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1.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 93: 101971, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422564

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The relationship between schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and criminal behaviour is a central issue in forensic psychiatry. People with mental illness face some of the same types of criminogenic factors as people without mental illness, albeit more frequently. The research question of this study is the extent to which a framework of early and late offender typology can be empirically reconstructed in a forensic psychiatric population, and whether there are any practical implications. METHOD: For N = 733 patients in six different forensic hospitals in Germany, the age at first psychiatric admission and the age at first registered offence were documented, as well as a number of other patient-related characteristics. Two clustering procedures were used to investigate whether forensic psychiatric patients could be classified according to these characteristics. RESULTS: A k-means cluster analysis using age at first psychiatric admission, age at first recorded offence, sociodemographic, clinical and criminological characteristics supported a 4-cluster solution. MANOVA analyses revealed further differences between the identified types. CONCLUSION: This study empirically confirms some of the sub-groups of the early and late starter typology described in the literature. In particular, the "early starters", "late starters" and "first presenters" were identified, but cluster four comprises individuals not previously described in the scientific literature. Each of these classes has group-specific characteristics that may have implications for forensic treatment, post-release aftercare, and the legal system.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Trastornos Mentales , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Psiquiatría Forense/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Conducta Criminal , Criminales/psicología , Pacientes , Alemania
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 31(4): e16197, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189625

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite it being an immunotherapy-responsive neurological syndrome, patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) frequently exhibit residual neurobehavioural features. Here, we report criminal behaviours as a serious and novel postencephalitic association. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 301 AE patients. Five of who committed crimes underwent direct assessments and records review alongside autoantibody studies. RESULTS: Five of 301 patients (1.7%) with AE exhibited criminal behaviours, which included viewing child pornography (n = 3), repeated shoplifting, and conspiracy to commit murder. All five were adult males, with LGI1 autoantibodies (n = 3), CASPR2 autoantibodies, or seronegative AE. None had evidence of premorbid antisocial personality traits or psychiatric disorders. Criminal behaviours began a median of 18 months (range = 15 months-12 years) after encephalitis onset. At the time of crimes, two patients were immunotherapy-naïve, three had been administered late immunotherapies (at 5 weeks-4 months), many neurobehavioural features persisted, and new obsessive behaviours had appeared. However, cognition, seizure, and disability measures had improved, alongside reduced autoantibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: Criminal behaviours are a rare, novel, and stigmatizing residual neurobehavioural phenotype in AE, with significant social and legal implications. With caution towards overattribution, we suggest they occur as part of a postencephalitis limbic neurobehavioural syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Autoinmunes del Sistema Nervioso , Encefalitis , Enfermedad de Hashimoto , Encefalitis Límbica , Adulto , Masculino , Niño , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Autoanticuerpos , Conducta Criminal
3.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(1): 119-125, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37807726

RESUMEN

Background: Medical marijuana legalization (MML) has been widely implemented in the past decade. However, the debates regarding the consequences of MML persist, especially criminal behaviors. Objectives: We examined the association between MML and criminal behaviors among adults in the United States. The criminal behaviors measured three past-year offenses: whether the adult (1) have sold illegal drugs, (2) have stolen anything worth > $50 USD, or (3) have attacked someone. Methods: Using the 2015-2020 National Survey of Drug Use and Health, we included 214,505 adults in our primary analysis for 2015-2019 and 27,170 adults in 2020 for supplemental analysis (age > = 18). Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between MML and three criminal behaviors. Results: In our primary analysis, we observed no statistically significant association between MML and the three outcomes of criminal behavior. Nevertheless, our supplemental analysis of the 2020 data showed MML was associated with increasing odds of the three criminal behaviors (have sold illegal drugs: AOR [adjusted odds ratio] = 1.7; have stolen anything worth > $50 USD: AOR = 1.9; have attacked someone: AOR = 1.8; all p < 0.05). Conclusion: Surveys from 2015 to 2019 did not suggest MML as a risk factor for higher incidence of criminal behaviors. However, 2020 data showed statistically significant association between MML and selected criminal behaviors. Issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the U.S. economic downturn, could potentially explain this discrepancy. Further research efforts may be warranted.


Asunto(s)
Drogas Ilícitas , Fumar Marihuana , Marihuana Medicinal , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Pandemias , Legislación de Medicamentos , Conducta Criminal , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(10)2023 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37893443

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to examine the function of various inflammation parameters and their interactions in the pathology of Bipolar disorder (BD) and to assess whether they could be biomarkers in the relationship between criminal behavior and BD. Materials and Methods: Overall, 1029 participants, including 343 patients with BD who have committed offenses, 343 nonoffending patients with BD, and 343 healthy controls, were included in this retrospective study. Neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet counts; high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) levels; systemic immune-inflammatory index (SII), systemic inflammatory response index (SIRI), neutrophil to high-density lipoprotein ratio (NHR), lymphocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio (LHR), monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR), platelet to high-density lipoprotein ratio (PHR) were measured. Results: Significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of SII, SIRI, NHR, LHR, MHR, PHR, neutrophil, and monocyte values (p < 0.001). The lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the patients with BD who committed offenses (p = 0.04). The platelet counts were significantly lower in the patients with BD who committed offenses compared to nonoffending patients with BD (p = 0.015). The HDL-c levels were significantly lower in the patients with BD who have committed offenses than those of nonoffending patients with BD (p < 0.001). Bipolar disorder, not receiving active psychiatric treatment, having a diagnosis of bipolar manic episodes, and having low platelet and HDL values constitute a risk of involvement in crime. Conclusions: The present study emphasizes the role of systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of patients with BD with and without criminal offenses and the relationship between inflammation and criminal behavior.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Inflamación/patología , Neutrófilos , Conducta Criminal , Lipoproteínas HDL
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 17160, 2023 10 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37821491

RESUMEN

We use a comprehensive longitudinal dataset on criminal acts over 6 years in a European country to study specialization in criminal careers. We present a method to cluster crime categories by their relative co-occurrence within criminal careers, deriving a natural, data-based taxonomy of criminal specialization. Defining specialists as active criminals who stay within one category of offending behavior, we study their socio-demographic attributes, geographic range, and positions in their collaboration networks relative to their generalist counterparts. Compared to generalists, specialists tend to be older, are more likely to be women, operate within a smaller geographic range, and collaborate in smaller, more tightly-knit local networks. We observe that specialists are more intensely embedded in criminal networks, suggesting a potential source of self-reinforcing dynamics in criminal careers.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Crimen , Conducta Criminal , Especialización , Europa (Continente)
6.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 34(3): 191-201, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37724645

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of primary (PCs) and secondary capacities (SCs) in individuals diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and the effects of these capacities on delinquent behaviors and anger levels. METHODS: 101 male patients aged 18 years and over with a diagnosis of ASPD were divided into two groups as those with a criminal ASPD (cASPD) diagnosis (n=37) and those with a non-criminal ASPD (ncASPD) diagnosis (n=64). Participants were evaluated using a sociodemographic form, Wiesbaden's Inventory of Positive Psychotherapy and Family Therapy (WIPPF-2) and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 22.0 program; significance level was taken as p0.05. RESULTS: PCs, SCs and anger control levels of people with ASPD were lower while trait anger, anger expression and anger import were higher than the control group. In cASPD, among the PCs, belief (ß=0.796, p=0.032), hope (ß=-1.069, p=0.011), relationship (ß=-0.980, p=0.007) and sexuality (ß=0.937, p=0.021) predicted anger-out, and among the SAs politeness (ß=-1.020, p=0.002) and reliability (ß=1.140, p=0.001) predicted trait anger level. In ncASPD, patience predicted anger-out (ß=-1.752, p=0.001) and anger control (ß=1.468, p=0.002); belief (ß=1.468, p=0.005) and trust (ß=-0.845, p=0.002) predicted anger control. CONCLUSIONS: Positive psychotherapy can be effective in improving PCs and SCs of individuals with ASPD, improving interpersonal relationships, reducing criminal behaviors, anger management and psychotherapeutic treatment of ASPD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/terapia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Conducta Criminal , Ira
7.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 197: 181-196, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37633709

RESUMEN

Behavioral changes are commonly observed in patients with dementia and can lead to criminal offenses, even without a history of criminal or antisocial behavior. Due to the growth of the aging population, this poses a rising problem to deal with for the criminal justice system and in general for society. Criminal behavior may include minor crimes such as theft or traffic violations, but also serious crimes such as physical abuse, sexual offense, or murder. In the assessment of criminal behavior among elderly (first-time) offenders, it is important to be aware of possible neurodegenerative diseases at the time of the crime. This book chapter provides an overview on criminal behavior in the elderly and specifically discusses existing literature on patients suffering from a neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson disease, and Huntington disease. Each section is introduced by a true case to illustrate how the presence of a neurodegenerative disease may affect the criminal judgment. The chapter ends with a summary, multifactorial model of crime risk, future perspectives, and concluding remarks.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Enfermedad de Huntington , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Anciano , Humanos , Conducta Criminal
8.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 197: 207-215, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37633711

RESUMEN

Over the past years, research has shown that virtual reality (VR) technology can be used to observe, interpret, and change human behavior and cognition in a variety of domains. This chapter explores the potential of VR as a tool to observe, interpret, and change human behavior and cognition as they relate to antisocial behavior. We review the criminological research literature as well as research literature from related disciplines on VR applications that has focused on observing and reducing antisocial behavior. The main findings of our review suggest that the key merits of VR in the domain of crime and antisocial behavior are its ability to provide safe learning environments that would otherwise involve risk, the possibility of generating ethical and ecologically valid virtual alternatives for real-life situations, and the development of stimuli that are impossible to create in real life. These unique characteristics make VR a promising tool to observe criminal behavior as it takes place and develop intervention programs to reduce antisocial behavior.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Criminal , Realidad Virtual , Humanos , Cognición , Aprendizaje
9.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 45: 176-183, 2023 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37544696

RESUMEN

OBJECTiVE: This study was planned to determine the relationship of functional remission with a criminal history and determine its effect on criminal behavior in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 132 patients with schizophrenia (66 with and 66 without a criminal history). Data were collected between November 2020 and April 2021 using a personal information form, the Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia (FROGS), the Taylor Crime Violence Rating Scale, the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to collect data. RESULTS: In terms of all scale variables, there were significant differences between the groups with and without a criminal history (p < 0.05). These differences were mostly clearly observed in the FROGS-social functionality (effect size: 16.79), PANSS-positive (effect size: 2.62) and FROGS-health and treatment (effect size: 2) subscales. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, it was determined that as the symptoms of the illness increased in schizophrenia, the patients' functional remission and insight decreased, and their tendency to commit crimes increased. Psychiatric nurses can plan therapeutic interventions to increase the functionality and insight levels of patients with schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Estudios Transversales , Conducta Criminal , Violencia , Cognición , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica
10.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 18(3): 147-153, 2023 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37038650

RESUMEN

According to the Swedish Ethics Review Act, research involving personal data on crimes should undergo independent ethics review. To explore the reporting of ethics approval, we extracted information from articles with Swedish personal data on crimes published in 2013-2021. Of the identified 298 articles, 92 (31%) failed to report ethics approval. Failures were particularly common in articles with a qualitative design, single or few authors and when there was a social science focus. Failures varied markedly between universities. We conclude that failures to report compulsory ethics approval are common in articles involving personal data on crime and that these failures vary markedly with the research setting. Several indicators of poor adherence to the Ethics Review Act have been identified.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Criminal , Comités de Ética en Investigación , Humanos , Suecia , Crimen
11.
Law Hum Behav ; 47(1): 217-232, 2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36931859

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to develop a framework to test for implicit racial bias in discretionary decisions made by community supervision agents in conditions with increasing information ambiguity. HYPOTHESES: We reasoned that as in-person contact decreases, community supervision officers' specific knowledge of clients would be replaced by heuristics that lead to racially disproportionate outcomes in higher discretion events. Officers' implicit biases would lead to disproportionately higher technical violation rates among Black community corrections' clients when they have less personal contact, but we expected no analogous increase in nondiscretionary decisions. METHOD: Using data from Black and White clients entering probation and postrelease supervision in North Carolina from 2012 through 2016, we estimated the difference in racial disparities in discretionary versus nondiscretionary decisions across five levels of supervision. We evaluated the robustness of our main fixed-effects model using an alternative regression discontinuity design. RESULTS: Racial disparities in discretionary decisions grew as supervision intensity decreased, and the bias was larger for women than men. There was no similar pattern of increased disparity for nondiscretionary decisions. CONCLUSIONS: Criminal justice system actors have a great deal of discretion, particularly in how they deal with less serious criminal behavior. Although decentralized decisions are foundational to the function of the criminal justice system, they provide an opportunity for implicit bias to seep in. Shortcuts and mental heuristics are more influential when the decision-maker's mental resources are already strained-for instance, if someone is tired, distracted, or overworked. Therefore, limiting discretion and increasing oversight and accountability may reduce the impact of implicit bias on criminal justice system outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Sesgo Implícito , Derecho Penal , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Grupos Raciales , Conducta Criminal , Población Negra
12.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 31(8): 598-606, 2023 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36872165

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore criminal behavior of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), or Lewy body dementias (LBD) after the diagnosis. DESIGN: Nationwide register study. SETTING: Information on diagnoses and criminality was received from Finnish registers. Crime types and incidences were compared between disorders and the general population. PARTICIPANTS: All Finnish individuals diagnosed with AD, LBD, or FTD (n = 92 189) during 1998-2015. MEASUREMENTS: Types of crimes and incidences, the standardized criminality ratio (SCR, number of actual crimes per number of expected crimes), numbers of observed cases, and person-years at risk counted in 5-year age groups and for both sexes and yearly. RESULTS: Among men, at least one crime was committed by 2.8% of AD, 7.2% of FTD, and 4.8% of LBD patients. Among women, the corresponding figures were 0.4%, 2.0%, and 2.1%. The most frequent type of crime was traffic offence, followed by property crime. After age adjustment, the relative number of crimes between groups did not differ, except that men with FTD and LBD committed more crimes than those with AD. The SCR (95% CI) among men were 0.40 (0.38-0.42) in AD, 0.45 (0.33-0.60) in FTD, and 0.52 (0.48-0.56) in LBD. Among women, these were 0.34 (0.30-0.38), 0.68 (0.39-1.09), and 0.59 (0.51-0.68). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of a neurocognitive disorder does not increase criminal behavior, but rather reduces it by up to 50%. Differences in crime activity are present between different neurocognitive disorders and between the sexes.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Demencia Frontotemporal , Enfermedad por Cuerpos de Lewy , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Demencia Frontotemporal/epidemiología , Finlandia/epidemiología , Conducta Criminal , Crimen/psicología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36982104

RESUMEN

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are common in community samples and are associated with various dysfunctional physical, psychological, and behavioral consequences. In this regard, criminal offenders are at specific risk, considering their elevated ACE rates compared with community samples and the associations of ACEs with criminal behaviors. However, assessing ACEs in offender samples by self-reports has been criticized with regard to their validity and reliability. We examined the suitability of ACE-self-reports using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in a sample of 231 male offenders involved in the German criminal justice system by comparing self-reported to externally rated ACEs to externally rated ACEs based on the information from the offenders' criminal and health-related files and on interviews conducted by forensically trained psychological/psychiatric experts. The accordance between self-ratings and expert ratings was examined considering mean differences, correlations, inter-rater agreement measures, and regression analyses. Offenders themselves reported a higher ACE burden than the one that was rated externally, but there was a strong relationship between CTQ self-assessments and external assessments. However, associations were stronger in offenders seen for risk assessment than in those evaluated for criminal responsibility. Overall, the CTQ seems suitable for use in forensic samples. However, reporting bias in self-reports of ACEs should be expected. Therefore, the combination of self-assessments and external assessments seems appropriate.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Criminales , Humanos , Masculino , Criminales/psicología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Conducta Criminal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 67(15): 1509-1525, 2023 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36896959

RESUMEN

The current study examined the association between psychopathy, criminal behavior, and the role of verbal intelligence. One promising approach is to examine alternative links between psychopathic traits and criminality like moderation and mediation effects by considering the potential relevance of verbal intelligence as a possible moderating variable. We hypothesized that psychopathic traits linearly predict antisocial behavior (ASB) but that a conviction because of ASB is moderated by verbal intelligence. To test a path model of this hypothesis, N = 305 participants (42% women; n = 172 inmates of German correctional facilities) filled in questionnaires to assess psychopathic traits, ASB, criminal behavior, and verbal intelligence. The moderated mediation analysis revealed that high psychopathic traits go along with a higher number of ASB, whereas individuals with higher verbal intelligence were more likely to evade detection, thus being more successful in their antisocial acts. These results sheds further light on the construct of adaptive psychopathy, supporting the notion that also non-incarcerated psychopathic individuals act highly antisocial. Only separate factors like verbal intelligence might mitigate negative consequences. Further implications for the concept of successful psychopathy are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial , Análisis de Mediación , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/diagnóstico , Crimen , Inteligencia , Conducta Criminal
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36901402

RESUMEN

The detrimental effects of social isolation on physical and mental health are well known. Social isolation is also known to be associated with criminal behavior, thus burdening not only the affected individual but society in general. Forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) are at a particularly high risk for lacking social integration and support due to their involvement with the criminal justice system and their severe mental illness. The present study aims to exploratively evaluate factors associated with social isolation in a unique sample of forensic psychiatric patients with SSD using supervised machine learning (ML) in a sample of 370 inpatients. Out of >500 possible predictor variables, 5 emerged as most influential in the ML model: attention disorder, alogia, crime motivated by ego disturbances, total PANSS score, and a history of negative symptoms. With a balanced accuracy of 69% and an AUC of 0.74, the model showed a substantial performance in differentiating between patients with and without social isolation. The findings show that social isolation in forensic psychiatric patients with SSD is mainly influenced by factors related to illness and psychopathology instead of factors related to the committed offences, e.g., the severity of the crime.


Asunto(s)
Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Crimen/psicología , Conducta Criminal , Aislamiento Social , Aprendizaje Automático
16.
Lancet Public Health ; 8(2): e99-e108, 2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709062

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A socioeconomically disadvantaged childhood has been associated with elevated self-harm and violent criminality risks during adolescence and young adulthood. However, whether these risks are modified by a neighbourhood's socioeconomic profile is unclear. The aim of our study was to compare risks among disadvantaged young people residing in deprived areas versus risks among similarly disadvantaged individuals residing in affluent areas. METHODS: We did a national cohort study, using Danish interlinked national registers, from which we delineated a longitudinal cohort of people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1981, and Dec 31, 2001, with two Danish-born parents, who were alive and residing in the country when they were aged 15 years, who were followed up for a hospital-treated self-harm episode or violent crime conviction. A neighbourhood affluence indicator was derived based on nationwide income quartiles, with parental income and educational attainment indicating the socioeconomic position of each cohort member's family. Bayesian multilevel survival analyses were done to examine the moderating influences of neighbourhood affluence on associations between family socioeconomic position and sex-specific risks for the two adverse outcomes. FINDINGS: 1 084 047 cohort members were followed up for 12·8 million person-years in aggregate. Individuals of a low socioeconomic position residing in deprived neighbourhoods had a higher incidence of both self-harm and violent criminality compared with equivalently disadvantaged peers residing in affluent areas. Women from a low-income background residing in affluent areas had, on average, 95 (highest density interval 76-118) fewer self-harm episodes and 25 (15-41) fewer violent crime convictions per 10 000 person-years compared with women of an equally low income residing in deprived areas, whereas men of a low income residing in affluent areas had 61 (39-81) fewer self-harm episodes and 88 (56-191) fewer violent crime convictions per 10 000 person-years than men of a low income residing in deprived areas. INTERPRETATION: Even in a high-income European country with comprehensive social welfare and low levels of poverty and inequality, individuals residing in affluent neighbourhoods have lower risks of self-harm and violent criminality compared with individuals residing in deprived neighbourhoods. More research is needed to explore the potential of neighbourhood policies and interventions to reduce the harmful effects of growing up in socioeconomically deprived circumstances on later risk of self-harm and violent crime convictions. FUNDING: European Research Council, Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, and BERTHA, the Danish Big Data Centre for Environment and Health funded by the Novo Nordisk Foundation Challenge Programme.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Autodestructiva , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Teorema de Bayes , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Conducta Criminal , Pobreza , Dinamarca/epidemiología
17.
Child Abuse Negl ; 139: 105422, 2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895732

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Dakar and other urban centres in Senegal, young boys begging in the streets are commonly assumed to be talibés, or students of the Qur'an. OBJECTIVE: This study intends to explore the boundaries of the discursive construction of talibés (who beg) in Senegal. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 72 participants including Qur'anic teachers, staff and volunteers of international, national and local NGOs and associations, and representatives of state structures and international institutions, in Dakar, Rufisque and Saint Louis, Senegal. METHODS: This qualitative study is based on doctoral field research conducted during the period of October 2017-July 2018. The main method of enquiry was semi-structured interviews and group discussions (n = 62), supplemented with observation and document review. RESULTS: The findings demonstrate the following themes: firstly, the category of talibé is often assumed to refer to those who beg, despite recognition that many children studying the Qur'an do not beg. Secondly, children who are assumed not to be learning the Qur'an are frequently still labelled as talibés. Thirdly, talibés who beg are differentiated from other boys who beg on the basis of assumptions of criminality (of others) and control (over talibés). CONCLUSIONS: Although talibé is understood to mean student of the Qur'an, those who beg all day and purportedly do not learn the Qur'an at all have come to be the dominant representation of a talibé used in development discourse. This has implications for the collection of data about these children as well as the interventions designed in response to this problematisation.


Asunto(s)
Personal Docente , Islamismo , Masculino , Niño , Humanos , Senegal , Conducta Criminal , Aprendizaje
18.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(9-10): 6624-6649, 2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404751

RESUMEN

Live streaming of child sexual abuse (CSA) involves the procurement and viewing of sexual abuse of children across the internet in real time, in exchange for money. These offenses leave little tangible evidence of the offense beyond a financial transaction, and metadata relating to the live-streaming session. This research analyzed the demographic, criminal history, and financial transaction characteristics of 209 individuals who live streamed child sexual abuse. A machine learning clustering technique was implemented to consider whether there were sub-groups present among these offenders, and in particular the prevalence of contact sexual offending among any detected sub-groups. Findings revealed that offenders tend to engage in live streaming around the same age, before making regular transactions with facilitators at brief intervals, with the majority of offenders featuring limited criminal history. This analysis identified a notable sub-group of live-streaming offenders that also engaged in contact sexual offending. This is the first study to empirically demonstrate an intersection between live streaming of CSA, and contact sexual offenses against children and adults. This research highlighted the importance of financial transactions data in detecting, and disrupting this crime type. Further, the identification of an intersection between live-streaming CSA offenders, and contact sexual offenders suggests that these individuals may pose a risk to both local and international communities.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil , Conducta Criminal , Criminales , Uso de Internet , Conducta Sexual , Abuso Sexual Infantil/clasificación , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Criminales/clasificación , Criminales/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Aprendizaje Automático , Conducta Criminal/clasificación , Comunicación por Videoconferencia , Demografía , Análisis de Clases Latentes
19.
Child Abuse Negl ; 135: 105989, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528935

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The relationship between child maltreatment and later delinquency is an enduring concern worldwide. However, the maltreatment-delinquency relationship is relatively underexplored in youth gang populations. Consequently, to date, studies have not examined typologies of maltreatment and their associations with violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and gang organizational structures. OBJECTIVE: First, to identify the characteristics of subgroups of youth gang members who varied in abuse type and severity within type. Second, to determine in what ways the profiles differed in terms of gang organizational structures, violent delinquency, and non-violent delinquency. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A sample of 161 youth gang members (mean age: 16.8; range: 12-24) were recruited and surveyed by outreach social workers in Hong Kong. METHODS: Latent profile analysis was first used to examine heterogeneity in victimization experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect). Thereafter, non-parametric tests and post-hoc analyses were conducted to examine associations between the yielded typologies of maltreatment and gang organizational structures, violent delinquency, and non-violent delinquency. RESULTS: Poly-victimization was prevalent in the sample, with 148 respondents (91.9 %) reporting at least two types of past abuses. Three profiles of maltreatment emerged, varying in abuse types and severity within types: 'Minimally maltreated', 'Moderately maltreated, except sexual abuse', and 'Severely maltreated'. In comparison to the 'Minimal' maltreatment profile, the 'Moderate' and 'Severe' profiles were associated with greater delinquent behaviors and being in gangs that encouraged congregate illegal behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: There was a relationship between typologies of maltreatment and gang organizational structures, violent delinquency, and non-violent delinquency in the sample of youth gang members. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Delincuencia Juvenil , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Agresión , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Conducta Criminal , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Grupo Paritario , Adulto Joven
20.
Am J Addict ; 32(1): 40-46, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398436

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gambling disorder has been associated with illegal behaviors; however, research using validated scales and in-person assessments has been less common. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-seven people with gambling disorders taking part in clinical trials completed multiple instruments and select cognitive tasks. Two groups were identified: those with illegal behaviors linked to gambling disorder and those without. Differences between the groups were examined. RESULTS: 43.3% of people with gambling disorders reported gambling-related illegal behaviors. Illegal behaviors were associated with earlier gambling symptom onset, higher levels of depressive symptoms, worse quality of life, and higher non-planning impulsivity. In those with illegal behaviors, the most common activities reported were writing bad checks/paying bills from accounts that no longer had funds (75.1%), and theft (9.6%). People with illegal gambling-related behaviors did not differ from those without, in terms of levels of symptom severity, or likelihood of responding to treatment in the subsequent clinical trials. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Illegal behaviors are commonplace in people with gambling disorders and linked to worse quality of life, but people with gambling-related illegal behaviors respond to core treatments to the same extent as people without these behaviors. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The findings from this study extend previous research and support the novel notion that rather than more intensive treatment being indicated for gambling disorders linked to illegal activities, it may be prudent to consider illegal behaviors as part of a wider profile of gambling-related harms that merit interventions in their own right.


Asunto(s)
Juego de Azar , Humanos , Juego de Azar/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Conducta Impulsiva , Conducta Criminal
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