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1.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305314, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861556

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite the advantages of vaccination in preventing maternal and fetal problems, there were many concerns in the medical community regarding vaccine safety for pregnant women, and this has put obstetricians in a challenging situation when it comes to advising their pregnant patients on whether to obtain the vaccine. AIM: This study was performed to define the level of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination and assess the impact of COVID-19 attitudes and knowledge on vaccine acceptance between pregnant and lactating Syrian women who are seeking prenatal care services at the clinics in Azraq refugee camp in Jordan. METHOD: A quantitative, cross-sectional study utilizing a non-probability convenience sample. A validated and reliable self-administered questionnaire consisting of four sections was used. RESULTS: A total of 412 pregnant/lactating women was recruited The acceptance rate of the COVID-19 vaccine among participants was 86.5%. There was a significant positive moderate association between respondents' attitudes and knowledge around the COVID-19 vaccine and their acceptance of the vaccine (r = .468, p < .001, r = .357, p < .001), respectively. CONCLUSION: To effectively mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic and achieve collective protection, decision-makers must intensify the efforts in promoting the importance of maternal vaccination, especially in vulnerable communities that suffer the most from pandemic outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Campos de Refugiados , Humanos , Femenino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Jordania , Embarazo , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactancia , Vacunación/psicología , Refugiados , Atención Prenatal , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Servicios de Salud Materna , Adolescente
2.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 65, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) has caused worldwide panic in the global population taking people's lives, creating fear, and affecting mother-child relationships. Many questions were raised on the dangers of being infected with COVID-19 for newborns and safety concerns during feeding by COVID-19-positive mothers. Moreover, questions and doubts about the safety of the administration of vaccinations for nursing mothers are still open. This review attempts to fill the existing literature gap by exploring concepts concerning COVID-19 and breastfeeding mothers, the safety of vaccinations, the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on both mother and child, important hygiene recommendations for SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers, and possible solutions to optimize breastfeeding and safety precautions amidst the fear of emergence of novel variants. METHODS: All relevant publications from Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus search engines from December 2019 to October 2022 related to SARS-CoV-2, breastfeeding, COVID-19, lactating guidelines, and vaccination were included using 'Breastfeeding AND vaccine AND SARS-CoV-2' as MESH TERMS. Apart from the literature review, existing maternity protocols followed in Northern UAE were gathered from lactation consultants practicing in the UAE. RESULTS: Out of 19,391 records generated, only 24 studies were analyzed and summarized in this exhaustive review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow chart. Previous studies suggest that breastmilk is predominantly the primary source of nutrition for neonates. Breast milk is a rich source of antibodies that help the baby to fight against infections including other benefits. Hygiene recommendations for suspected or confirmed COVID-19-infected mothers are required along with psychological and emotional support. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of vaccinations should be advised and encouraged to protect the mothers with antibodies and the neonates by the passive transmission of antibodies through breast milk. This is a significant reason for not stopping breastfeeding even in case of COVID-19 infection. With adherence to proper hygiene methods, breastfeeding is recommended to be continued as the benefits greatly outweigh the risks.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Emiratos Árabes Unidos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Embarazo , Madres/psicología , Lactante
3.
Biol Res Nurs ; 26(3): 429-437, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429968

RESUMEN

We aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 infection on maternal characteristics and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in a cohort of women in labor previously vaccinated who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to aged-matched healthy controls. A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 66 women in labor. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. The attendance rates at childbirth and parenting classes, as well as the implementation of a birth plan, were significantly lower in the COVID-19 infection group (6.1% vs. 48.5%, <0.001; 6.1% vs. 33.3%, p = .005, respectively). Women with COVID-19 had a higher prevalence of prolonged postpartum hospital stay (33.3% vs. 9.1%, p = .016), and significantly higher prevalence of spontaneous preterm birth (27.3% vs. 1.09%, p = .006). Breastfeeding within the first 24 hr was also lower in women with COVID-19 (72.7% vs. 97.0%, p = .006). Maternal characteristics and neonatal outcomes are influenced by COVID-19 infection in vaccinated women. Complications include spontaneous preterm birth, prolonged postpartum hospital stay, and lack of breastfeeding within the first 24 hr. Childbirth education, parenting classes and implementing a birth plan may be associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Femenino , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Embarazo , Adulto , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Retrospectivos , Recién Nacido , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios de Cohortes , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 221, 2024 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539077

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections globally, with most RSV-related deaths occurring in infants < 6 months of age. The highest burden of RSV is in low-and-middle income countries, and in sub-Saharan Africa, RSV may be responsible for almost half of all hospital admissions with severe or very severe pneumonia among infants under 1 year. There is a maternal RSV vaccine on the horizon. Our study objective was to better understand how lessons learned from the COVID-19 vaccine experience rollout among pregnant and lactating people in Kenya could inform future maternal RSV vaccine rollout. METHODS: This qualitative study interviewed 16 healthcare providers including doctors, nurses, midwives, community health workers, and vaccinators. Participants were recruited from two counties in Kenya and included healthcare providers that served diverse communities. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: As healthcare providers interviewed were instrumental in COVID-19 vaccine rollout among pregnant women in Kenya, they provided lessons learned from the COVID-19 vaccine experience to inform future maternal RSV vaccine rollout. Community sensitization emerged as the most critical lesson learned, including communication, mobilization, and education. Using communication to ensure community awareness of RSV, community awareness of RSV harms and benefits of RSV maternal vaccines, and providing up-to-date, clear information about maternal RSV vaccines emerged as lessons. Related to mobilization, participants identified the need for healthcare providers and community leaders to gain the trust of communities, and the importance of routinizing the vaccine. Finally, for education, participants outlined critical questions patients would have about a maternal RSV vaccine, including those related to vaccine safety concerns, duration of protection, and vaccine dosing. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies that has examined how lessons learned from the COVID-19 vaccine rollout for pregnant and lactating women can inform the rollout of future maternal vaccines, including an RSV maternal vaccine. As healthcare providers are directly involved in vaccine rollout, their perspectives are crucial for successful vaccine acceptance.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Vacunas contra Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano , Lactante , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Vacunas contra Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/uso terapéutico , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , Kenia , Lactancia , COVID-19/prevención & control , Mujeres Embarazadas , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/prevención & control , Vacunación
5.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1286891, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496391

RESUMEN

Background: Although vaccination is one of the most effective means of controlling the spread of COVID-19, public concerns and indecision about vaccination still continue. Because pregnant and breastfeeding individuals are at high risk for severe outcomes in case of infections, determining their level of hesitation and attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines will guide the management of the disease. This study aimed to determine pregnant and breastfeeding women's levels of hesitation and attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines as well as their related factors. Methods: The sample of this descriptive research consisted of 103 pregnant or breastfeeding individuals who were seen at the obstetrics and gynecology outpatients clinic of a state hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. The data were collected using a 'demographic data form', the 'Vaccine Hesitancy Scale in Pandemic', and the 'Attitudes toward COVID-19 Vaccine Scale'. The research data were analyzed with appropriate statistical methods. Results: The mean age of the participants was 29.71 ± 4.75, 51% were pregnant, and 74.8% had received the COVID-19 vaccine. The mean score of the 'Vaccination Hesitancy Scale in Pandemic' was 30.83 ± 6.91, and the mean score for the 'Attitude Scale toward the COVID-19 Vaccine' was 25.50 ± 5.20. A significant difference was found between the total score of the 'Vaccine Hesitation Scale in the Pandemic' and the mean score of the 'Lack of Confidence' sub-dimension between the 'working status' and the 'influenza vaccination' status. In terms of the mean score of the 'Risk' sub-dimension, a significant difference was found between the 'period of vaccination' (p < 0.05). According to the mean total score of the 'Attitude Towards COVID-19 Vaccine Scale', there was a significant difference between the 'smoking' status. There was a significant difference in the 'Positive Attitude' sub-dimension in terms of the 'flu vaccination' status. There was a significant difference in the 'Negative Attitude' sub-dimension in terms of the 'chronic disease' status. A positive correlation was found between the total scores of the scales. Conclusion: It was concluded that although the participants had a high level of hesitation toward the COVID-19 vaccine, they had a positive attitude. The results obtained will be guided in determining the strategies to be developed for these specific groups in future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Obstetricia , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Lactancia Materna , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria
6.
Clin Ter ; 175(1): 68-72, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358479

RESUMEN

Abstract: We aimed to investigate some of the medical ethics issues that characterize the COVID-19 vaccination phase in pregnancy and breast-feeding. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, focusing mainly on the countries of East Asia and Oceania. Vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding appears to help protect babies from COVID-19 by enabling antibodies to pass from mother to baby. However, individual countries of the same continent may adopt conflicting policy positions. Not only that, indications on the type of vaccine sometimes vary, depending on whether a woman is pregnant or breastfeeding. In this review we have taken into considerationp the policy positions on pregnancy and lactation by country and type of Covid-19 vaccine in East Asia and Oceania. Ten out of the 18 countries considered (representing more than two thirds of the population of East Asia and Oceania) provide different vaccine indications for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Can this diversity of recommendations be seen as a form of optimal protection for women in these categories, or does it suggest that some countries have taken a defensive position to avoid compensation claims in the event of complications? Is it ethically correct to leave questions concerning informed consent open? Misin-formation during a health crisis leaves people without protection and with increased vaccine hesitancy, especially for vulnerable populations in hard-to-reach areas of East Asia and Oceania.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Lactante , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , Lactancia , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación , Asia Oriental , Ética Médica , Oceanía
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(1): e3, 2024 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193325

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the safety of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the association between COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy and lactation and reporting risk of adverse pregnancy or lactation outcomes. METHODS: Using VigiBase, we performed a disproportionality analysis with case/non case design. Cases were defined based on the Standardized MedDRA Queries (SMQs) of "pregnancy and neonatal topics" and non-cases were defined as all other adverse events. We included all reports with COVID-19 vaccines as the suspected cause. Using the full database as the comparators, reporting odds ratios (RORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression while adjusting for maternal age. Infants' age and sex were additionally adjusted in analyzing the risk of COVID-19 vaccination during lactation. RESULTS: We identified 10,266 and 6,474 reports with the SMQ of "pregnancy and neonatal topics" associated with COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy and lactation, respectively. No significant RORs of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy were observed; however, "functional lactation disorders" showed significant disproportionality during lactation with adjusted ROR of 1.48 (95% CI, 1.21-1.79). Further analysis that analyzed "functional lactation disorders" at a preferred term level, showed higher ROR in mastitis (2.76 [95% CI, 1.45-5.27]). CONCLUSION: Overall, we did not observe a positive association between COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy and risk of reporting adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, we found a significant disproportionate reporting association between COVID-19 vaccination during lactation and "functional lactation disorders", specifically mastitis. Continuous surveillance is warranted to confirm the safety of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy and lactation.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Lactancia , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Trastornos de la Lactancia , Mastitis , Vacunación/efectos adversos , Masculino
8.
J Perinatol ; 44(1): 12-19, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37495712

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus pandemic has affected millions of people due to the spread of the Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Pregnant individuals and infants are most vulnerable given the increased risk of developing severe complications from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recently, COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for pregnant women and infants starting at 6 months of age to prevent disease contraction and minimize disease severity. We conducted a review of the literature on COVID-19 vaccination to discuss vaccine safety and efficacy, immunity after maternal vaccination, transplacental transfer and persistence of antibodies, and public health implications. Current evidence supports the safety and efficacy of vaccination during pregnancy. Maternal vaccination provides greater antibody persistence in infants compared to immunity from natural infection. Furthermore, vaccination has demonstrated an increased rate of passive antibody transfer through the placenta and breast milk. Public health interventions are important in achieving herd immunity and ultimately ending the pandemic. IMPACT: This article highlights the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy with a review of the data describing safety and efficacy, passive and active immunity after maternal immunization, trans-placental transfer and persistence of protective antibodies, and public health implications. With this information, healthcare providers can provide up-to-date knowledge to their pregnant patients to help them form an informed decision on vaccination and combat vaccine hesitancy.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , COVID-19 , Embarazo , Lactante , Femenino , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Placenta , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación , Leche Humana
9.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 44(5-6): 361-380, 2023 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37794764

RESUMEN

The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak led to a health crisis worldwide. This infection can infect individuals, particularly pregnant women. In this review, we tried to find the possibility of vertical transmission of COVID-19 and investigate the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy, breastfeeding, cord blood banking, and the effects of recommended vaccines on pregnant and lactating women. Keywords include COVID-19, congenital infection, SARS-CoV-2, pregnancy, and COVID-19 vaccines. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was searched in scientific databases, such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. The criteria for including studies in this article are the study of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates during pregnancy and while breastfeeding, and also the effect of COVID-19 vaccines on them. There are several conflicting results in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from the maternal-fetal interface. Since many neonates born from COVID-19-infected mothers had no signs of this infection, the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 congenital transmission cannot be confirmed. Also, SARS-CoV-2-infected women can breastfeed their babies if they have mild symptoms. Up till now, no adverse effect of COVID-19 vaccines has been identified on mothers, infants, and the fertility of men or women. Even so, more investigations are needed on the long-term effects of COVID-19 vaccines.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Lactante , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactancia Materna , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Almacenamiento de Sangre , Lactancia , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Vacunación
10.
Vaccine ; 41(48): 7183-7191, 2023 11 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37865598

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe self-reported reactogenicity, pregnancy outcomes, and SARS-CoV-2 infection following COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. DESIGN: National, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Participants across Canada were enrolled from July 2021 until June 2022. POPULATION: Individuals pregnant during the COVID-19 pandemic, regardless of vaccination status, were included. METHODS: The Canadian COVID-19 Vaccine Registry for Pregnant and Lactating Individuals (COVERED) was advertised through traditional and social media. Surveys were administered at baseline, following each vaccine dose if vaccinated, pregnancy conclusion, and every two months for 14 months. Changes to pregnancy or vaccination status, SARS-CoV-2 infections, or significant health events were recorded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reactogenicity (local and systemic adverse events, and serious adverse events) within 1 week post-vaccination, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, and subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Among 2868 participants who received 1-2 doses of a COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, adverse events described included: headache (19.5-33.9%), nausea (4.8-13.8%), fever (2.7-10.2%), and myalgia (33.4-42.2%). Reactogenicity was highest after the 2nd dose of vaccine in pregnancy. Compared to 1660 unvaccinated participants, there were no statistically significant differences in adverse pregnancy or infant outcomes, aside from an increased risk of NICU admission ≥ 24 h among the unvaccinated group. During follow-up, there was a higher rate of participant-reported SARS-CoV-2 infection in the unvaccinated compared to the vaccinated group (18[47.4%] vs. 786[27.3%]). CONCLUSIONS: Participant-reported reactogenicity was similar to reports from non-pregnant adults. There was no increase in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes among vaccinated vs. unvaccinated participants and lower rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported in vaccinated participants. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: No significant increase in adverse pregnancy or infant outcomes among vaccinated versus unvaccinated pregnant women in Canada.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Canadá/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Lactancia , Pandemias , Resultado del Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación/efectos adversos
11.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e505, 2023 10 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37818705

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine acceptance, the reasons for receiving and not receiving the vaccine, and the associated factors among pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant women of reproductive age. METHODS: This cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted online in Turkey, at the end of the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, between February and May 2022. A total of 658 women (230; 35% pregnant) (187; 28.4% lactating) (241; 36.6% nonpregnant) women of reproductive age participated in the study. RESULTS: Vaccine acceptance rates were found to be 91.7% in nonpregnant women of reproductive age, 77% in lactating women, and 59% in pregnant women (P < 0.05). The highest rate of vaccine hesitancy was observed in pregnant women (31.3%), and vaccine rejection rate was the highest in lactating women (10.2%). Pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 3.98; confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-14.10), and the breastfeeding period (OR = 3.84; CI = 1.15-12.78), increased vaccine hesitancy approximately four times. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge about and confidence in the COVID-19 vaccine is still one of the barriers to vaccine acceptance today. Health-care providers (HCPs) should provide effective counseling to pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant reproductive-aged women based on current information and guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , Turquía/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Lactancia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Mujeres Embarazadas , Vacunación
12.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 27(6): 60-69, 2023 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37715675

RESUMEN

This study aimed to determine the level of COVID-19 fear, vaccination, and vaccination hesitancy as well as the affecting factors in pregnant and breastfeeding women who participated in an online prenatal education in Turkey. The study, which was designed as descriptive cross-sectional, was conducted online with 360 pregnant and breastfeeding women from Istanbul. Data were collected through the Participant Information Form, Fear of COVID-19 Scale and Vaccine Hesitancy Scale in Pandemics. The rate of accepting the COVID-19 vaccine is 65.6%. The Fear of COVID-19 Scale was 16.215.54, and the Vaccine Hesitancy Scale in Pandemics mean score was 29.294.54. The COVID-19 fear of the women participating in this study was moderate, the level of vaccination hesitancy was low, and two-thirds of them were vaccinated. There is a need to organize special counseling and vaccination campaigns for pregnant and lactating women.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , Turquía , Vacilación a la Vacunación , Lactancia Materna , Estudios Transversales , Lactancia , Miedo
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 118(3): 572-578, 2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37479184

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The human milk antibody response following maternal immunization with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine is important for the protection of the infant during infancy. The vaccine-specific antibody response is still unclear at different stages of human milk production, as are the effects of maternal immunization timing on the robustness of the antibody response. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess the antibody response (IgG/IgA/IgM) during various lactation stages and identify the best vaccination timing during pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 73 postpartum women who were administered the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine during the second or third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Statistical comparison was conducted using 16 human milk samples from a prepandemic control group. RESULTS: Excluding 11 women, the study included 62 lactating women who were administered the mRNA vaccine during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. A total of 149 samples of human milk were collected at different lactation stages. Our findings reveal that colostrum exhibits significantly higher levels of IgG (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 9.0; P = 0.023), IgA (95% CI: 55.98, 100.2; P = 0.0034), and IgM (95% CI: 0.03, 0.62; P < 0.0001) compared with mature milk IgG (95% CI: 0.25, 0.43), IgA (95% CI: 9.65, 13.74), IgM (95% CI: 0.03, 0.04). The timing of maternal immunization affected the antibody response. The level of IgA in mature milk was higher when immunization occurred in the second trimester (95% CI: 11.14, 19.66; P = 0.006) than in the third trimester (95% CI: 7.16, 11.49). Conversely, IgG levels in mature milk were higher when immunization occurred during the third trimester (95% CI: 0.36, 0.65; P < 0.0001) than in the second trimester (95% CI: 0.09, 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that administering the mRNA vaccine to pregnant women during the second trimester increases vaccine-specific IgA levels during lactation. Considering the significance of human milk IgA in mucosal tissues and its prevalence throughout lactation, it is reasonable to recommend maternal immunization with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine during the second trimester. This trial was registered at the Helsinki Committee of the Tel Aviv Medical Center as clinical trial number 0172-TLV.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Inmunoglobulina A , Leche Humana , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Embarazo , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacuna BNT162 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Inmunización , Inmunoglobulina G , Inmunoglobulina M , Lactancia , Leche Humana/inmunología , Segundo Trimestre del Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Vacunación
14.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 22(1): 520-527, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37288790

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vaccination in pregnancy is important for preventing illness for mothers and babies; however, vaccine uptake in pregnant individuals is lower than non-pregnant females of fertile age. Given the devastating effects of COVID-19 and the increased morbidity and mortality risk for pregnant individuals, it is important to understand the determinants of vaccine hesitancy in pregnancy. The focus of our study was to explore COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant and breastfeeding individuals and its association with their reasons (psychological factors) for vaccination using the 5C scale and other factors. METHODS: An online survey investigating prior vaccinations, level of trust in healthcare providers, demographic information, and the 5C scale was used for, pregnant and breastfeeding individuals in a Canadian province. RESULTS: Prior vaccinations, higher levels of trust in medical professionals, education, confidence, and collective responsibility predicted increased vaccine uptake pregnant and breastfeeding individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There are specific psychological and socio-demographic determinants that affect COVID-19 vaccine uptake in pregnant populations. Implications of these findings include targeting these determinants when informing and developing intervention and educational programs for both pregnant and breastfeeding individuals, as well as healthcare professionals who are making vaccine recommendations to patients. Study limitations include a small sample and lack of ethnic and socioeconomic diversity.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Lactante , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Lactancia Materna , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Canadá/epidemiología , Vacunación
15.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0287103, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37310982

RESUMEN

Maternal COVID-19 vaccination could protect infants who are ineligible for vaccine through antibody transfer during pregnancy and lactation. We measured the quantity and durability of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human milk and infant blood before and after maternal booster vaccination. Prospective cohort of lactating women immunized with primary and booster COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy or lactation and their infants. Milk and blood samples from October 2021 to April 2022 were included. Anti-nucleoprotein (NP) and anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG and IgA in maternal milk and maternal and infant blood were measured and compared longitudinally after maternal booster vaccine. Forty-five lactating women and their infants provided samples. 58% of women were anti-NP negative and 42% were positive on their first blood sample prior to booster vaccine. Anti-RBD IgG and IgA in milk remained significantly increased through 120-170 days after booster vaccine and did not differ by maternal NP status. Anti-RBD IgG and IgA did not increase in infant blood after maternal booster. Of infants born to women vaccinated in pregnancy, 74% still had positive serum anti-RBD IgG measured on average 5 months after delivery. Infant to maternal IgG ratio was highest for infants exposed to maternal primary vaccine during the second trimester compared to third trimester (0.85 versus 0.29; p<0.001). Maternal COVID-19 primary and booster vaccine resulted in robust and long-lasting transplacental and milk antibodies. These antibodies may provide important protection against SARS-CoV-2 during the first six months of life.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Leche Humana , Lactante , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactancia , Estudios Prospectivos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Inmunoglobulina A , Inmunoglobulina G
16.
Public Health Nurs ; 40(5): 750-757, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37357425

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of habitus on women's health behavior regarding breastfeeding and subsequent COVID-19 vaccination. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive design, guided by Pierre Bourdieu's concept of habitus. SAMPLE: Eighteen women who were postpartum, breastfeeding, and vaccinated against COVID- 19 either during pregnancy or while breastfeeding postpartum. MEASURES: Individual semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Two major themes shaped participants' habitus: health-focused knowledge, and attitudes and beliefs. Attitudes and beliefs included five subthemes: (1) exposure/acceptance/expectations from family, (2) community acceptance of breastfeeding and COVID-19 vaccination, (3) socioeconomic status, (4) easily accessed support, and (5) outside experiences and exposure. DISCUSSION: An individual's habitus impacts one's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs and interacts with past behaviors when discussing options for infant feeding and health promoting behaviors such as vaccinations. A better understanding of how health care providers assess and utilize habitus in clinical management is needed.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , COVID-19 , Lactante , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Toma de Decisiones , Vacunación , Madres
17.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 56: e0044, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37283345

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Safety and efficacy concerns regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are common among the public and have a negative impact on their uptake. We aimed to report the adverse effects currently associated with the vaccine in Pakistan to build confidence among the population for its adoption. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan between January and March 2022. The participants were recruited using convenience sampling. All data were analyzed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: We recruited 1622 people with the majority aged between 25-45 years. Of these, 51% were female, including 27 pregnant women and 42 lactating mothers. Most participants had received the Sinopharm (62.6%) or Sinovac (17.8%) vaccines. The incidences of at least one side effect after the first (N = 1622), second (N = 1484), and booster doses (N = 219) of the COVID-19 vaccine were 16.5%, 20.1%, and 32%, respectively. Inflammation/erythema at the injection site, pain at the injection site, fever, and bone/muscle pain were common side effects of vaccination. No significant differences were observed in the adverse effect scores between all demographic variables except for pregnancy (P = 0.012) after the initial dose. No significant association was observed between any variable and the side effect scores of the second and booster doses of the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a 16-32% prevalence of self-reported side effects after the first, second, and booster COVID-19 vaccinations. Most adverse effects were mild and transient, indicating the safety of different COVID-19 vaccines.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Estudios Transversales , Pakistán/epidemiología , Lactancia , COVID-19/prevención & control
18.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286289, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37262063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women planning to become pregnant, who are pregnant, and who are breastfeeding are more hesitant to take COVID-19 vaccines compared to other women globally. AIM: This study investigates COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among women, who are planning for pregnancy, currently pregnant, and breastfeeding women in Jordan. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was conducted in the biggest three cities in Jordan, including 874 women. RESULTS: Women who were planning for pregnancy, pregnant, or breastfeeding reported statistically significant lower levels of perception of the seriousness of COVID-19 (7.12 ± 0.72, 7.53 ± 1.80, 7.2439 ± 7296, respectively), significant lower levels of perceived benefits of the vaccine (8.92 ± 2.15, 8.73 ± 1.93, 9.09 ± 2.10, respectively), significant lower levels of motivation and causes of action (7.15 ± 1.71, 6.7524 ± 1.40, 7.27 ± 1.68, respectively), and significantly higher levels of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy (31.32 ± 6.40, 30.11 ± 4.49, 30.27 ± 6.29, respectively) than other women. Married women, those whoe were previously infected with COVID-19, and those who had chronic diseases reported statistically significant lower levels of perception of COVID-19 seriousness, perceived benefits of COVID-19 vaccine, motivation to take COVID-19 vaccine, and causes of action, and significantly higher levels of hesitancy to take COVID-19 vaccine than unmarried women, those who have not been infected with COVID-19, and those who were medically healthy (p<0.001). There were statistically significant positive correlations between perception, perceived benefits, motivation, and cause of action with years of education; and statistically significant negative correlations between perception, perceived benefits, motivation, and cause of action with age (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Women who were planning for pregnancy, pregnant, or breastfeeding in Jordan showed miderate scores in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy despite the current international recommendations for its safety for women and their foetuses or neonates.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Jordania/epidemiología , Lactancia Materna , Vacunación , Mujeres Embarazadas
19.
Vaccine ; 41(26): 3885-3890, 2023 06 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37208208

RESUMEN

Pregnant and lactating women's vaccine decision-making process is influenced by many factors. Pregnant women were at increased risk for severe disease and poor health outcomes from COVID-19 at various time points during the pandemic. COVID-19 vaccines have been found to be safe and protective during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. In this study, we sought to examine key factors that informed the decision-making process among pregnant and lactating women in Bangladesh. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews, with 12 pregnant and 12 lactating women. These women were from three communities in Bangladesh: one urban community, and two rural communities. We used a grounded theory approach to identify emerging themes and organized emerging themes using a socio-ecological model. The socio-ecological model suggests that individuals are influenced by many levels, including individual-level influences, interpersonal-level influences, health care system-level influences, and policy-level influences. We found key factors at each socio-ecological level that influenced the decision-making process of pregnant and lactating women, including perceived benefits of vaccines and vaccine safety (individual-level), the influence of husbands and peers (interpersonal-level), health care provider recommendations and vaccine eligibility (health care system-level), and vaccine mandates (policy-level). As vaccination can reduce the effect of COVID-19 disease in mothers, infants, and unborn children, targeting critical factors that inform the decision-making process is paramount for improving vaccine acceptance. We hope the results of this study will inform vaccine acceptance efforts to ensure that pregnant and lactating women take advantage of this life-saving intervention.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Lactante , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Lactancia , Bangladesh , Mujeres Embarazadas , Vacunación
20.
J Hum Lact ; 39(3): 415-425, 2023 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37009722

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and recently pregnant people have lower vaccination rates against SARS-CoV-2 than the general population, despite increased risk of adverse outcomes from infection. Little is known about vaccine hesitancy in this population. RESEARCH AIM: To characterize SARS-CoV-2 and other vaccine attitudes of lactating people who accepted the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, describing their vaccine experiences to further contextualize their beliefs. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional online survey design was used. We administered the survey to 100 lactating people in Pennsylvania from April to August 2021, upon enrollment into a longitudinal study investigating SARS-CoV-2 vaccine antibodies in human milk. This survey assessed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine attitudes, vaccine counseling from providers, and vaccine decision making. Associations between vaccination timing and beliefs were analyzed by Pearson chi-square. RESULTS: Of 100 respondents, all received ≥ 1 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine before or shortly after enrollment, with 44% (n = 44) vaccinated in pregnancy and 56% (n = 56) while lactating. Participants reported vaccination counseling by obstetric (n = 48; 70%) and pediatric (n = 25; 36%) providers. Thirty-two percent (n = 32) received no advice on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination from healthcare providers, while 69% (n = 69) were counseled that vaccination was safe and beneficial.While 6% (n = 6) and 5% (n = 5) reported concerns about the safety of maternal vaccines for lactating people or their infants, respectively, 12% (n = 12) and 9% (n = 9) expressed concerns about the safety of maternal SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in particular. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high uptake of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among participants, safety concerns persisted, with many reporting a lack of direct counseling from providers. Future research should investigate how variability in provider counseling affects SARS-CoV-2 vaccine uptake in perinatal populations.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Lactante , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Niño , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios Transversales , Lactancia , Estudios Longitudinales , Pandemias , Estudios Prospectivos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Lactancia Materna , Vacunación
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