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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250171, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857226

RESUMEN

Effective and rapid decision making during a pandemic requires data not only about infections, but also about human behavior. Mobile phone surveys (MPS) offer the opportunity to collect real-time data on behavior, exposure, knowledge, and perception, as well as care and treatment to inform decision making. The surveys aimed to collect coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related information in Ecuador and Sri Lanka using mobile phones. In Ecuador, a Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey was conducted. In Sri Lanka, an evaluation of a novel medicine delivery system was conducted. Using the established mobile network operator channels and technical assistance provided through The Bloomberg Philanthropies Data for Health Initiative (D4H), Ministries of Health fielded a population-based COVID-19-specific MPS using Surveda, the open source data collection tool developed as part of the initiative. A total of 1,185 adults in Ecuador completed the MPS in 14 days. A total of 5,001 adults over the age of 35 in Sri Lanka completed the MPS in 44 days. Both samples were adjusted to the 2019 United Nations Population Estimates to produce population-based estimates by age and sex. The Ecuador COVID-19 MPS found that there was compliance with the mitigation strategies implemented in that country. Overall, 96.5% of Ecuadorians reported wearing a face mask or face covering when leaving home. Overall, 3.8% of Sri Lankans used the service to receive medicines from a government clinic. Among those who used the medicine delivery service in Sri Lanka, 95.8% of those who used a private pharmacy received their medications within one week, and 69.9% of those using a government clinic reported the same. These studies demonstrate that MPS can be conducted quickly and gather essential data. MPS can help monitor the impact of interventions and programs, and rapidly identify what works in mitigating the impact of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Teléfono Celular , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Sri Lanka/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 288, 2021 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886016

RESUMEN

In Santo Domingo de los Tsa'chilas province, Ecuador, the population grows proportionally to the territorial extension in urban and rural parishes; therefore, the conception of domestic solid waste has increased exponentially. In this context, in recent years, the distribution of routes for waste collection has not been dealt with or technically explored. The research objective is to apply the theory of graphs to the sector and use the exact method of the Travel Agent Problem (TSP) in dynamic programming to generate optimal routes by sectors. In addition to measuring the variables longitudinally, we test the researcher's hypothesis using parametric techniques for independent samples in the variable's travel time and distance between the usual route and the new route in the Río Verde parish of Santo Domingo Canton.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Residuos Sólidos , Algoritmos , Ecuador , Viaje
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801770

RESUMEN

Natural disasters can generate millions of tons of debris and waste, which has an impact on the environment and poses direct risks to the health of the population, hence the need to analyze public policy and its consequences following the 2016 earthquake in Ecuador. Several in-depth interviews were conducted with individuals active in public service during the post-earthquake management period, together with fieldwork analysis of debris management and the institutional strategies for its recycling and reuse in three of the most affected cities: Pedernales, Portoviejo, and Manta. The environmental impact was examined, including its taxonomy of inconsistencies within public administration, alongside the processes of decentralization and shared decision-making. Similarly, the links between corporate social responsibility (CSR), public policy, and sustainability were analyzed at both the national and local level for their wider implications and ramifications. The study highlighted the gaps in the management of such a crisis, exposing a lack of ethics and the shortcomings of social (ir-)responsibility in the distorted processes of public welfare in the country, aspects that should rather work in concert to achieve full sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Terremotos , Ecuador , Humanos , Política Pública , Responsabilidad Social , Desarrollo Sostenible
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801864

RESUMEN

Mining and petroleum production are the source of many elements and base materials fundamental for our modern way of life. The flip side of these keystone industries is the environmental degradation they can cause if not properly managed. Metallic mining and petroleum production can contaminate the local ecosystem with sediments, chemicals used in the industrial processes and heavy metals, part of the metallic ore or oil reservoir. The objective of this project was to analyze the spatial distribution of the presence of different potentially hazardous elements that make up the metallic deposits and oil reservoirs in Ecuador, focused mainly on artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) districts. Additionally, we were interested in analyzing this information under the local political and administrative contexts which are key to determining how likely it is that mismanagement of the local mineral deposits and petroleum exploitation projects will end up causing environmental degradation. An extensive and intensive literature search was conducted for information on the presence and concentration of 19 potentially harmful elements. We analyzed data on 11 metallic deposits throughout Ecuador and a major oilfield in the Ecuadorian Amazon basin. We used geographic information systems to analyze the spatial distribution of these reservoirs and their mineral compositions. The results indicated a widespread distribution and high concentration of elements potentially harmful for human health, such as mercury, cadmium and arsenic, throughout the metallic deposits in Ecuador. This is particularly true for long-exploited ASGM districts, such as Ponce-Enríquez, Portovelo-Zaruma and Nambija. This study highlights the importance of understanding geological diversity and its potential risks to better protect the biological diversity and public health of its inhabitants. Furthermore, we consider our work not as a call to stop ASGM mining nor petroleum production, but on the contrary as a strong call to plan every mining and petroleum production project considering these risks. Moreover, our work is a call to action by the local government and authorities to stop corruption and fulfill their duties overseeing the activities of mining and petroleum companies, stopping illegal mining, helping ASGM communities to improve their environmental standards, finding alternative income sources and protecting the local environment.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Metales Pesados , Petróleo , Ecosistema , Ecuador , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Oro , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minería
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807140

RESUMEN

Confinement due to COVID-19 has brought important changes in people's lives as well as in their eating and resting habits. In this study we aimed at exploring the eating habits and sleep quality of the adult population of Ecuador during the mandatory confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a cross-sectional study, which used an online survey that included questions about eating habits and sleeping habits in adults (n = 9522) between 18-69 years old. The Pittsburg sleep quality questionnaire validated for the Hispanic population was used, and questions about dietary habits. The statistical test Chi-square statistical test was used to analyze the data. The results show that sleep quality differs according to sex, being worse in women, both in all components of sleep quality and in the total score (p < 0.001). Women had greater changes in the habitual consumption of food compared to men (24.24% vs. 22.53%), and people between 18 and 40 years of age decreased their food consumption in relation to people >40 years (24.06% vs. 17.73%). Our results indicate that mandatory confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador has generated changes in the eating habits and sleep quality in the adult population sampled, and these changes are more noticeable in women and young adults. These changes offer an important alert for the health system and further, advice for the implementation of future public health policies.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sueño , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 212, 2021 04 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910550

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with serious consequences that have led to the implementation of unprecedented social isolation measures. At the early stages of the pandemic, Ecuador was one of the most affected countries in Latin America. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of depression, anxiety and stress in the Ecuadorian general population during the social isolation period due to COVID-19. METHODS: A web-based survey consisting of 31 short-answer and multiple-choice questions was administered to the general population from April 22-May 3, 2020. Mental health status was assessed through the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items (DASS-21) questionnaire. Ordinal logistic analyses were used to identify potential risk factors associated with the severity of mental health issues. RESULTS: A total of 626 individuals were included. Most of them were females (60.5%), and their mean age was 29.6 ± 11.7 years. Approximately 17.7% of the respondents had moderate to very severe levels of depression, 30.7% had similar levels of anxiety, and 14.2% experienced stress. Female sex, younger age, student status, and having a relative diagnosed with COVID-19 were associated with significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress. Ordinal regression models showed that being a student was a risk factor for having more severe levels of depression (OR = 3.67; 95% CI = 2.56-5.26, p: 0.0001), anxiety (OR= 1.86; 95% CI= 1.35-2.55, p: 0.0001), and stress (OR = 2.17; 95% CI= 1.47-3.19, p: 0.0001). Having a relative with COVID-19 was also found to be a risk factor only for depression (OR= 1.70; 95% CI= 1.03-2.80, p: 0.036) and anxiety (OR = 2.17; 95% CI= 1.35-3.47, p: 0.001). Additionally, male sex,  older age, and having more children were found to be protective factors for the three conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that social isolation due to the COVID-19 outbreak has impacted the mental health of the general population in Ecuador. We identified potential risk and protective factors that could serve as a foundation from which to develop psychological strategies to safeguard the mental health of our population during the current pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Aislamiento Social , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112495, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831761

RESUMEN

This study quantifies the degree of pollution and assess the ecological risk of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in sediments and soils of the Limoncocha Biological Reserve (Ecuador), identified as a Ramsar site with high ecological and socioeconomic value. The hydrologic system of the Reserve is mainly formed by two rivers that drain into the Limoncocha lagoon, which occupies only five percent of the protected area but support a high anthropic influence. Local statistical baseline of studied potentially toxic elements is established using cumulative frequency method, and Al is selected as reference element due to the good correlation with the studied elements. The grade of pollution and the potential ecological risk are evaluated applying three individual (Contamination Factor, Geo-accumulation Index and Enrichment Factor) and six integrated (Degree and modified degree of contamination, Pollution Load Index, Nemerow and modified Nemerow pollution indexes and potential ecological risk index) indices. Results analysis are based on the combined application of traditional statistics, multivariate data analysis and self organizing maps. Outcomes suggest to classify sediments and soils as "moderate contamination and enrichment" due mainly to the concentrations of Cu (66.4-110 mg/kg) and Cd (0.0262-0.808 mg/kg), derived from domestic wastewaters and agricultural activities, and in a lesser extent due to Mo (0.822-4.37 mg/kg), Ni (10.3-25.8 mg/kg), Co (7.27-24.8 mg/kg) and V (60.3-178 mg/kg), derived from oil field drilling activities. The distributions of As (0.328-8.83 mg/kg), Ba (143-1100 mg/kg), Pb (7.20-26.5 mg/kg), Zn (60.1-276 mg/kg) and Cr (10.1-48.6 mg/kg) are heterogeneous in the studied sampling sites. Sediments located next to the pier and at the central area of the Limoncocha lagoon, show moderate potential risk and according to sediment quality guidelines, the calculated mean Effect Range Median quotient (mERMq) classify the sites as medium-low priority risk level. A three-level classification of a mean quotient based on soil quality and soil potential uses is proposed. Soil sites with high anthropogenic activities show low to moderate potential ecological risk being classified as poor soil quality sites but with all potential soil uses allowed according to the legal limits for land uses in Ecuador.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , China , Ecuador , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Humedales
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925680

RESUMEN

A door-to-door survey was organised in Cuenca, Ecuador, to determine the prevalence of COVID-19 infection and adherence of the population to COVID-19 preventive measures. A total of 2457 persons participated in the study; 584 (23.7%) reported having experienced at least one flu-like symptom since the onset of the pandemic. The maximum SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in Cuenca was 13.2% (CI: 12-14.6%) (IgM or IgG positive). Considering PCR confirmed infections, the prevalence was 11% (CI: 10-12.4%). There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between rural and urban areas. Participants aged 35-49 years old, living with a COVID-19 positive person, at least six people in a household, physical contact with someone outside the household, a contact with a person outside the home with flu-like symptoms, using public transport, and not having enough resources for living, significantly increased the odds for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Overall, there was good adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures. Having known someone who tested positive for COVID-19, having a primary or secondary level of education, and having enough resources for living, significantly increased the odds for higher adherence. In conclusion, despite good overall adherence of the population of Cuenca with COVID-19 preventive measures, our study suggests high ongoing COVID-19 transmission in Cuenca, particularly in certain parishes. Prevention should not only focus on behavioural change, but on intensified testing strategies in demographical risk groups.


Asunto(s)
Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 637, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794837

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Testing is crucial for COVID-19 response and management, however, WHO's preparedness index omits estimations of actual testing capabilities, which influence the ability to contain, mitigate and clinically manage infectious diseases. With one of the highest excess death rates globally, Ecuador had a comparatively low number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, which may have been influenced by limited availability of data for decision-making due to low laboratory capacity. METHODS: We examine de-identified data on 55,063 individuals with suspected COVID-19 between February 27 and April 30, 2020 included in the RT-PCR testing database collected by the Ministry of Health. Processing times and rates per province, and the number of pending tests, were tallied cumulatively. We assessed the relationship between sample shipping, laboratory capacity and case completion using a negative binomial generalized linear model. RESULTS: The national average time for case completion was 3 days; 12.1% of samples took ≥10 days to complete; the national average daily backlog was 29.1 tests per 100,000 people. Only 8 out of 24 provinces had authorized COVID-19 processing laboratories but not all processed samples. There was an association between samples coming from outside the processing laboratory province, the number of other samples present at the laboratory during processing, and the amount of time needed to process a sample. Samples from another province took 1.29 times as long to process, on average. The percentage of pending results on April 30 was 67.1%. CONCLUSION: A centralized RT-PCR testing system contributes to critical delays in processing, which may mask a case burden higher than reported, impeding timely awareness, and adequate clinical care and vaccination strategies and subsequent monitoring. Although Ecuador adapted or authorized existing facilities to address limitations in laboratory capacity for COVID-19, this study highlights the need to estimate and augment laboratory capabilities for improved decision making and policies on diagnostic guidelines and availability. Support is needed to procure the necessary human and physical resources at all phases of diagnostic testing, including transportation of samples and supplies, and information management. Strengthening emergency preparedness enables a clear understanding of COVID-19 disparities within and across the country.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , /aislamiento & purificación , /genética , Ecuador/epidemiología , Política de Salud , Humanos , ARN Viral/genética , /genética
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805642

RESUMEN

(1) Background: The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) is the most well-known self-report measure to assess psychological inflexibility, a transdiagnostic pathological process, and targets for interventions. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the Ecuadorian Spanish version of the AAQ-II in a large sample of college students in Ecuador. (2) Methods: A total of 7905 students, 46.26% male and 53.75% female, from 11 Ecuadorian universities were surveyed. The AAQ-II was tested for factorial structure, reliability, and correlations with other health-related measures. (3) Results: The AAQ-II showed an unidimensional factorial structure, accounting for 66.87% to 70% of the total variance and showing a good fit of the data to the model (comparative adjustment index (CFI) = 0.995; goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.992; Standardized Root Mean Squared Residual (SRMR) = 0.037; mean square approximation error (RMSEA) = 0.047, CI90% = 0.038-0.056). Reliability was optimal (Cronbach's α = 0.919; ω = 0.928), and AAQ-II scores significantly correlated with multiple health indicators. Psychological inflexibility was significantly higher in women than men. (4) Conclusions: The Spanish version of the AAQ-II showed good psychometric properties, which further supports psychological inflexibility, not just as a transdiagnostic process.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Psicometría , Autoinforme , Ecuador , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Personalidad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805911

RESUMEN

Diabetes is a major public health problem, increasingly affecting low- and middle-income countries. The project CEAD (Contextualizing Evidence for Action in Diabetes in low-resource settings) aims to evaluate the implementation of comprehensive diabetes care in two low-resource settings in Ecuador and to stimulate context-led health systems innovations to improve diabetes care and reduce inequity. The mixed-methods approach includes a 24-month retrospective study to assess the current level of implementation of comprehensive diabetes care and participants will be followed up prospectively for two years to assess changes in healthcare and clinical outcomes from the outset of the research. We will include individuals diagnosed with type-2 diabetes aged over 18 years, who are accessing diabetes care in health facilities in the study districts. Varied stakeholders (patients and family members, community members, healthcare workers and decision-makers) will interpret the underlying causes of the observed weaknesses and propose solutions to strengthen diabetes-related healthcare in focus group discussions (FG). A second set of FG will analyze perceived improvements in healthcare based on prospective cohort findings and consider the success/failure of any context-led innovations occurring throughout the research. Our study will demonstrate how evidence can be contextualized to stimulate local innovations and overcome weaknesses of diabetes-related healthcare in low resource settings.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Programas de Gobierno , Adulto , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Ecuador , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803920

RESUMEN

Psychological stress, loneliness, and psychological inflexibility are associated with poorer mental health and professional performance in university teachers. However, the relationship between these variables is understudied. The aim of the present study is to analyze the mediating role of psychological (in)flexibility on the effect of loneliness on psychological stress. A total of 902 professors from 11 universities in Ecuador were analyzed using standardized scales: the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) to assess psychological stress, the Loneliness Scale Revised-Short (UCLA-3) for loneliness, and the Avoidance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-7) and Life Engagement Test as double measures of psychological (in)flexibility. Mediation was tested by using PROCESS macro for SPSS. The results indicated that psychological flexibility mediated the relationship between loneliness and stress in university professors, regardless of sex and the measure of psychological (in)flexibility considered. The practical implications of the results are discussed herein.


Asunto(s)
Docentes , Soledad , Ecuador , Humanos , Estrés Psicológico , Universidades
13.
Physiother Theory Pract ; 37(3): 447-459, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678111

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The history of physiotherapy in Latin America has received little attention thus far in the English-speaking literature. In this paper, we draw on narratives from activists, educators, and professional leaders who have been instrumental in shaping the development of physiotherapy in Argentina, Colombia, and Ecuador. Physiotherapists in the Latin American countries faced many similar challenges, including developing physiotherapy in the shadow of medicine, overcoming conservative attitudes toward women professionals, and frequent social upheaval. AIMS: The paper explores the disputed story of physiotherapy's origins in the polio epidemics, the influence of Swedish remedial gymnastics, and the educational colonialism of North American and European educators. We examine some of the effects of social unrest and trauma, military rule, and economic instability on the professions attempts to establish itself in the face of competition from other professions allied to medicine. And we consider the efforts taken to establish the profession's autonomy and its shifting relationship with the state. METHODS: We employed two different methods for data collection to explore aspects of physiotherapy's history in Latin America from a political and socio-cultural context: 1) A reconstruction of memories from activist physiotherapists in Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina, who have seen, lived, and promoted the development of physiotherapy in their own countries, gleaned from in-depth interviews; and 2) Analysis of secondary sources. Data were analyzed following the method described by Maynes, Pierce, and Laslett (2008), exploring personal narratives. Textual data were analyzed using documentary research (Prior, 2003) using thematic analysis, to inductively discover, and describe relevant themes about the two main guiding study questions. A constant comparative method as outlined by Boeije (2002) was used to form categories, establish boundaries, and discerning conceptual similarities between participants' narrative. RESULTS: Five physiotherapists were interviewed. One from Colombia, two from Argentina and two from Ecuador. Three main themes were identified: 'A Female Profession?', 'training and education', and 'Present Day in Argentina, Ecuador, and Colombia'. Tensions between the interests of the State, professionals, patients, cultures, urban and rural services, and practices are prevalent throughout physiotherapy in Argentina, Colombia, and Ecuador. Operating within these tensions is very much the reality for physiotherapists in Latin America today. CONCLUSION: Multiple histories emerge from the research, opening up a space for a more nuanced, polyphonic reading of physiotherapy in Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina than has been heard to date.


Asunto(s)
Fisioterapeutas/educación , Fisioterapeutas/historia , Fisioterapia/educación , Fisioterapia/historia , Argentina , Colombia , Ecuador , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
14.
Zootaxa ; 4949(1): zootaxa.4949.1.11, 2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757002

RESUMEN

Buestanmyia gen. nov., is described from Pichincha Province, Ecuador with one included species, with B. chiriboga sp. nov. It is characterized by very short and scarce ommatrichia, frons wide and slightly divergent below, basal callus subquadrate with median dorsal projection reaching half the height of the frons, ocellar triangle and ocelli absent, scape 3.5x the length of the pedicel, scape and pedicel with strong and erect hairs, proboscis less than the length of the head, basicosta bare, wings slightly smoky, with clouds on the cells costal and subcostal, vein R4 with a short appendix; cell cup with short appendix.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Animales , Ecuador
15.
Arch Virol ; 166(5): 1447-1453, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687538

RESUMEN

Challenging wild plant accessions with pathogens is an initial approach for finding resistance genes for breeding programs. Viruses can be transmitted artificially by mechanical or arthropod-borne inoculation, but these experimental assays do not always reproduce natural conditions in the field. In this study, 56 wild Capsicum spp. accessions from Ecuador that were under natural inoculum pressure for six months were screened for virus infections by RNA sequencing. These plants exhibited low virus diversity in comparison to a commercial pepper cultivar that was used as a susceptible host. Subjecting numerous plants to natural infection prior to artificial assays may indicate promising accessions to track within virus/vector resistance breeding programs.


Asunto(s)
Capsicum/virología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/virología , Biodiversidad , Capsicum/clasificación , Capsicum/genética , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/genética , Ecuador , Fitomejoramiento , ARN Viral/genética , Virus/clasificación , Virus/genética , Virus/aislamiento & purificación
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668688

RESUMEN

In the articulation between research and health intervention, we see the need to situate comprehensive sexuality education in the triangle formed by the salutogenic approach, the mainstreaming of gender and human rights, and the development of competencies in health promotion. For this purpose, we present a set of investigations carried out in Ecuador and Spain through a qualitative methodology with the respective health interventions that seek to obtain significant results of the teaching-learning process on sexuality. The field work contemplates situations of violence as a health problem, orienting the intervention in health empowerment toward pleasure. The health education experiences implemented allow us to conclude that comprehensive sexuality education reinforces the competencies of health personnel to attend to diversity. These findings, and the results expected in ongoing research, allow us to form a competency framework aimed at specifically improving medical education so that medical professionals can generate health processes with a cross-cutting approach to gender and human rights.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Sexualidad , Ecuador , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , España
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672453

RESUMEN

Inadequate food and nutrition affect human well-being, particularly for many poor subpopulations living in rural areas. The purpose of this research was to analyze the factors that determine the Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) in the rural area of the Paute River Basin, Azuay Province, Ecuador. The sample size of 383 surveys was determined by a stratified random sampling method with proportional affixation. Dietary diversity was measured through the HDDS, with 12 food groups (cereals; roots and tubers; fruits; sugar/honey; meat and eggs; legumes or grains; vegetables; oils/fats; milk and dairy products; meats; miscellaneous; fish and shellfish) over a recall period of 7 days. A Poisson regression model was used to determine the relationship between the HDDS and sociodemographic variables. The results show that the average HDDS of food consumption is 10.89 foods. Of the analyzed food groups, the most consumed are cereals; roots and tubers; fruits; sugar/honey. In addition, the determinants that best explain the HDDS in the predictive model were housing size, household size, per capita food expenditure, area of cultivated land, level of education, and marital status of the head of household. The tools used in this research can be used to analyze food and nutrition security interventions. Furthermore, the results allow policymakers to identify applicable public policies in the fight against hunger.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Ríos , Animales , Dieta , Ecuador , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Población Rural
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668717

RESUMEN

The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to analyze the differential impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown (3 April 2020) on stress, health practices, and self-care activities across different Hispanic countries, age range, and gender groups. One thousand and eighty-two participants from Spain, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador took part in this study. Irrespective of the country, and controlling for income level, young people, especially females, suffered a greater level of stress, perceived the situation as more severe, showed less adherence to health guidelines, and reported lower levels of health consciousness, in comparison to their male peers and older groups. However, in the case of self-care, it seems that older and female groups are generally more involved in self-care activities and adopt more healthy daily routines. These results are mostly similar between Colombia, Ecuador, and Spain. However, Chile showed some different tendencies, as males reported higher levels of healthy daily routines and better adherence to health guidelines compared to females and people over the age of 60. Differences between countries, genders, and age ranges should be considered in order to improve health recommendations and adherence to guidelines. Moreover, developing community action and intersectoral strategies with a gender-based approach could help to reduce health inequalities and increase the success of people's adherence to health guidelines and self-care-promoting interventions. Future studies should be addressed to explore the possible causations of such differences in more cultural-distant samples and at later stages of the current outbreak.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Autocuidado , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Colombia/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , España/epidemiología
19.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-13, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151621

RESUMEN

El objetivo de este artículo es determinar si los factores socioeconómicos inciden en las complicaciones posoperatorias de la colecistectomía. Para ello, se definió realizar un estudio de tipo observacional, analítico y enfoque cuantitativo, en 100 pacientes en los que se les realizó colecistectomía. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística en el que se incorporaron como variables, factores de riesgo, características socioeconómicas, junto con una variable de control. Se aplicaron tres modelos con variables dependientes alternativas que están delimitadas por el tipo de complicación posoperatoria registrado. Los resultados encontrados mostraron que las mujeres manifiestan un mayor riesgo de presentar complicaciones posteriores a la colecistectomía, igual ocurre en los pacientes de mayor edad. Asimismo el riesgo es mucho menor en las personas con niveles de educación superior y en los pacientes en los que se realizó colecistectomía laparoscópica, alcanzando solo un 5% de riesgo de presentar complicaciones. Las complicaciones posoperatorias luego de la colecistectomía se minimizan al emplear la técnica laparoscópica y los factores socioeconómicos incidirían en el riesgo de padecer complicaciones posoperatorias luego de dicha cirugía, lo que la convierte a la colecistectomía laparoscópica en una operación segura y con muchos otros beneficios y ventajas sobre la cirugía tradicional o convencional.


The article ́s goal isto determine if socioeconomic factors influence the postoperative complications of cholecystectomy. For this, the observational study was defined, analytical and quantitative study was conducted in 100 patients who underwent cholecystectomy. A logistic regression model was applied in which risk factors, socioeconomic characteristics, along with a control variable, were incorporated as variables. Three models were run with alternative dependent variables that are delimited by the type of postoperative complication recorded. The results found showed that women show a higher risk of presenting complications after cholecystectomy, the same occurs in older patients. Likewise, the risk is much lower in people with higher education levels and in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, they only have a 5% risk of presenting complications. Postoperative complications after cholecystectomy are minimized by using the laparoscopic technique and socioeconomic factors would influence the risk of suffering postoperative complications after said surgery, which makes laparoscopic cholecystectomy a safe operation with many other benefits and advantages over traditional or conventional surgery.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Factores Socioeconómicos , Colecistectomía/efectos adversos , Colecistectomía/métodos , Enfermedades de las Vías Biliares/epidemiología , Colecistitis/epidemiología , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Riesgo , Ecuador , Estudio Observacional
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