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1.
Viral Immunol ; 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574259

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus associated with several neurological diseases such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and microcephaly in newborn children. Its distribution and mode of transmission (via Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes) collectively cause ZIKV to be a serious concern for global health. High genetic homology of flaviviruses and shared ecology is a hurdle for accurate detection. Distinguishing infections caused by different viruses based on serological recognition can be misleading as many anti-flavivirus monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) discovered to date are highly cross-reactive, especially those against the envelope (E) protein. To provide more specific research tools, we produced ZIKV E directed hybridoma cell lines and characterized two highly ZIKV-specific mAb clones (mAbs A11 and A42) against several members of the Flavivirus genus. Epitope mapping of mAb A11 revealed glycan loop specificity in Domain I of the ZIKV E protein. The development of two highly specific mAbs targeting the surface fusion protein of ZIKV presents a significant advancement in research capabilities as these can be employed as essential tools to enhance our understanding of ZIKV identification on infected cells ex vivo or in culture.

2.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585896

RESUMEN

Subgenomic flavivirus RNAs (sfRNAs) are structured RNA elements encoded in the 3'-UTR of flaviviruses that promote viral infection by inhibiting cellular RNA decay machinery. Herein, we analyze the production of sfRNAs using single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (smRNA-FISH) and super-resolution microscopy during West Nile virus, Zika virus, or Dengue virus serotype 2 infection. We show that sfRNAs are initially localized diffusely in the cytosol or in processing bodies (P-bodies). However, upon activation of the host antiviral endoribonuclease, Ribonuclease L (RNase L), nearly all sfRNAs re-localize to antiviral biological condensates known as RNase L-induced bodies (RLBs). RLB-mediated sequestration of sfRNAs reduces sfRNA association with RNA decay machinery in P-bodies, which coincides with increased viral RNA decay. These findings establish a role of RLBs in promoting viral RNA decay, demonstrating the complex host-pathogen interactions at the level of RNA decay and biological condensation. Highlights: Single-molecule imaging of sfRNA production and localizationsfRNAs localize to RNase L-induced bodiesRNase L-induced bodies sequester sfRNAs away from P-bodiesSequestration of sfRNAs by RNase L-induced bodies enhances decay of viral genomes.

3.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 177, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575981

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vertical transmission (VT) of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) can serve as an essential link in the transmission cycle during adverse environmental conditions. The extent of VT among mosquito-borne arboviruses can vary significantly among different virus families and even among different viruses within the same genus. For example, orthobunyaviruses exhibit a higher VT rate than orthoflaviviruses and alphaviruses. Mosquitoes are also the natural hosts of a large number of insect-specific viruses (ISV) that belong to several virus families, including Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae. Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV), an insect-specific orthoflavivirus, displays higher VT rates than other dual-host orthoflaviviruses, such as Zika and dengue viruses. High VT rates require establishment of stabilized infections in the germinal tissues of female vectors. To delve deeper into understanding the mechanisms governing these differences in VT rates and the establishment of stabilized infections, the ovary infection patterns and VT of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CFAV were compared. METHODS: Laboratory colonized Aedes aegypti females were infected with either ZIKV or CFAV by intrathoracic injection. Ovary infection patterns were monitored by in situ hybridization using virus-specific probes, and VT was determined by detecting the presence of the virus among the progeny, using a reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. RESULTS: Both ZIKV and CFAV infect mosquito ovaries after intrathoracic injection. Infections then become widespread following a non-infectious blood meal. VT rates of ZIKV are similar to previously reported results (3.33%). CFAV, on the contrary transmits vertically very rarely. VT was not observed in the first gonotrophic cycle following intrathoracic injection, and only rarely in the second gonotrophic cycle. VT of CFAV is mosquito population independent, since similar results were obtained with Aedes aegypti collected from two different geographic locations. CONCLUSIONS: Although CFAV infects mosquito ovaries, the occurrence of VT remains infrequent in artificially infected Ae. aegypti, despite the observation of high VT rates in field-collected mosquitoes. These results suggest that infections of insect-specific viruses are stabilized in mosquitoes by some as yet unidentified mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Arbovirus , Virus de Insectos , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Femenino , Animales , Mosquitos Vectores
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573394

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Over the past decade, the Amazon basin has faced numerous infectious epidemics. Our comprehension of the actual extent of these infections during pregnancy remains limited. This study aimed to clarify the clinical and epidemiological features of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases during pregnancy in western French Guiana and along the Maroni River over the previous nine years. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study enrolled pregnant women living in west French Guiana territory and giving birth in the only local referral center after 22 weeks of gestation between 2013 and 2021. Data on symptomatic or asymptomatic biologically confirmed emerging or re-emerging diseases during pregnancy was collected. RESULTS: Six epidemic waves were experienced during the study period, including 498 confirmed Zika virus infections (2016), 363 SARS-CoV-2 infections (2020-2021), 87 chikungunya virus infections (2014), 76 syphilis infections (2013-2021), and 60 dengue virus infections (2013-2021) at different gestational ages. Furthermore, 1.1% (n = 287) and 1.4% (n = 350) of pregnant women in west French Guiana were living with HIV and HTLV, respectively. During the study period, at least 5.5% (n = 1,371) faced an emerging or re-emerging infection during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the diversity, abundance, and dynamism of emerging and re-emerging infectious agents faced by pregnant women in the Amazon basin. Considering the maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes associated with these infections, increased efforts are required to enhance diagnosis, reporting, and treatment of these conditions.

5.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(4): e1011975, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557892

RESUMEN

Arboviruses can emerge rapidly and cause explosive epidemics of severe disease. Some of the most epidemiologically important arboviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, most notably Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. After a mosquito blood feeds on an infected host, virus enters the midgut and infects the midgut epithelium. The virus must then overcome a series of barriers before reaching the mosquito saliva and being transmitted to a new host. The virus must escape from the midgut (known as the midgut escape barrier; MEB), which is thought to be mediated by transient changes in the permeability of the midgut-surrounding basal lamina layer (BL) following blood feeding. Here, we present a mathematical model of the within-mosquito population dynamics of DENV (as a model system for mosquito-borne viruses more generally) that includes the interaction of the midgut and BL which can account for the MEB. Our results indicate a dose-dependency of midgut establishment of infection as well as rate of escape from the midgut: collectively, these suggest that the extrinsic incubation period (EIP)-the time taken for DENV virus to be transmissible after infection-is shortened when mosquitoes imbibe more virus. Additionally, our experimental data indicate that multiple blood feeding events, which more closely mimic mosquito-feeding behavior in the wild, can hasten the course of infections, and our model predicts that this effect is sensitive to the amount of virus imbibed. Our model indicates that mutations to the virus which impact its replication rate in the midgut could lead to even shorter EIPs when double-feeding occurs. Mechanistic models of within-vector viral infection dynamics provide a quantitative understanding of infection dynamics and could be used to evaluate novel interventions that target the mosquito stages of the infection.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012053, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557981

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne arboviruses are expanding their territory and elevating their infection prevalence due to the rapid climate change, urbanization, and increased international travel and global trade. Various significant arboviruses, including the dengue virus, Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, and yellow fever virus, are all reliant on the same primary vector, Aedes aegypti. Consequently, the occurrence of arbovirus coinfection in mosquitoes is anticipated. Arbovirus coinfection in mosquitoes has two patterns: simultaneous and sequential. Numerous studies have demonstrated that simultaneous coinfection of arboviruses in mosquitoes is unlikely to exert mutual developmental influence on these viruses. However, the viruses' interplay within a mosquito after the sequential coinfection seems intricated and not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted experiments aimed at examining the phenomenon of arbovirus sequential coinfection in both mosquito cell line (C6/36) and A. aegypti, specifically focusing on dengue virus (DENV, serotype 2) and Zika virus (ZIKV). We firstly observed that DENV and ZIKV can sequentially infect mosquito C6/36 cell line, but the replication level of the subsequently infected ZIKV was significantly suppressed. Similarly, A. aegypti mosquitoes can be sequentially coinfected by these two arboviruses, regardless of the order of virus exposure. However, the replication, dissemination, and the transmission potential of the secondary virus were significantly inhibited. We preliminarily explored the underlying mechanisms, revealing that arbovirus-infected mosquitoes exhibited activated innate immunity, disrupted lipid metabolism, and enhanced RNAi pathway, leading to reduced susceptibility to the secondary arbovirus infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that, in contrast to simultaneous arbovirus coinfection in mosquitoes that can promote the transmission and co-circulation of these viruses, sequential coinfection appears to have limited influence on arbovirus transmission dynamics. However, it is important to note that more experimental investigations are needed to refine and expand upon this conclusion.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Arbovirus , Coinfección , Virus del Dengue , Dengue , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Animales , Coinfección/epidemiología , Mosquitos Vectores , Dengue/epidemiología
7.
J Virol ; : e0019424, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567950

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that caused an epidemic in the Americas in 2016 and is linked to severe neonatal birth defects, including microcephaly and spontaneous abortion. To better understand the host response to ZIKV infection, we adapted the 10× Genomics Chromium single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) assay to simultaneously capture viral RNA and host mRNA. Using this assay, we profiled the antiviral landscape in a population of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells infected with ZIKV at the single-cell level. The bystander cells, which lacked detectable viral RNA, expressed an antiviral state that was enriched for genes coinciding predominantly with a type I interferon (IFN) response. Within the infected cells, viral RNA negatively correlated with type I IFN-dependent and -independent genes (the antiviral module). We modeled the ZIKV-specific antiviral state at the protein level, leveraging experimentally derived protein interaction data. We identified a highly interconnected network between the antiviral module and other host proteins. In this work, we propose a new paradigm for evaluating the antiviral response to a specific virus, combining an unbiased list of genes that highly correlate with viral RNA on a per-cell basis with experimental protein interaction data. IMPORTANCE: Zika virus (ZIKV) remains a public health threat given its potential for re-emergence and the detrimental fetal outcomes associated with infection during pregnancy. Understanding the dynamics between ZIKV and its host is critical to understanding ZIKV pathogenesis. Through ZIKV-inclusive single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), we demonstrate on the single-cell level the dynamic interplay between ZIKV and the host: the transcriptional program that restricts viral infection and ZIKV-mediated inhibition of that response. Our ZIKV-inclusive scRNA-seq assay will serve as a useful tool for gaining greater insight into the host response to ZIKV and can be applied more broadly to the flavivirus field.

8.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559148

RESUMEN

The contact structure between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors plays a key role in the spread of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses); thus, it is important to determine whether arbovirus infection of either host or vector alters vector feeding behavior. Here we leveraged a study of the replication dynamics of two arboviruses isolated from their ancestral cycles in paleotropical forests, sylvatic dengue-2 (DENV-2) and Zika (ZIKV), in one non-human primate (NHP) species from the paleotropics (cynomolgus macaques, Macaca fascicularis) and one from the neotropics (squirrel monkeys, Saimiri boliviensis) to test the effect of both vector and host infection with each virus on completion of blood feeding (engorgement) of the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Although mosquitoes were starved and given no choice of hosts, engorgement rates varied dramatically, from 0% to 100%. While neither vector nor host infection systematically affected engorgement, NHP species and body temperature at the time of feeding did. We also interrogated the effect of repeated mosquito bites on cytokine expression and found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) concentrations were dynamically associated with exposure to mosquito bites. This study highlights the importance of incorporating individual-level heterogeneity of vector biting in arbovirus transmission models.

9.
Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol ; 10(1): 7, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561854

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite maternal flavivirus infections' linkage to severe maternal and fetal outcomes, surveillance during pregnancy remains limited globally. Further complicating maternal screening for these potentially teratogenic pathogens is the overwhelming subclinical nature of acute infection. This study aimed to understand perinatal and neonatal risk for poor health outcomes associated with flaviviral infection during pregnancy in El Salvador. METHODS: Banked serologic samples and clinical results obtained from women presenting for labor and delivery at a national referent hospital in western El Salvador March to September 2022 were used for this study. 198 samples were screened for dengue and Zika virus IgM, and statistical analyses analyzed demographic and clinical outcome associations with IgM positivity. RESULTS: This serosurvey revealed a high rate of maternal flavivirus infection-24.2% of women presenting for labor and delivery were dengue or Zika virus IgM positive, suggesting potential infection within pregnancy. Specifically, 20.2% were Zika virus IgM positive, 1.5% were dengue virus IgM positive, and 2.5% were both dengue and Zika virus IgM positive. Women whose home had received mosquito abatement assistance within the last year by the ministry of health were 70% less likely to test IgM positive (aOR = 0.30, 95%CI: 0.10, 0.83). Further, statistical geospatial clustering revealed transmission foci in six primary municipalities. Pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes were noted among the dengue and/or Zika virus maternal infection group, although these outcomes were not statistically different than the seronegative group. None of the resulting neonates born during this study were diagnosed with congenital Zika syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of Zika virus detected among pregnant women and the lack of Zika-specific neonatal outcomes monitoring during a non-outbreak year highlights the need for continued surveillance in Central America and among immigrant mothers presenting for childbirth from these countries. As changing climatic conditions continue to expand the range of the disease vector, asymptomatic screening programs could be vital to early identification of outbreaks and clinical management of cases.

10.
Med Educ Online ; 29(1): 2336331, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577972

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Medical school educators face challenges determining which new and emerging topics to incorporate into medical school curricula, and how to do so. A study was conducted to gain a better understanding of the integration of emerging topics related to microbiology and immunology in the undergraduate medical curriculum (UME). METHODS: An anonymous survey with 17 questions was emailed to medical school faculty who teach immunology and/or microbiology through the DR-Ed listserv, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Connect listserv, and attendees of the Association of Medical School Microbiology and Immunology Chairs (AMSMIC) Educational Strategies Workshop. Participants were asked about experiences, perceptions, and the decision-making process regarding integrating emerging topics into UME. RESULTS: The top emerging topics that were added to the curriculum or considered for addition in the last 10 years included COVID-19, Zika virus, mRNA vaccines, and Mpox (formerly known as monkeypox). Most respondents reported lectures and active learning as the major methods for topic delivery, with most faculty indicating that formative assessment was the best way to assess emerging topics. Content experts and course directors were the most cited individuals making these decisions. Top reasons for incorporating emerging topics into curricula included preparing students for clinical treatment of cases, followed by demonstrating the importance of basic science, and opportunities to integrate basic science into other disciplines. Challenges for incorporating these topics included making room in an already crowded curriculum, followed by content overload for students. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the rationale for integrating emerging topics related to microbiology and immunology into UME, and identifies the current new and emerging topics, as well as the main methods of integration and assessment. These results may be used by medical educators to inform curricular decisions at their institutions. Future studies will include developing innovative learning modules that overcome barriers to integration.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Curriculum , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas
11.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 133, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592489

RESUMEN

Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been associated with severe clinical outcomes, which may include neurological manifestations, especially in newborns with intrauterine infection. However, licensed vaccines and specific antiviral agents are not yet available. Therefore, a safe and low-cost therapy is required, especially for pregnant women. In this regard, metformin, an FDA-approved drug used to treat gestational diabetes, has previously exhibited an anti-ZIKA effect in vitro in HUVEC cells by activating AMPK. In this study, we evaluated metformin treatment during ZIKV infection in vitro in a JEG3-permissive trophoblast cell line. Our results demonstrate that metformin affects viral replication and protein synthesis and reverses cytoskeletal changes promoted by ZIKV infection. In addition, it reduces lipid droplet formation, which is associated with lipogenic activation of infection. Taken together, our results indicate that metformin has potential as an antiviral agent against ZIKV infection in vitro in trophoblast cells.


Asunto(s)
Metformina , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Infección por el Virus Zika/tratamiento farmacológico , Línea Celular Tumoral , Trofoblastos , Antivirales/farmacología , Metformina/farmacología
12.
Biologicals ; 86: 101765, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593685

RESUMEN

Yellow fever (YF) is one of the most acute viral hemorrhagic diseases of the 18th and 19th centuries, which continues to cause severe morbidity and mortality in Africa. After 21 years of no reported cases of yellow fever in Nigeria, till 2017 where a case was confirmed in Kwara State, also in November 2018,WHO was informed of a cluster of suspected yellow fever cases and deaths in Edo state, Nigeria. The study was among all age group attending health centres in Benin City, Edo state. A total of 280 blood samples were collected from consented febrile patients and were screened for antibodies to Zika virus using rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits. Blood samples positive to Zika virus (IgM/IgG RDT), were subjected to molecular characterization. Using the flavividae family primers, six (6) samples where confirmed positive by Hemi-nested reverse transcription PCR (hnRT-PCR) sequencing. Nucleotide sequence blast revealed the sequenceswere similar to Yellow fever virus strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the yellow fever virus sequences are closely related to the African strains. Despite the safe and effective yellow fever vaccine, yellow fever virus is seen to be in circulation, hence the need for continues mass vaccination.

13.
IJID Reg ; 11: 100360, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596820

RESUMEN

Objectives: Our study targets the potential of the local urban mosquito Aedes aegypti to experimentally transmit chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). Methods: We collected eggs and adults of Ae. aegypti in Medellín, Colombia (from February to March 2020) for mosquito experimental infections with DENV, CHIKV, YFV and ZIKV and viral detection using the BioMark Dynamic arrays system. Results: We show that Ae. aegypti from Medellín was more prone to become infected, to disseminate and transmit CHIKV and ZIKV than DENV and YFV. Conclusions: Thus, in Colombia, chikungunya is the most serious threat to public health based on our vector competence data.

14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012077, 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598549

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fever is the most frequent symptom in patients seeking care in South and Southeast Asia. The introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria continues to drive patient management and care. Malaria-negative cases are commonly treated with antibiotics without confirmation of bacteraemia. Conventional laboratory tests for differential diagnosis require skilled staff and appropriate access to healthcare facilities. In addition, introducing single-disease RDTs instead of conventional laboratory tests remains costly. To overcome some of the delivery challenges of multiple separate tests, a multiplexed RDT with the capacity to diagnose a diverse range of tropical fevers would be a cost-effective solution. In this study, a multiplex lateral flow immunoassay (DPP Fever Panel II Assay) that can detect serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) and specific microbial antigens of common fever agents in Asia (Orientia tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi, Leptospira spp., Burkholderia pseudomallei, Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus), was evaluated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Whole blood (WB) and serum samples from 300 patients with undefined febrile illness (UFI) recruited in Vientiane, Laos PDR were tested using the DPP Fever Panel II, which consists of an Antibody panel and Antigen panel. To compare reader performance, results were recorded using two DPP readers, DPP Micro Reader (Micro Reader 1) and DPP Micro Reader Next Generation (Micro Reader 2). WB and serum samples were run on the same fever panel and read on both micro readers in order to compare results. ROC analysis and equal variance analysis were performed to inform the diagnostic validity of the test compared against the respective reference standards of each fever agent (S1 Table). Overall better AUC values were observed in whole blood results. No significant difference in AUC performance was observed when comparing whole blood and serum sample testing, except for when testing for R. typhi IgM (p = 0.04), Leptospira IgM (p = 0.02), and Dengue IgG (p = 0.03). Linear regression depicted R2 values had ~70% agreement across WB and serum samples, except when testing for leptospirosis and Zika, where the R2 values were 0.37 and 0.47, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the performance of Micro Reader 1 and Micro Reader 2, except when testing for the following pathogens: Zika IgM, Zika IgG, and B pseudomallei CPS Ag. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that the diagnostic accuracy of the DPP Fever Panel II is comparable to that of commonly used RDTs. The optimal cut-off would depend on the use of the test and the desired sensitivity and specificity. Further studies are required to authenticate the use of these cut-offs in other endemic regions. This multiplex RDT offers diagnostic benefits in areas with limited access to healthcare and has the potential to improve field testing capacities. This could improve tropical fever management and reduce the public health burden in endemic low-resource areas.

15.
Virol Sin ; 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599520

RESUMEN

Infectious diseases caused by arboviruses are a public health concern in Pakistan. However, the studies on data prevalence and threats posed by arboviruses are limited. This study investigated the seroprevalence of arboviruses in a healthy population in Pakistan, including severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Tamdy virus (TAMV), and Karshi virus (KSIV) based on a newly established luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) assays, and Zika virus (ZIKV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Neutralizing activities against these arboviruses were further examined from the antibody positive samples. The results showed that the seroprevalence of SFTSV, CCHFV, TAMV, KSIV, and ZIKV was 17.37%, 7.58%, 4.41%, 1.10%, and 6.48%, respectively, and neutralizing to SFTSV (1.79%), CCHFV (2.62%), and ZIKV (0.69%) were identified, as well as to the SFTSV-related Guertu virus (GTV, 0.83%). Risk factors associated with the incidence of exposure and levels of antibody response were analysed. Moreover, co-exposure to different arboviruses was demonstrated, as thirty-seven individuals were having antibodies to multiple viruses and thirteen showed neutralizing activity. Males, individuals aged ≤ 40 years, and outdoor workers had high risk of exposure to arboviruses. All these results reveal the substantial risks of infection with arboviruses in Pakistan, and indicate the threat from co-exposure to multiple arboviruses. The findings raise the need for further epidemiologic investigation in expanded regions and populations and the necessity to improve health surveillance in Pakistan.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(16): e2317978121, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593069

RESUMEN

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) cause hundreds of millions of infections annually. The single-stranded RNA genome of flaviviruses is translated into a polyprotein, which is cleaved equally into individual functional proteins. While structural proteins are packaged into progeny virions and released, most of the nonstructural proteins remain intracellular and could become cytotoxic if accumulated over time. However, the mechanism by which nonstructural proteins are maintained at the levels optimal for cellular fitness and viral replication remains unknown. Here, we identified that the ubiquitin E3 ligase HRD1 is essential for flaviviruses infections in both mammalian hosts and mosquitoes. HRD1 directly interacts with flavivirus NS4A and ubiquitylates a conserved lysine residue for ER-associated degradation. This mechanism avoids excessive accumulation of NS4A, which otherwise interrupts the expression of processed flavivirus proteins in the ER. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of HRD1 named LS-102 effectively interrupts DENV2 infection in both mice and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and significantly disturbs DENV transmission from the infected hosts to mosquitoes owing to reduced viremia. Taken together, this study demonstrates that flaviviruses have evolved a sophisticated mechanism to exploit the ubiquitination system to balance the homeostasis of viral proteins for their own advantage and provides a potential therapeutic target to interrupt flavivirus infection and transmission.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Infecciones por Flavivirus , Flavivirus , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Animales , Ratones , Flavivirus/genética , Virus Zika/genética , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ligasas/metabolismo , Proteínas Virales/metabolismo , Mamíferos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594795

RESUMEN

Abstract: Timor-Leste is a mountainous, half-island nation with a population of 1.3 million, which shares a land border with Indonesia and is 550 km from Darwin, Australia. Since independence in 2002, Timor-Leste has achieved significant development; however, high levels of poverty remain. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is endemic in over 100 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and in the Americas. It is transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes aegypti or Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, which are present in Timor-Leste and which contribute to annual rainy-season dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks. Symptomatic people typically suffer from acute onset of fever, usually accompanied by severe arthritis or arthralgia. Joint pain can be debilitating for several days, and may sometimes last for weeks, months or years. Unlike DENV infection which has significant mortality, most people recover completely. Between 2002 and 2023, there were 26 cases of CHIKV notified in Australia who acquired their infection in Timor-Leste; however, laboratory testing capability for CHIKV in Timor-Leste only became available in 2021 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The first locally diagnosed case was notified in November 2023. In January 2024, an outbreak of CHIKV was recognised in Timor-Leste for the first time, with 195 outbreak cases reported during 1-31 January 2024; all were PCR positive. There were no cases hospitalised, and no deaths. The median age of cases was 17 years (range 1-76 years); 51% were males. Cases were reported across the country; most (88/195) were from Dili, although the highest incidence was seen in the neighbouring municipality of Ermera (monthly incidence rate of 58.8 cases per 100,000 population). This first reported outbreak of CHIKV in Timor-Leste highlights the need for improved mosquito-borne illness control and response strategies, including minimising breeding sites and promoting early presentation for treatment and differential diagnosis from DENV, and consideration of the deployment of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, particularly as they have shown to reduce the transmission of CHIKV, DENV and Zika virus, all of which pose threats in Timor-Leste.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Chikungunya , Virus Chikungunya , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Masculino , Animales , Humanos , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , Timor Oriental/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , Virus Chikungunya/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521608

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cord blood units (CBUs) that are ineligible for licensure due to incomplete compliance with FDA recommendations may be used for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation under urgent medical need and an Investigational Drug Application. The largest reason for CBU donor ineligibility is Zika virus (ZIKV) risk. The study's objective was to analyze the impact of current FDA recommendations for ZIKA risk on a large public cord blood bank and propose updated recommendations. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of Carolinas Cord Blood Bank (CCBB), an FDA licensed public CBB, using data from January 1, 2016 to November 21, 2023 and compared FDA recommendations for transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) for blood products and relevant communicable disease agents or diseases for human cell, tissue, or cellular or tissue-based products (HCT/Ps). RESULTS: CCBB: 9057 (84.3% licensed) CBUs were banked. 984/1682 (58.5%) of unlicensed CBUs had ZIKV risk. 22.0% of CBUs with ZIKV risk were from Hispanic parents, compared to 16.1% of all units. 31 of IND CBUs (11 due to ZIKV risk without reported ZIKV transmission) were safely infused. FDA Guidance: HCT/P ZIKV, HIV, and vCJD recommendations have not been updated since 2018 in contrast to FDA removal of ZIKV as a relevant TTI in 2021 and updating HIV and vCJD guidance related to TTI in 2023 and 2022, respectively. DISCUSSION: The FDA should consider new data to revise the HCT/P donor eligibility recommendations, which will increase the number of eligible HCT/P donors, and potentially improve access to therapies for a more diverse patient population.

19.
Virology ; 594: 110042, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492519

RESUMEN

High variability and adaptability of RNA viruses allows them to spread between humans and animals, causing large-scale infectious diseases which seriously threat human and animal health and social development. At present, AIDS, viral hepatitis and other viral diseases with high incidence and low cure rate are still spreading around the world. The outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, dengue and in particular of the global pandemic of COVID-19 have presented serious challenges to the global public health system. The development of highly effective and broad-spectrum antiviral drugs is a substantial and urgent research subject to deal with the current RNA virus infection and the possible new viral infections in the future. In recent years, with the rapid development of modern disciplines such as artificial intelligence technology, bioinformatics, molecular biology, and structural biology, some new strategies and targets for antivirals development have emerged. Here we review the main strategies and new targets for developing small-molecule antiviral drugs against RNA viruses through the analysis of the new drug development progress against several highly pathogenic RNA viruses, to provide clues for development of future antivirals.


Asunto(s)
Virus ARN , Virosis , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Animales , Humanos , Antivirales/química , Inteligencia Artificial , Virus ARN/genética , Virus Zika/genética , Infección por el Virus Zika/tratamiento farmacológico
20.
Virology ; 594: 110049, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527382

RESUMEN

The Second International Conference of the World Society for Virology (WSV), hosted by Riga Stradins University, was held in Riga, Latvia, on June 15-17th, 2023. It prominently highlighted the recent advancements in different disciplines of virology. The conference had fourteen keynote speakers covering diverse topics, including emerging virus pseudotypes, Zika virus vaccine development, herpesvirus capsid mobility, parvovirus invasion strategies, influenza in animals and birds, West Nile virus and Marburg virus ecology, as well as the latest update in animal vaccines. Discussions further explored SARS-CoV-2 RNA replicons as vaccine candidates, SARS-CoV-2 in humans and animals, and the significance of plant viruses in the 'One Health' paradigm. The presence of the presidents from three virology societies, namely the American, Indian, and Korean Societies for Virology, highlighted the event's significance. Additionally, past president of the American Society for Virology (ASV), formally declared the partnership between ASV and WSV during the conference.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza , Salud Única , Virus , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Animales , Humanos , ARN Viral , Virología
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