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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802300

RESUMEN

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) provides oxygen to the exercising muscles and is related to body adiposity, with cardiometabolic variables. The aim was to develop reference values and a predictive model of CRF in Chilean adolescents. A total of 741 adolescents of both genders (15.7 years old) participated in a basic anthropometry, performance in the six-minute walk test (SMWT), and in Course Navette was measured. Percentiles were determined for the SMWT, for the V̇O2max, and an equation was developed to estimate it. The validity of the equation was checked using distribution assumptions and the Bland-Altman diagram. The STATA v.14 program was used (p < 0.05). The 50th percentile values for males and females in the SMWT and in the V̇O2max of Course Navette were, respectively, from 607 to 690 and from 630 to 641 m, and from 43.9 to 45 and from 37.5 to 31.5 mlO2·kg·min-1, for the range of 13 to 17 years. For its part, the model to predict V̇O2max incorporated gender, heart rate, height, waist-to-height ratio (WHR), and distance in the SMWT (R2 = 0.62; estimation error = 0.38 LO2·min-1; p <0.001). Reference values can guide physical fitness in Chilean adolescents, and V̇O2max was possible to predict from morphofunctional variables.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Adolescente , Chile , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno , Aptitud Física , Prueba de Paso
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 243, 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821353

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of sediment elutriates of an aquatic ecosystem. Sediment samples were taken from Limache stream, located in central Chile. The tests were carried out on sediment elutriates. Genotoxicity was determined by bioassay with Allium cepa. The percentage of germination, root growth, mitotic index, and frequency of chromosome aberrations were determined. The results show a significant increase in chromosome aberrations and decrease of the mitotic index in Allium cepa in all the sediment elutriates compared to the control. No significant differences were observed in the percentages of germination or root growth among the sediment elutriates. A negative correlation was found between the mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations. In conclusion, genotoxic variables are more sensitive than growth variables. The sediments contain chemical agents in bioavailable concentrations that produce genotoxic effects. Allium cepa test proved to be a sensitive indicator of genotoxic contaminants in sediment elutriates of the Limache stream in central Chile.


Asunto(s)
Allium , Cebollas , Chile , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Daño del ADN , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Índice Mitótico , Raíces de Plantas , Ríos
3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(3): e00244719, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852665

RESUMEN

Since the Declaration of Alma-Ata in 1978, primary healthcare (PHC) is considered an essential component of health systems. In the Chilean case, management of primary care was municipalized during the dictatorship and maintained by the subsequent governments, with some reforms. The aim of this article was to estimate and analyze spending in PHC in Chile, during the governments of Sebastián Piñera and Michelle Bachelet. Collection of financial data was oriented by the model of National Health Accounts (CNS), and later the amounts were deflated according to the Consumer Price Index. The principal source of information was the National System of Municipal Information (SINIM). The results show that during the period there was a permanent increase in spending in PHC; however, the average percent change was slightly higher in the first government compared to the second. The percentage of spending in PHC in relation to public spending in health was 21.4% for the eight years, with few variations. Indicators show that inequalities between administrative and health regions are increasing steadily. Therefore, although transfers to fund primary care services are increasing, they may be poorly distributed. This and other problems like the commodification of services and dismantlement of the network compromise the consolidation of PHC, especially in a health system based on contributive insurance like the Chilean system.


Asunto(s)
Financiación Gubernamental , Atención Primaria de Salud , Brasil , Chile , Gobierno , Humanos
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802727

RESUMEN

The Public Health Service in Chile consists of different levels of complexity and coverage depending on the severity and degree of specialization of the pathology to be treated. From primary to tertiary care, tertiary care is highly complex and has low coverage. This work focuses on an analysis of the public health system with emphasis on the healthcare network and tertiary care, whose objectives are designed to respond to the needs of each patient. A review of the literature and a field study of the problem of studying the perception of internal and external users is presented. This study intends to be a contribution in the detection of opportunities for the relevant actors and the processes involved through the performance of Triage. The main causes and limitations of the excessive use of emergency services in Chile are analyzed and concrete proposals are generated aiming to benefit clinical care in emergency services. Finally, improvements related to management are proposed and the main aspects are determined to improve decision-making in hospitals, which could be a contribution to public health policies.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Chile , Hospitales , Humanos , Triaje
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804156

RESUMEN

In addition to complying with strict academic standards, nursing students must acquire relevant knowledge and skills, and learn how to carry themselves in different and often stressful professional settings. These obligations could severely affect their mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine the mental health status of undergraduate nursing students and related factors. A total of 1368 nursing students from different universities in Spain and Chile were included in this study, which took place over the 2018-2019 academic year. We assessed their levels of stress related to specific learning methodologies and determined their mental health status using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The results revealed that the more advanced the course was, the lower the total GHQ-28 score. The stress generated by different types of training activities had a significant effect on the total GHQ-28 score. These results suggest that nursing education could act as a protective factor against mental health disorders. Although a heavy academic workload could lead to higher levels of stress, overall, it seems that mental health is better in more advanced courses than in initial academic years.


Asunto(s)
Bachillerato en Enfermería , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Chile , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , España , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 728, 2021 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858373

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The available evidence of the health effects of urban regeneration is scarce In Latin America, and there are no studies focused on formal housing that longitudinally evaluate the impact of housing and neighborhood interventions on health. The "Regeneración Urbana, Calidad de Vida y Salud" (Urban Regeneration, Quality of Life, and Health) or RUCAS project is a longitudinal, multi-method study that will evaluate the impact of an intervention focused on dwellings, built environment and community on the health and wellbeing of the population in two social housing neighborhoods in Chile. METHODS: RUCAS consists of a longitudinal study where inhabitants exposed and unexposed to the intervention will be compared over time within the study neighborhoods (cohorts), capitalizing on interventions as a natural experiment. Researchers have developed a specific conceptual framework and identified potential causal mechanisms. Proximal and more distal intervention effects will be measured with five instruments, implemented pre- and post-interventions between 2018 and 2021: a household survey, an observation tool to evaluate dwelling conditions, hygrochrons for measuring temperature and humidity inside dwellings, systematic observation of recreational areas, and qualitative interviews. Survey baseline data (956 households, 3130 individuals) is presented to describe sociodemographics, housing and health characteristics of both cohorts, noting that neighborhoods studied show worse conditions than the Chilean population. DISCUSSION: RUCAS' design allows for a comprehensive evaluation of the effects that the intervention could have on various dimensions of health and health determinants. RUCAS will face some challenges, like changes in the intervention process due to adjustments of the master plan, exogenous factors -including COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns- and lost to follow-up. Given the stepped wedge design, that the study capitalizes on within household changes over time, the possibility of adjusting data collection process and complementarity of methods, RUCAS has the flexibility to adapt to these circumstances. Also, RUCAS' outreach and retention strategy has led to high retention rates. RUCAS will provide evidence to inform regeneration processes, highlighting the need to consider potential health effects of regeneration in designing such interventions and, more broadly, health as a key priority in urban and housing policies.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda Popular , Calidad de Vida , Características de la Residencia , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Chile/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Planificación Ambiental , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , América Latina , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916544

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers were already reporting a low quality of life (QoL) perception, with a significant impact on mental and physical health due to various stress factors associated with work overload. The objective of this study was to evaluate the QoL impact on Chilean teachers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis was performed following a longitudinal design on a sample of 63 Chilean teachers in pre-pandemic and COVID-19 pandemic timeframes. QoL perception, along with teachers' sociodemographic data, was evaluated via the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Sociodemographic variables presented no significant variations in pre-pandemic and pandemic comparisons. QoL, however, showed a significant decrease during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic measurement (p < 0.01). In each gender, there were significant differences between pre-pandemic and pandemic timeframes, with a greater impact among women in the mental and physical component summary variables and seven of the eight QoL scales (p < 0.01). Between age categories, people under 45 presented significant differences (p < 0.05) between pre-pandemic and pandemic timeframes in all summary dimensions and measurements. In conclusion, Chilean teachers' QoL perception has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings could be related to work overload due to teleworking or feelings of uncertainty, loneliness, and fear that the pandemic and its associated confinements will worsen.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Pandemias
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921934

RESUMEN

The understanding of infectious diseases is a priority in the field of public health. This has generated the inclusion of several disciplines and tools that allow for analyzing the dissemination of infectious diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to model the spreading of a disease in a population that is registered in a database. From this database, we obtain an edge-weighted graph. The spreading was modeled with the classic SIR model. The model proposed with edge-weighted graph allows for identifying the most important variables in the dissemination of epidemics. Moreover, a deterministic approximation is provided. With database COVID-19 from a city in Chile, we analyzed our model with relationship variables between people. We obtained a graph with 3866 vertices and 6,841,470 edges. We fitted the curve of the real data and we have done some simulations on the obtained graph. Our model is adjusted to the spread of the disease. The model proposed with edge-weighted graph allows for identifying the most important variables in the dissemination of epidemics, in this case with real data of COVID-19. This valuable information allows us to also include/understand the networks of dissemination of epidemics diseases as well as the implementation of preventive measures of public health. These findings are important in COVID-19's pandemic context.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Epidemias , Chile/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922944

RESUMEN

The present study examines the trajectories of unhealthy food and alcohol consumption over time and considers whether perceived impact of COVID-19 and psychological variables are predictors of these trajectories. We ascertained whether these predictors are different in women vs. men and between women living with vs. without children. Data were collected through online surveys administered to 1038 participants from two universities (staff and students) in Chile, across five waves (July to October 2020). Participants provided information about their past-week unhealthy food and alcohol consumption and mental health. Using latent growth curve modeling analysis, we found that higher perceived health and interpersonal COVID-19 impact, younger age and lower depression symptoms were associated with more rapid increases over time in unhealthy food consumption. On the other hand, higher perceived COVID-19 economic impact and older age were associated with more rapid diachronic decreases in alcohol consumption. Gender and living with or without children, for women only, were moderators of these trajectories. This longitudinal study provides strong evidence identifying the multiple repercussions of COVID-19 and mental health factors on unhealthy food and alcohol consumption. These findings highlight the need for interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of the pandemic on unhealthy food and alcohol consumption over time.


Asunto(s)
Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Niño , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino
10.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e929598, 2021 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883542

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND People with hemophilia A have shown osteomuscular complications that have a significant impact on their quality of life (QoL) and on health care costs. Patients with hemophilia A with inhibitors living in developing countries such as Chile face a high disease and treatment burden. Emicizumab, a humanized bispecific monoclonal antibody, is associated with improvements in QoL and reduction in the financial impact of the disease related to treatment. This case report describes the impact of emicizumab on a patient with severe hemophilia A with inhibitors in terms of breakthrough bleeding control, improvements in QoL, and reduced financial impact after a year of treatment, in a country where this medication is not routinely available. CASE REPORT A 10-year-old child with severe hemophilia A with inhibitors had several restrictions in his daily life due to multiple incidences of breakthrough bleeding. He was on episodic treatment with bypassing agents, and in the year prior to treatment with emicizumab he had 18 bleeding episodes. After 1 year on prophylaxis treatment with emicizumab, the patient had only 1 bleeding episode (94.4% of reduction), improved pain control (5-point reduction on the visual analogue scale), a decrease in the Hemophilia Joint Health Score from 39 to 19, the QoL perception increased by 86% on the standardized Haemo-QoL-kids, and a 70% reduction in treatment costs versus the costs of episodic treatment with bypassing agents. CONCLUSIONS After 1 year of treatment with emicizumab, this patient had substantial improvements in the evaluated parameters. Further investigations with emicizumab are needed to assess its possible effects on public health policies.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Biespecíficos/uso terapéutico , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de Factor de Coagulación Sanguínea , Hemofilia A/tratamiento farmacológico , Metrorragia , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Niño , Chile , Factor VIII , Femenino , Hemofilia A/psicología , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Zootaxa ; 4915(1): zootaxa.4915.1.9, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756589

RESUMEN

A new species of Mauroniscus Bourgeois, 1911, Mauroniscus chilensis n. sp., from central Chile is described using external characters of the adult male and female including terminal segments of the abdomen and genitalia. The morphological differences of Mauroniscus chilensis n. sp. with M. maculatum Pic, 1927 are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Chile , Femenino , Genitales , Masculino
12.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05002, 2021 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643635

RESUMEN

Background: Governments worldwide have implemented large-scale non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as social distancing or school closures, to prevent and control the growth of the COVID-19 pandemic. These strategies, implemented with varying stringency, have imposed substantial social and economic costs to society. As some countries begin to reopen and ease mobility restrictions, lockdowns in smaller geographic areas are increasingly considered an attractive policy intervention to mitigate societal costs while controlling epidemic growth. Nevertheless, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support these decisions. Methods: Drawing from a rich data set of localized lockdowns in Chile, we used econometric methods to measure the reduction in local economic activity from lockdowns when applied to smaller or larger geographical areas. We measured economic activity by tax collection at the municipality-level. Results: Our results show that lockdowns were associated with a 10%-15% drop in local economic activity, which is twice the reduction in local economic activity suffered by municipalities that were not under lockdown. A three-to-four-month lockdown had a similar effect on economic activity than a year of the 2009 great recession. We found costs are proportional to the population under lockdown, without differences when lockdowns were measured at the municipality or city-wide levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that localized lockdowns have a large effect on local economic activity, but these effects are proportional to the population under lockdown. Our results suggest that epidemiological criteria should guide decisions about the optimal size of lockdown areas since the proportional impact of lockdowns on the economy seems to be unchanged by scale.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Cuarentena/economía , /epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Humanos , Política Pública
13.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 97(5)2021 04 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749784

RESUMEN

Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have enabled the large-scale interrogation of microbiota in the most diverse environments, including host-associated microbiota. This has led to the recognition that the skin microbiota of rorquals is specific and structurally different from that of the ocean. This study reveals the skin microbiome of 85 wild individuals along the Chilean coast belonging to Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera musculus and Balaenoptera physalus. Alpha diversity analysis revealed significant differences in richness and phylogenetic diversity, particularly among humpback whales from different locations and between blue and humpback whales. Beta diversity was partially explained by host and location but only accounting for up to 17% of microbiota variability (adjusted VPA). Overall, we found that microbiota composition was dominated by bacterial genera such as Cardiobacter, Moraxella, Tenacibaculum, Stenotrophomonas, Flavobacteria and Pseudomonas. We also found that no ASVs were associated with the three rorqual species. Up to four ASVs were specific of a location, indicating a great variability in the microbiota. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the composition and structure of the skin microbiota of whales off the coast of Chile, providing a foundational dataset to understand the microbiota's role in rorquals.


Asunto(s)
Balaenoptera , Yubarta , Microbiota , Animales , Chile , Filogenia
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668981

RESUMEN

Chile has a serious public health problem due to the high prevalence of both unhealthy dietary patterns and mental illnesses. Given that dietary quality is positively associated with the quality of mental health, it is urgent that healthy dietary patterns be promoted among Chileans. The WHO recommends the use of mass media for the dissemination of knowledge about mental health. Since health news affect people's attitudes and health behaviors, this study analyzed the coverage by three Chilean online newspapers with the largest readership regarding the relation between diet and mental health in 2016. A previously constructed corpus of 2551 news items about food was analyzed quantitatively. The results show that the relevance of the topic diet and mental health was low in all three newspapers. The most frequent type of information was on "foods" and not "nutrients" that "benefit"-not that "damage"-mental health. The quality of the news was poor as a narrow range of sources was found. An individual responsibility frame predominated in the information to the detriment of a public health frame.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Salud Mental , Chile/epidemiología , Dieta , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670960

RESUMEN

There is abundant evidence about the negative impact of discrimination on well-being, but less research on factors that can reduce this negative effect, mainly focused on North American samples and with incipient development on South-South migration. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of ethnic identity on the relationship between the experience of racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological well-being in Colombian immigrants living in Chile. A total of 962 immigrants over the age of 18 from three cities in Chile participated. Of these, 50.7% were women. The average age was 35 years (SD = 10.23). Participants were evaluated using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, Phinney's adapted version of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Scale, and Krieger's Discrimination Experience Scale. After the analysis of the measurement models, a mediation model was analyzed using structural equations. The results provide evidence that ethnic and racial discrimination have negative effects on psychological well-being, with the effect of racial discrimination being greater. Likewise, ethnic identity has positive effects on psychological well-being and partially and completely mediates the effects of ethnic and racial discrimination on psychological well-being. The full effect of discrimination on psychological well-being, mediated by ethnic identity, is exercised only by racial discrimination and not by ethnic discrimination.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Racismo , Adulto , Chile , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672115

RESUMEN

Migration in Chile has increased exponentially in recent years, with education being one of the main focuses of attention in this cultural transformation. Integration and social competence in the migrant population are determined by several factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of resilience and acculturation stress on the levels of integration and social competence in migrant students in Northern Chile. In total, 292 school children of both genders aged 8 to 18, from the fourth grade to senior year of high school, participated in the investigation. A subscale of the Child and Adolescent Assessment System (Sistema de evaluación de niños y adolescentes SENA) was used to assess integration and social competence. Additionally, the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-12) and the Acculturation Stress Source Scale (FEAC) were used. The results show that integration and social competence have statistically significant and direct associations with resilience (p < 0.001) and indirect associations with acculturation stress (p = 0.009). Both constructs could be defined as protection and risk factors, respectively, and should be considered in educational contexts to favor adaptation in the integration of migrant children and adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Aculturación , Migrantes , Adolescente , Niño , Chile , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Habilidades Sociales , Estudiantes
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669691

RESUMEN

In this study, we sought to understand, from a gender perspective, the experiences of mining couples in Antofagasta, Chile, especially the balance between their intimate lives and the absences of their partners due to the shift work modality. We analyzed testimonies from men and women living in Antofagasta, which is considered to be one of the world's three largest mining regions. Among the main findings, power relations based on the hegemonic gender model supported by the sexual division of labor were identified, which persist in this mining area, despite progress in gender equality issues in Chile. Although there are differences between the discourses of men and women and their subjective positioning, we propose that both actively collaborate with the reproduction of social gender relations marked by male domination. We propose that the way in which couples live is associated with the organization of mining work and especially the shift system, which is central to the reproduction of the gender order with a heteropatriarchal tone.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Chile , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 176, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706709

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chile has one of the longest life expectancies of Latin America. The country is characterised by an important macroeconomic growth and persisting socioeconomic inequalities. This study analyses socioeconomic differences in life expectancy (LE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) among Chilean older people. METHODS: The sample of the Social Protection Survey, a longitudinal study, was analysed. Five waves, from 2004 to 2016, were considered. The indicator was disability, defined as having difficulties to perform at least one basic activity of daily living. Type of health insurance was used to determine socioeconomic position (SEP). Total LE and DFLE were estimated with multistate life table models. RESULTS: At age 60, men in the higher SEP could expect to live 3.7 years longer (22.2; 95% CI 19.6-24.8) compared to men of the same age in the medium SEP (18.4; 95% CI 17.4-19.4), and 4.9 years longer than men of the same age in the lower SEP (17.3; 95% CI 16.4-18.2). They also had a DFLE (19.4; 95% CI 17.1-21.7) 4 (15.4; 95% CI 14.6-16.1) and 5.2 (14.2; 95% CI 13.4-14.9) years longer, compared to the same groups. Women aged 60 years in the higher SEP had a LE (27.2; 95% CI 23.7-30.8) 4.6 (22.7; 95% CI 21.9-23.5) and 5.6 (21.6; 20.6-22.6) years longer, compared to women in the medium and the lower SEP. The difference in DFLE, for the same age and groups was 4.9 and 6.1 years, respectively (high: 21.4; 95% CI 19.5-23.3; medium: 16.5; 95% CI 15.8-17.1; low: 15.3; 95% CI 14.6-16.0). Socioeconomic differences in LE and DFLE were observed among both sexes until advanced age. DISCUSSION: Socioeconomic inequalities in LE and DFLE were found among Chilean older men and women. Older people in the highest SEP live longer and healthier lives. CONCLUSION: A reform to the Chilean health system should be considered, in order to guarantee timely access to care and benefits for older people who are not in the wealthiest group.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Esperanza de Vida , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109129, 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711686

RESUMEN

The production of pome fruits as pears and apples, as well as their derived industries, is of great economic importance in North Patagonia. The elaboration of fermented beverages as cider or perry has evidenced a substantial diversification during the last years, with the evaluation of different fruit varieties, yeast starters and technological changes. In this work, two cryotolerant yeasts belonging to the species Saccharomyces uvarum were evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale in sterile and no-sterile pear must. One of the strains was originally isolated from apple chicha (strain NPCC1314) and the other from apple cider (strain NPCC1420) in Patagonia. Both physicochemical and sensory features of the fermented products were evaluated. Both strains were able to successfully complete the fermentations, although strain NPCC1420 showed the better kinetic properties including a faster sugar consumption than the strain NPCC1314. Both strains showed excellent implantation capacity, but the fermented products showed different chemical profiles. The perry fermented with the strain NPCC1314 was characterized by better sensory attributes as assessed by trained panelists and a greater acceptance for untrained public than the same fermented with the strain NPCC1420. The two strains were able to consume sorbitol, both in pear must and in agar-plates supplemented with sorbitol as the sole carbon source. This ability is described for the first time in S. uvarum, at least for the two strains evaluated in this work.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Alimentos y Bebidas Fermentados/microbiología , Pyrus/microbiología , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Argentina , Reactores Biológicos , Chile , Fermentación , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiología , Malus/microbiología , Saccharomyces/aislamiento & purificación , Levaduras/clasificación , Levaduras/aislamiento & purificación
20.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53405

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Presentar la metodología de evaluación integral de la implementación del Programa de Acción Mundial para Superar las Brechas en Salud Mental (mhGAP) en Chile y exponer sus resultados. Métodos. Estudio evaluativo de corte transversal basado en una encuesta a referentes clave del programa, desplegados en los 29 servicios públicos de salud del país, y entrevistas individuales y grupos focales con actores clave y expertos. El foco de la evaluación estuvo en la relevancia e impacto del mhGAP en la prestación de servicios de salud mental y en la implementación del programa. Resultados. Los participantes evaluaron positivamente la implementación progresiva del mhGAP en Chile, en particular: 1) manifestaron contar con mejores herramientas de detección, diagnóstico y tratamiento de trastornos frecuentes, y estrategias eficientes de derivación; 2) calificaron todos los módulos como importantes; los más relevantes fueron autolesión/suicidio (x¯ = 4,77) y trastornos mentales y conductuales del niño y el adolescente (x¯ = 4,58); 3) evaluaron favorablemente las Jornadas Nacionales y sus réplicas y su contribución al éxito de la implementación del mhGAP; 4) coincidieron en la necesidad de incorporar nuevos actores, fortalecer algunos aspectos y ampliar la información sobre el programa. Conclusiones. La implementación del mhGAP en Chile constituye un caso emblemático de aprendizaje, apoyado por el desarrollo de la salud mental comunitaria y la salud familiar, entre otros factores. Lo logrado abre una oportunidad única para continuar avanzando en la implementación de este programa en el país y transmitir esta experiencia a otros contextos de América Latina y el Caribe.


[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. Present the methodology for comprehensive evaluation of the implementation of the Mental Health Global Action Programme (mhGAP) in Chile and describe the program’s results. Methods. Cross-sectional evaluative study based on a survey of key program informants deployed in 29 public health services in the country, as well as individual interviews and focus groups with key actors and experts. The evaluation was focused on the relevance and impact of mhGAP on the provision of mental health services and on the implementation of the program. Results. The participants gave a positive evaluation of the progressive implementation of mhGAP in Chile. In particular: 1) They reported having better tools for detecting, diagnosing, and treating common disorders, and efficient referral strategies; (2) They rated all modules as important, the most relevant being self-harm/suicide (x¯ = 4.77) and mental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents (x¯ = 4.58); (3) They favorably assessed the National Mental Health Day training courses and the subsequent courses repeated at the local level, indicating that these courses contributed to successful implementation of mhGAP; (4) They agreed on the need to incorporate new actors, strengthen certain aspects, and expand information on the program. Conclusions. The implementation of mhGAP in Chile is an emblematic example of learning supported by the development of community mental health and family health, among other factors. These accomplishments offer a unique opportunity to continue advancing the implementation of this program in the country and to implement this experience in other contexts in Latin America and the Caribbean.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Apresentar a metodologia de avaliação completa da implementação do Programa de ação mundial para reduzir as lacunas em saúde mental (Mental Health GAP, mhGAP) no Chile e descrever seus resultados. Métodos. Estudo avaliativo transversal baseado em levantamento realizado com profissionais de referência do programa, distribuídos em 29 serviços de saúde da rede pública do país, e entrevistas individuais e grupos focais com as principais partes interessadas e especialistas. O enfoque da avaliação foi a relevância e o impacto do mhGAP na prestação de serviços de saúde mental e a implementação do programa. Resultados. Os participantes do estudo avaliaram positivamente a implementação progressiva do mhGAP no Chile. Em particular, 1) eles afirmaram possuir recursos melhores para detecção, diagnóstico e tratamento de transtornos frequentes e estratégias de encaminhamento eficientes; 2) classificaram todos os módulos como importantes, com destaque a autoagressão/suicídio (x¯ = 4,77) e transtornos mentais e de comportamento em crianças e adolescentes (x¯ = 4,58); 3) avaliaram de forma favorável a realização das Jornadas Nacionais de Saúde Mental e suas iterações em nível local contribuindo ao sucesso da implementação do mhGAP e 4) concordaram com a necessidade de atrair mais interessados, reforçar alguns aspectos e ampliar a divulgação do programa. Conclusões. A implementação do mhGAP no Chile é um caso emblemático de aprendizado apoiado no avanço da saúde mental comunitária e saúde da família, entre outros fatores. Esta conquista cria uma oportunidade única para continuar a expandir a implementação do programa no país e disseminar esta experiência a outros contextos na América Latina e Caribe.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud Mental , Atención Primaria de Salud , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Chile , Atención a la Salud Mental , Atención Primaria de Salud , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Atención a la Salud Mental , Atención Primaria de Salud , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
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