Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.185
Filtrar
1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 95(5): 411-416, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489490

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For pregnant women living with HIV (WLWH), engagement in care is crucial to maternal health and reducing the risk of perinatal transmission. To date, there have been no studies in Canada examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant WLWH. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study assessing the impact of the pandemic on perinatal outcomes for pregnant WLWH using data from the Perinatal HIV Surveillance Program in British Columbia, Canada. We compared maternal characteristics, pregnancy outcomes, and clinical indicators related to engagement with care between a prepandemic (January 2017-March 2020) and pandemic cohort (March 2020-December 2022). We investigated preterm birth rates with explanatory variables using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prepandemic cohort (n = 87) had a significantly (P < 0.05) lower gestational age at the first antenatal encounter (9.0 vs 11.8) and lower rates of preterm births compared with the pandemic cohort (n = 56; 15% vs 37%). Adjusted odds of preterm birth increased with the presence of substance use in pregnancy (aOR = 10.45, 95% confidence interval: 2.19 to 49.94) in WLWH. There were 2 cases of perinatal transmission of HIV in the pandemic cohort, whereas the prepandemic cohort had none. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic had pronounced effects on pregnant WLWH and their infants in British Columbia including higher rates of preterm birth and higher gestational age at the first antenatal encounter. The nonstatistically significant increase in perinatal transmission rates is of high clinical importance.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro , Embarazo , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Colombia Británica/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología
2.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(1 (Supple-2)): S33-S38, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385469

RESUMEN

Objectives: To estimate the frequency of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 among pregnant women, the impact in terms of obstetrical and clinical outcomes and vertical transmission to the neonates. METHODS: The prospective, case-control study was conducted at Zainab Panjwani Memorial Hospital, Karachi, from March to December 2021, and comprised pregnant women regardless of gestational age who exhibited symptoms or had a suspicion of exposure to any confirmed coronavirus disease-2019 individual. They were screened for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection using polymerase chain reaction or serology. Those who tested negative were designated as control group A, while who had a positive serology result along with a negative polymerase chain reaction were taken as recovered case group B1, and those who tested positive for polymerase chain reaction were called the positive case group B2. Groups B1 and B2 were followed up till delivery. The clinical presentation of coronavirus disease-2019 infection in pregnancy and its obstetrical and neonatal outcomes was assessed. Products of conception were tested for the detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 genome. The viral genome from group B2 cases was sequenced to confirm vertical transmission. Data was analysed using GraphPad Prism V8. RESULTS: Of the 139 pregnant women, 74(53.2%) were in group A with mean age 25.87±6.90 years, 49(35.3%) were in group B1 with mean age 25.53±7.02 years, and 16(11.5%) were in group B2 with mean age 27.12±5.03 years. The gestational age at which termination of pregnancy occurred was 38.3±1.26 weeks in group B1 and 38.3±1.85 weeks for group B2. There were 96 neonates across the 3 groups. Of the 11(11.45%) neonates in group B2, 1(9.09%) had postnatal transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 and this mother-neonate case was taken as the Indexed case. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 genome isolated from the neonate showed similar mutations as the viral strain infecting the mother. Conclusion: The risk of vertical transmission was found to be low. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 genome was the same for both the mother and the neonate.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Mujeres Embarazadas , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Pakistán/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología
3.
Placenta ; 148: 38-43, 2024 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359600

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The impact of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women remained unclear for a long time. Previous research showed that SARS-CoV-2 virus is able to infect the placenta, potentially causing significant lesions leading to placental insufficiency. The impact of maternal vaccination status on the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 placentitis remains unclear. We characterized placental lesions in SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women and studied the impact of vaccination on placental involvement. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 180 placentas sent to the Department of Pathology in UZ Leuven or AZ Turnhout between January 2020 and August 2022, from non-vaccinated and vaccinated mothers suffering a SARS-CoV-2 proven infection during pregnancy. All reports and hematoxylin-eosin stained sections were revised by two pathologists to determine the presence of histopathological lesions that have been described in SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 immunostainings were available for a subgroup of 109 placentas. We gathered clinical data: date of delivery, date of positive serologic test result, vaccination status, SARS-CoV-2 variant and outcome of the pregnancy. RESULTS: Of the 180 placentas, 37,2% showed histopathological lesions and in 12,8% an immunohistochemically proven SARS-CoV-2 placentitis was present. SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemical positivity was only seen in non-vaccinated mothers. The risk of fetal demise was more than 5 times higher for non-vaccinated mothers and their placentas showed significantly more syncytiotrophoblast necrosis and chronic histiocytic intervillositis compared to vaccinated mothers (both p < 0,001). DISCUSSION: Maternal vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 placentitis and stillbirth. This study provides new evidence of the protective effect of vaccination on the placenta.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Corioamnionitis , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Mujeres Embarazadas , Mortinato/epidemiología , Placenta , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Retrospectivos , Vacunación , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa
4.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 295: 181-200, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367392

RESUMEN

Several studies have reported vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2; however, information regarding intrauterine transmission based on diagnostic methods to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection is scarce. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to identify and explore the studies that attempt to ascertain the possibility of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA 2020) statement. The results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted intrauterine, as detected by clinical manifestations (1.00, 95 % CI: 1.00 - 1.00, 0.51, 95 % CI: 0.22 - 0.80), imaging (0.50, 95 % CI: 0.24 - 0.76, 0.03, 95 % CI: 0.00 - 0.17), molecular (1. 00, 95 % CI: 1.00 - 1.00, 0.92, 95 % CI: 0.77 - 1.00), immunological (0.32, 95 % CI: 0.10 - 0.57, 0.34, 95 % CI: 0.11 - 0.61), and histological approaches (0.79, 95 % CI: 0.52 - 0.98) in maternal and fetal/neonatal specimens, respectively. The possibility of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to fetus/newborn was 41 % (95 % CI 0.37 - 0.45). We might confirm/verify the intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoCV-2 from mother to fetus/newborn.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Madres , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Feto , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Prueba de COVID-19
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299561

RESUMEN

The widespread occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the diverse range of symptoms have placed significant strain on healthcare systems worldwide. Pregnancy has also been affected by COVID-19, with an increased risk of complications and unfavorable outcomes for expectant mothers. Multiple studies indicate that SARS-CoV-2 can infiltrate the placenta, breach its protective barrier, and infect the fetus. Although the precise mechanisms of intrauterine transmission remain unclear, factors such as perinatal infection, macrophages, sexual intercourse, and the virus' interaction with host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) proteins appear to play a role in this process. The integrity of the placental barrier fluctuates throughout pregnancy and appears to influence the likelihood of fetal transmission. The expression of placental cell receptors, like ACE2, changes during pregnancy and in response to placental damage. However, due to the consistent presence of others, such as NRP-1, SARS-CoV-2 may potentially enter the fetus at different stages of pregnancy. NRP-1 is also found in macrophages, implicating maternal macrophages and Hofbauer cells as potential routes for viral transmission. Our current understanding of SARS-CoV-2's vertical transmission pathways remains limited. Some researchers question the ACE2-associated transmission model due to the relatively low expression of ACE2 in the placenta. Existing studies investigating perinatal transmission and the impact of sexual intercourse have either involved small sample sizes or lacked statistical significance. This review aims to explore the current state of knowledge regarding the potential mechanisms of COVID-19 vertical transmission, identifying areas where further research is needed to fill the gaps in our understanding.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Embarazo , Femenino , Placenta , COVID-19/metabolismo , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338886

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant and enduring influence on global health, including maternal and fetal well-being. Evidence suggests that placental dysfunction is a potential consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, which may result in adverse outcomes such as preeclampsia and preterm birth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear, and it is uncertain whether a mature placenta can protect the fetus from SARS-CoV-2 infection. To address the above gap, we conducted a transcriptome-based study of the placenta in both maternal and fetal compartments. We collected placental samples from 16 women immediately after term delivery, seven of which had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by PCR before parturition. Notably, we did not detect any viral load in either the maternal or fetal compartments of the placenta, regardless of symptomatic status. We separately extracted total RNA from placental tissues from maternal and fetal compartments, constructed cDNA libraries, and sequenced them to assess mRNA. Our analysis revealed 635 differentially expressed genes when a false discovery rate (FDR ≤ 0.05) was applied in the maternal placental tissue, with 518 upregulated and 117 downregulated genes in the SARS-CoV-2-positive women (n = 6) compared with the healthy SARS-CoV-2-negative women (n = 8). In contrast, the fetal compartment did not exhibit any significant changes in gene expression with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We observed a significant downregulation of nine genes belonging to the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein related to the immunoglobulin superfamily in the maternal compartment with active SARS-CoV-2 infection (fold change range from -13.70 to -5.28; FDR ≤ 0.01). Additionally, comparing symptomatic women with healthy women, we identified 1788 DEGs. Furthermore, a signaling pathway enrichment analysis revealed that pathways related to oxidative phosphorylation, insulin secretion, cortisol synthesis, estrogen signaling, oxytocin signaling, antigen processing, and presentation were altered significantly in symptomatic women. Overall, our study sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the reported clinical risks of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nonetheless, studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to further deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the placenta's anti-viral effects in maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Preeclampsia , Nacimiento Prematuro , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Placenta , Tercer Trimestre del Embarazo , Pandemias , COVID-19/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339114

RESUMEN

Research indicates compelling evidence of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission as a result of placental pathology. This study offers an approach to histopathological and immunohistochemical placental observations from SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers compared to negative ones. Out of the 44 examined placentas, 24 were collected from patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and 20 were collected from patients without infection. The disease group showed strong SARS-CoV-2 positivity of the membranes, trophoblasts, and fetal villous macrophages. Most infections occurred during the third trimester of pregnancy (66.6%). Pathology revealed areas consistent with avascular villi (AV) and thrombi in the chorionic vessels and umbilical cord in the positive group, suggesting fetal vascular malperfusion (FVM). This study shows SARS-CoV-2 has an impact on coagulation, demonstrated by fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (p = 0.01) and fibrin deposition (p = 0.01). Other observed features included infarction (17%), perivillous fibrin deposition (29%), intervillous fibrin (25%), delayed placental maturation (8.3%), chorangiosis (13%), chorioamnionitis (8.3%), and meconium (21%). The negative control group revealed only one case of placental infarction (5%), intervillous fibrin (5%), delayed placental maturation (5%), and chorioamnionitis (5%) and two cases of meconium (19%). Our study sheds light on the changes and differences that occurred in placentas from SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers and the control group. Further research is necessary to definitively establish whether SARS-CoV-2 is the primary culprit behind these intricate complications.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Corioamnionitis , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Placenta/patología , COVID-19/patología , SARS-CoV-2 , Corioamnionitis/patología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/patología , Placentación , Infarto , Fibrina , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa
8.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 30(1): 3-87, 2024-01.
Artículo en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-376371

RESUMEN

Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal is the official health journal published by the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new policies and initiatives in health services; and for the exchange of ideas concepts epidemiological data research findings and other information with special reference to the Eastern Mediterranean Region. It addresses all members of the health profession medical and other health educational institutes interested NGOs WHO Collaborating Centres and individuals within and outside the Region.


المجلة الصحية لشرق المتوسط هى المجلة الرسمية التى تصدرعن المكتب الاقليمى لشرق المتوسط بمنظمة الصحة العالمية. وهى منبر لتقديم السياسات والمبادرات الجديدة فى الصحة العامة والخدمات الصحية والترويج لها، و لتبادل الاراء و المفاهيم والمعطيات الوبائية ونتائج الابحاث وغير ذلك من المعلومات، و خاصة ما يتعلق منها باقليم شرق المتوسط. وهى موجهة الى كل اعضاء المهن الصحية، والكليات الطبية وسائر المعاهد التعليمية، و كذا المنظمات غير الحكومية المعنية، والمراكز المتعاونة مع منظمة الصحة العالمية والافراد المهتمين بالصحة فى الاقليم و خارجه


La Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale est une revue de santé officielle publiée par le Bureau régional de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé pour la Méditerranée orientale. Elle offre une tribune pour la présentation et la promotion de nouvelles politiques et initiatives dans le domaine de la santé publique et des services de santé ainsi qu’à l’échange d’idées de concepts de données épidémiologiques de résultats de recherches et d’autres informations se rapportant plus particulièrement à la Région de la Méditerranée orientale. Elle s’adresse à tous les professionnels de la santé aux membres des instituts médicaux et autres instituts de formation médico-sanitaire aux ONG Centres collaborateurs de l’OMS et personnes concernés au sein et hors de la Région.


Asunto(s)
Vigilancia de Guardia , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Tuberculosis , Sector Privado , Sector de Atención de Salud , Dengue , Fiebre Chikungunya , Infecciones por VIH , Virus de la Fiebre Hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo , Servicios de Laboratorio Clínico , Región Mediterránea
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 16, 2024 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183019

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has globally impacted health service access, delivery and resources. There are limited data regarding the impact on the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) service delivery in low-resource settings. Neotree ( www.neotree.org ) combines data collection, clinical decision support and education to improve care for neonates. Here we evaluate impacts of COVID-19 on care for HIV-exposed neonates. METHODS: Data on HIV-exposed neonates admitted to the neonatal unit (NNU) at Sally Mugabe Central Hospital, Zimbabwe, between 01/06/2019 and 31/12/2021 were analysed, with pandemic start defined as 21/03/2020 and periods of industrial action (doctors (September 2019-January 2020) and nurses (June 2020-September 2020)) included, resulting in modelling during six time periods: pre-doctors' strike (baseline); doctors' strike; post-doctors' strike and pre-COVID; COVID and pre-nurses' strike; nurses' strike; post nurses' strike. Interrupted time series models were used to explore changes in indicators over time. RESULTS: Of 8,333 neonates admitted to the NNU, 904 (11%) were HIV-exposed. Mothers of 706/765 (92%) HIV-exposed neonates reported receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy. Compared to the baseline period when average admissions were 78 per week (95% confidence interval (CI) 70-87), significantly fewer neonates were admitted during all subsequent periods until after the nurses' strike, with the lowest average number during the nurses' strike (28, 95% CI 23-34, p < 0.001). Across all time periods excluding the nurses strike, average mortality was 20% (95% CI 18-21), but rose to 34% (95% CI 25, 46) during the nurses' strike. There was no evidence for heterogeneity (p > 0.22) in numbers of admissions or mortality by HIV exposure status. Fewer HIV-exposed neonates received a PCR test during the pandemic (23%) compared to the pre-pandemic periods (40%) (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.84, p < 0.001). The proportion of HIV-exposed neonates who received antiretroviral prophylaxis during admission was high throughout, averaging between 84% and 95% in each time-period. CONCLUSION: While antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV-exposed neonates remained high throughout, concerning data on low admissions and increased mortality, similar in HIV-exposed and unexposed neonates, and reduced HIV testing, suggest some aspects of care may have been compromised due to indirect effects of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Niño , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Pandemias , Zimbabwe/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 46, 2024 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195390

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that pregnant Kenyan women were concerned about Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure during maternity care. We assessed concern regarding COVID-19 exposure and any impact on antenatal care (ANC) enrollment and/or hospital delivery among pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Kenya. METHODS: Data were collected from 1,478 pregnant women living with HIV enrolled in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) care at 12 Kenyan hospitals from October 2020 to July 2022. Surveys were conducted when women first presented for PMTCT services at the study hospital and asked demographic questions as well as items related to concerns about COVID-19. A 5-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) assessed concerns about COVID-19 exposure and travel challenges. Gestational age at PMTCT enrollment, number of ANC appointments attended, and delivery location were compared among women who expressed COVID-19 concerns and those who did not. RESULTS: Few women reported delaying antenatal care (4.7%), attending fewer antenatal care appointments (5.0%), or having concerns about a hospital-based delivery (7.7%) because of COVID-19. More (25.8%) reported travel challenges because of COVID-19. There were no significant differences in gestational age at enrollment, number of ANC appointments, or rates of hospital-based delivery between women with concerns about COVID-19 and those without, CONCLUSION: Few pregnant women living with HIV expressed concerns about COVID-19 exposure in the context of routine ANC or delivery care. Women with and without concerns had similar care seeking behaviors. The recognized importance of routine ANC care and facility-based deliveries may have contributed to these positive pregnancy indicators, even among women who worried about COVID-19 exposure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov identifier NCT04571684.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Servicios de Salud Materna , Embarazo , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Kenia/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Mujeres Embarazadas , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
12.
J Perinat Med ; 52(2): 202-209, 2024 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175139

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in newborns born to mothers with peripartum SARS-CoV-2 infection in a German cohort, to identify potential risk factors associated with neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to present short-term outcomes of newborns with vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Data on women with SARS-CoV-2 infection occurring anytime during their pregnancy was gathered prospectively within the CRONOS registry. From April 2020 to February 2023 a total of 8,540 women had been registered. The timing and the probability of mother-to-child transmission in neonates born to women with perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection were classified using the WHO classification system. The severity of maternal infection, maternal vaccination status, type of dominant virus, and perinatal outcome parameters were analyzed as potential risk factors for neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 6.3 % resp. 42.9 % of tested newborns and stillbirths were SARS-CoV-2 positive. 2.1 % of newborns with confirmed and possible SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified. Severe maternal COVID-19 (odds ratio 4.4, 95 % confidence interval 1.8-11.1) and maternal infection with the Delta virus (OR 3.2, 1.4-7.7) were associated with neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Newborns with a confirmed or possible infection were significantly more often admitted to the NICU (65.2 % neonatal infection vs. 27.5 % non, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 positivity was higher in our cohort than previously reported, neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections were rare. Our data emphasizes confirmative testing should be performed in newborns of SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers to identify neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection as an underlying pathology leading to NICU admission.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Humanos , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud
14.
Pediatr Res ; 95(2): 436-444, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37857851

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy causes adverse outcomes for both the mother and the fetus. Neonates are at risk of vertical transmission and in-utero infection. Additionally, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and impairment in the organ systems of the mother are associated with neonatal outcomes, including impaired intrauterine growth, prematurity, and neonatal ICU admission. The management of neonates born from infected mothers has changed over the progress of the pandemic. At the beginning of the pandemic, cesarean section, immediate separation of mother-infant dyads, isolation of neonates, and avoiding of skin-to-skin contact, breast milk, and breastfeeding were the main practices to reduce vertical and horizontal transmission risk in the era of insufficient knowledge. The effects of antenatal steroids and delayed cord clamping on COVID-19 were also not known. As the pandemic progressed, data showed that prenatal, delivery room, and postnatal care of neonates can be performed as pre-pandemic practices. Variants and vaccines that affect clinical course and outcomes have emerged during the pandemic. The severity of the disease and the timing of infection in pregnancy also influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The knowledge and lessons from COVID-19 will be helpful for the next pandemic if it happens. IMPACT: Prenatal infection with COVID-19 is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Our review includes the management of neonates with prenatal COVID-19 infection exposure, maternal-fetal, delivery room, and postnatal care of neonates, clinical features, treatment of neonates, and influencing factors such as variants, vaccination, severity of maternal disease, and timing of infection during pregnancy. There is a growing body of data and evidence about the COVID-19 pandemic. The knowledge and lessons from the pandemic will be helpful for the next pandemic if it happens.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Cesárea , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/terapia , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Resultado del Embarazo
15.
Pediatr Res ; 95(2): 445-455, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38057579

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant changes in life and healthcare all over the world. Pregnant women and their newborns require extra attention due to the increased risk of adverse outcomes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes include intensive care unit (ICU) admission, pulmonary, cardiac, and renal impairment leading to mortality. Immaturity and variations of the neonatal immune system may be advantageous in responding to the virus. Neonates are at risk of vertical transmission and in-utero infection. Impaired intrauterine growth, prematurity, vertical transmission, and neonatal ICU admission are the most concerning issues. Data on maternal and neonatal outcomes should be interpreted cautiously due to study designs, patient characteristics, clinical variables, the effects of variants, and vaccination beyond the pandemic. Cesarean section, immediate separation of mother-infant dyads, isolation of neonates, and avoidance of breast milk were performed to reduce transmission risk at the beginning of the pandemic in the era of insufficient knowledge. Vertical transmission was found to be low with favorable short-term outcomes. Serious fetal and neonatal outcomes are not expected, according to growing evidence. Long-term effects may be associated with fetal programming. Knowledge and lessons from COVID-19 will be helpful for the next pandemic if it occurs. IMPACT: Prenatal infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Our review includes the effects of COVID-19 on the fetus and neonates, transmission routes, placental effects, fetal and neonatal outcomes, and long-term effects on neonates. There is a growing body of data and evidence about the COVID-19 pandemic. Knowledge and lessons from the pandemic will be helpful for the next pandemic if it happens.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Cesárea , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Pandemias , Placenta , COVID-19/epidemiología , Resultado del Embarazo , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa
16.
BJOG ; 131(4): 385-400, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37984971

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 has had a significant impact on pregnancy outcomes due to the effects of the virus and the altered healthcare environment. Stillbirth has been relatively hidden during the COVID-19 pandemic, but a clear link between SARS-CoV-2 and poor fetal outcome emerged in the Alpha and Delta waves. A small minority of women/birthing people who contracted COVID-19 developed SARS-CoV-2 placentitis. In many reported cases this was linked to intrauterine fetal death, although there are cases of delivery just before imminent fetal demise and we shall discuss how some cases are sub-clinical. What is surprising, is that SARS-CoV-2 placentitis is often not associated with severe maternal COVID-19 infection and this makes it difficult to predict. The worst outcomes seem to be with diffuse placental disease which occurs within 21 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. Poor outcomes are often pre-dated by reduced fetal movements but are not associated with ultrasound changes. In some cases, there has also been maternal thrombocytopenia, or coagulation abnormalities, which may provide a clue as to which pregnancies are at risk of fetal demise if a further variant of concern is to emerge. In future, multidisciplinary collaboration and cross-boundary working must be prioritised, to identify quickly such a phenomenon and provide clinicians with clear guidance for reducing fetal death and associated poor outcomes. While we wait to see if COVID-19 brings a future variant of concern, we must focus on appropriate future management of women who have had SARS-CoV-2 placentitis. As a placental condition with an infectious aetiology, SARS-CoV-placentitis is unlikely to recur in a subsequent pregnancy and thus a measured approach to subsequent pregnancy management is needed.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Corioamnionitis , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Mortinato/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Placenta , Prueba de COVID-19 , Pandemias , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa
17.
Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol ; 228(1): 49-56, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37918832

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women and their offspring represented a vulnerable patient collective during the Covid-19 pandemic. Beyond the direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 via vertical transmission, an indirect impact on the fetus can occur through placental lesions deteriorating placental villous function. We performed a histopathological analysis of placentas of parturients with SARS-CoV-2 compared to healthy controls. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between February 2022 and July 2022 we conducted a prospective case-control study analyzing placental specimens of parturients with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to specimens of placentas of healthy controls. Patient history, Covid-19-specific symptoms, and obstetric outcomes were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: During the observation period 71 patients were included with a gestational age 37 1/7-41 5/7 weeks. Thirty-six patients presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The control group consisted of 35 patients and showed no placental abnormalities. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive parturients, 66.7% of placentas of the case group showed histopathological abnormalities classified as vascular or inflammatory abnormalities. 22.2% of placentas showed acute ischemic infarction areas. 8.3% of placentas showed subchorionic layered thrombi. There was one case of severe acute subchorionitis. SARS-CoV-2 increased the risk of placental lesions significantly (OR 3.000, CI 1.890-4.762, p=0.0001). Placental lesions had no significant impact on perinatal acidosis (OR 0.455, CI 0.044-4.667, p=0.498) or number of cesarean sections (OR 2.314, CI 0.717-7.473, p=0.156). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection during labor and delivery increased the risk of adverse outcomes. Histopathological analysis indicated that the placenta as a maternal-fetal interface was affected by SARS-CoV-2, leading to systemic vasculopathy and inflammation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Placenta , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Pandemias , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 193(1): 134-148, 2024 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37605838

RESUMEN

We assessed the risk of acquiring severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from household and community exposure according to age, family ties, and socioeconomic and living conditions using serological data from a nationwide French population-based cohort study, the Epidémiologie et Conditions de Vie (EpiCoV) Study. A history of SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined by a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay immunoglobulin G result in November-December 2020. We applied stochastic chain binomial models fitted to the final distribution of household infections to data from 17,983 individuals aged ≥6 years from 8,165 households. Models estimated the competing risks of being infected from community and household exposure. The age group 18-24 years had the highest risk of extrahousehold infection (8.9%, 95% credible interval (CrI): 7.5, 10.4), whereas the oldest (≥75 years) and youngest (6-10 years) age groups had the lowest risk, at 2.6% (95% CrI: 1.8, 3.5) and 3.4% (95% CrI: 1.9, 5.2), respectively. Extrahousehold infection was also associated with socioeconomic conditions. Within households, the probability of person-to-person transmission increased with age, from 10.6% (95% CrI: 5.0, 17.9) among children aged 6-10 years to 43.1% (95% CrI: 32.6, 53.2) among adults aged 65-74 years. Transmission was higher between partners (29.9%, 95% CrI: 25.6, 34.3) and from mother to child (29.1%, 95% CrI: 21.4, 37.3) than between individuals related by other family ties. In 2020 in France, the main factors identified for extrahousehold SARS-CoV-2 infection were age and socioeconomic conditions. Intrahousehold infection mainly depended on age and family ties.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Factores de Riesgo
20.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 57(1): 195-199, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37699780

RESUMEN

We investigated a COVID-19 cluster involved seven case-patients lived in a high-rise building in September 2021. We used a simplified tracer-gas experiment and virus sequencing to establish the link between case-patients. Vertical transmission among vertically aligned apartments on different floors in a building was the most likely route of transmission.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Taiwán/epidemiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...