Zika remains an epidemiological threat in Latin America, including the Dominican Republic. Although transmitted by the same mosquito as Dengue and Chikungunya, Zika is unique in the potentially harmful consequences for babies born to women infected during pregnancy. Experts highlight the feminization of Zika, in terms of burden of disease and women's caregiving responsibilities. Understanding gender's role in Zika prevention, therefore, is key to strengthening current and future programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This qualitative study, comprised of 12 focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews, explored gender's role in Zika among pregnant and non-pregnant women as well as male partners of pregnant women in the Dominican Republic. Topics included perceptions about Zika and perceived feasibility and effectiveness of prevention behaviors (e.g. cleaning water storage containers, using condoms during pregnancy). Researchers applied grounded theory through a process of deductive coding-classifying data around predetermined categories-followed by inductive coding-identifying themes that emerged from coded data. Study findings uncovered three ways in which gender may influence Zika prevention. First, women are largely responsible for household chores-including cleaning water storage containers-with men as assistants. Second, men described their role in the family as the protector. Finally, men and women believed that partners would perceive suggesting condom use or abstinence during pregnancy as a sign of infidelity. CONCLUSIONS: Current/future Zika programs should address knowledge gaps, especially around water storage cleaning techniques and sexual transmission. Programs should also integrate gender into programming in culturally-relevant ways that avoid reinforcing stereotypes. Furthermore, programs should tailor activities for men, women, as well as the couple. In the end, integrating gender in a way that is mindful of the local context while not exploiting existing gender roles is critical for preventing Zika and similar mosquito-borne diseases, both in the Dominican Republic and throughout the region.

17.
Vaccine ; 38(18): 3455-3463, 2020 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173095

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) reemergence poses a significant health threat especially due to its risks to fetal development, necessitating safe and effective vaccines that can protect pregnant women. Zika envelope domain III (ZE3) has been identified as a safe and effective vaccine candidate, however it is poorly immunogenic. We previously showed that plant-made recombinant immune complex (RIC) vaccines are a robust platform to improve the immunogenicity of weak antigens. In this study, we altered the antigen fusion site on the RIC platform to accommodate N-terminal fusion to the IgG heavy chain (N-RIC), and thus a wider range of antigens, with a resulting 40% improvement in RIC expression over the normal C-terminal fusion (C-RIC). Both types of RICs containing ZE3 were efficiently assembled in plants and purified to >95% homogeneity with a simple one-step purification. Both ZE3 RICs strongly bound complement receptor C1q and elicited strong ZE3-specific antibody titers that correlated with ZIKV neutralization. When either N-RIC or C-RIC was codelivered with plant-produced hepatitis B core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLP) displaying ZE3, the combination elicited 5-fold greater antibody titers (>1,000,000) and more strongly neutralized ZIKV than either RICs or VLPs alone, after only two doses without adjuvant. These findings demonstrate that antigens that require a free N-terminus for optimal antigen display can now be used with the RIC system, and that plant-made RICs and VLPs are highly effective vaccines targeting ZE3. Thus, the RIC platform can be more generally applied to a wider variety of antigens.

18.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 120: 103338, 2020 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126277

RESUMEN

Aedes aegypti is the main urban vector of dengue virus, chikungunya virus and Zika virus due to its great dispersal capacity and virus susceptibility. A. aegypti feed on plant-derived sugars but females need a blood meal for egg maturation. Haematophagous arthropods need to overcome host haemostasis and local immune reactions in order to take a blood meal. In this context, molecules present in the saliva and/or intestinal contents of these arthropods must contain inhibitors of the complement system (CS). CS salivary and/or intestinal inhibitors are crucial to protect gut cells of haematophagous arthropods against complement attack. The present work aimed to investigate the anti-complement activity of A. aegypti intestinal contents on the alternative, classical and lectin pathways of the human complement system. Here we show that A. aegypti gut contents inhibited the human classical and the lectin pathways but not the alternative pathway. The A. aegypti gut content has a serine protease able to specifically cleave and inactivate human C4, which is a novel mechanism for human complement inactivation in haematophagous arthropods. The gut of female A. aegypti was capable of capturing human serum factor H (a negative complement modulator), unlike males. C3 molecules in recently blood-fed female A. aegypti remain in their original state, being inactivated to iC3b soon after a blood feed. A transmission-blocking vaccine using these complement inhibitory proteins as antigens has the potential to interfere with the insect's survival, reproductive fitness and block their infection by the arboviruses they transmit to humans.

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008163, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203510

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a Flavivirus (Flaviviridae) transmitted to humans mainly by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti is the primary epidemic vector of ZIKV and Ae. albopictus, the secondary one. However, the epidemiological role of both Aedes species in Central Africa where Ae. albopictus was recently introduced is poorly characterized. Field-collected strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from different ecological settings in Central Africa were experimentally infected with a ZIKV strain isolated in West Africa. Mosquitoes were analysed at 14- and 21-days post-exposure. Both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were able to transmit ZIKV but with higher overall transmission efficiency for Ae. aegypti (57.9%) compared to Ae. albopictus (41.5%). In addition, disseminated infection and transmission rates for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus varied significantly according to the location where they were sampled from. We conclude that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are able to transmit ZIKV and may intervene as active Zika vectors in Central Africa. These findings could contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiological transmission of ZIKV in Central Africa and develop suitable strategy to prevent major ZIKV outbreaks in this region.

20.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 38(1): 10-18, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134278

RESUMEN

Last decade witnessed the outbreak of many life-threatening human pathogens including Nipah, Ebola, Chikungunya, Zika, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Severe Acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and more recently novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2). The disease condition associated with novel coronavirus, referred to as Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The emergence of novel coronavirus in 2019 in Wuhan, China marked the third highly pathogenic coronavirus infecting humans in the 21st century. The continuing emergence of coronaviruses at regular intervals poses a significant threat to human health and economy. Ironically, even after a decade of research on coronavirus, still there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutic agents to treat coronavirus infection which highlights an urgent need to develop effective vaccines or post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent future epidemics. Several clinical, genetic and epidemiological features of COVID-19 resemble SARS-CoV infection. Hence, the research advancements on SARS-CoV treatment might help scientific community in quick understanding of this virus pathogenesis and develop effective therapeutic/prophylactic agents to treat and prevent this infection. Monoclonal antibodies represent the major class of biotherapeutics for passive immunotherapy to fight against viral infection. The therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibodies has been well recognized in the treatment of many diseases. Here, we summarize the potential monoclonal antibody based therapeutic intervention for COVID-19 by considering the existing knowledge on the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against similar coronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Further research on COVID-19 pathogenesis could identify appropriate therapeutic targets to develop specific anti-virals against this newly emerging pathogen.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales/uso terapéutico , Anticuerpos Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Inmunoterapia , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/uso terapéutico , Sitios de Unión , China , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Estructura Terciaria de Proteína , Receptores Virales/química , Virus del SRAS , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química
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