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1.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53354

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To determine predictors associated with physical violence during pregnancy, and to determine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence during pregnancy and women’s health and suicide ideation in Guyana. Methods. A secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional household survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to the data to estimate the association between physical violence during pregnancy, controlling partner behavior, and other predictors. Ordered logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the association between physical violence during pregnancy and women’s health, and lifetime physical partner violence and overall health. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate associations between physical violence during pregnancy and lifetime physical partner violence and overall health and suicide ideation. Results. The prevalence of lifetime physical/sexual intimate partner violence was 38.8%, current physical/sexual intimate partner violence 11.1%, and violence during pregnancy 9.2%. Controlling partner behavior was significantly and positively associated with maternal experience of physical violence during pregnancy. Experiencing physical partner violence during pregnancy, but not lifetime physical partner violence, was associated with significantly increased odds of poor overall health. Physical violence during pregnancy and lifetime physical violence were both significantly associated with increased odds of suicide ideation. Conclusions. The prevalence of violence during pregnancy in Guyana is high and is associated with adverse health outcomes. These findings suggest the need for intimate partner violence prevention, and for integrating intimate partner violence screening and treatment into antenatal care, reproductive health services, and maternal and child health programs and services to identify and treat at-risk women.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar los factores predictivos relacionados con la violencia física durante el embarazo y determinar la relación entre la exposición a la violencia de pareja durante el embarazo y la ideación suicida y la salud de las mujeres en Guyana. Métodos. Se realizó un análisis secundario de los datos obtenidos de una encuesta domiciliaria transversal. Se adaptaron modelos multifactoriales de regresión logística a los datos para calcular la asociación entre la violencia física durante embarazo, comportamiento controlador de la pareja y otros factores predictivos. Se emplearon modelos ordenados de regresión logística para calcular la asociación entre la violencia física durante el embarazo y la salud de la mujer, y la violencia de pareja a lo largo de la vida y la salud en general. Se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística para calcular la asociación entre la violencia física durante el embarazo y la violencia de pareja a lo largo de la vida y la ideación suicida y la salud en general. Resultados. La prevalencia de la violencia física o sexual infligida por la pareja a lo largo de la vida fue 38,8%, la violencia física o sexual infligida por la pareja en la actualidad fue 11,1% y la violencia durante el embarazo fue 9,2%. El comportamiento controlador de la pareja mostró una asociación positiva y significativa con una experiencia materna de violencia física durante el embarazo. Sufrir violencia física durante el embarazo, aunque no a lo largo de la vida, se asoció significativamente con mayores probabilidades de un estado de salud general deficiente. Tanto la violencia física durante el embarazo como la violencia física a lo largo de la vida se asociaron significativamente con mayores probabilidades de ideación suicida. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de la violencia durante el embarazo en Guyana es alta y está relacionada con consecuencias adversas en materia de salud. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de prevenir la violencia de pareja y de integrar su detección y tratamiento en la atención prenatal, los servicios de salud reproductiva y los programas y servicios de salud maternoinfantil para detectar y tratar a las mujeres en riesgo.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Determinar as variáveis preditivas associadas à violência física contra mulheres na gravidez e avaliar a relação entre exposição à violência por parceiro íntimo na gravidez e saúde e ideação suicida em mulheres na Guiana. Métodos. Foi realizada uma análise dos dados secundários de uma pesquisa transversal domiciliar. Modelos de regressão logística multivariada foram ajustados ao conjunto de dados para estimar a associação entre violência física na gravidez, controlando-se o efeito do comportamento do parceiro e outras variáveis preditivas. Modelos de regressão logística ordinal foram ajustados para estimar a associação entre violência física na gravidez e saúde das mulheres e violência física por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida e saúde geral. Modelos de regressão logística foram ajustados para estimar a associação entre violência física na gravidez e violência física por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida e saúde geral e ideação suicida. Resultados. Observou-se uma prevalência de 38,8% de violência física/sexual por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida, 11,1% de violência física/sexual por parceiro íntimo no momento presente e 9,2% de violência física/sexual na gravidez. Controlando-se o efeito do comportamento do parceiro, verificou-se uma associação positiva significativa com experiência materna de violência física na gravidez. Sofrer violência física por parceiro íntimo na gravidez, mas não violência física por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida, foi associado a uma chance significativamente maior de saúde geral ruim. Verificou-se uma associação significativa entre violência física na gravidez e violência física ao longo da vida e uma maior chance de ideação suicida. Conclusões. A prevalência da violência contra mulheres na gravidez na Guiana é alta e está associada a desfechos de saúde adversos. Esses resultados apontam para a necessidade de prevenir a violência por parceiro íntimo e integrar a avaliação da violência por parceiro íntimo e o tratamento das mulheres aos serviços de assistência pré-natal e de saúde reprodutiva e programas e serviços de saúde materno-infantil para identificar e tratar as mulheres em risco.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Embarazo , Violencia Doméstica , Abuso Físico , Salud Mental , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Guyana , Violencia de Pareja , Embarazo , Violencia Doméstica , Abuso Físico , Salud Mental , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Violencia de Pareja , Embarazo , Violencia Doméstica , Salud Mental , Violencia contra la Mujer , Violencia contra la Mujer , Violencia contra la Mujer , Delitos Sexuales , Delitos Sexuales , Delitos Sexuales , Guyana
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244454, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373407

RESUMEN

Despite being a priority population in malaria elimination, there is scant literature on malaria-related behavior among gold miners. This study explores the prevalence and factors influencing malaria prevention, care seeking and treatment behaviors in Guyana gold mining camps. A cross sectional survey was conducted among adult gold miners living in mining camps in the hinterland Regions 1 (Barima-Waini), 7 (Cuyuni-Mazaruni), and 8 (Potaro-Siparuni). Multivariable logistic regressions explored factors associated with miners' self-report of mosquito net use, prompt care-seeking; self-medication; and testing for malaria. A third of miners used a mosquito net the night preceding the survey and net use was higher among those who believed that net use was the norm in their camp (aOR: 3.11; 95% CI:1.65, 5.88). Less than half (45%) of miners had a fever in the past 12 months, among whom 36% sought care promptly, 48% tested positive for malaria while 54% self-medicated before seeking care. Prompt care-seeking was higher among miners with high malaria knowledge (aOR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.05). Similarly, testing rates increased with secondary education (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI: (1.16, 2.51), high malaria knowledge (aOR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.05), positive beliefs regarding malaria transmission, threat, self-diagnosis, testing and treatment, and, trust in government services (aOR: 1.59; 95% CI (1.12, 2.27) and experience of a prior malaria episode (aOR: 2.62; 95% CI: 1.71, 4.00). Self-medication was lower among male miners (aOR: 0. 52; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.86). Malaria prevention and care seeking behaviors among miners are somewhat low and influenced by mosquito net usage, perceived norms, malaria knowledge and prior episode of confirmed malaria. Study findings have implications for malaria interventions in the hinterland regions of Guyana such as the mass and continuous distribution of insecticide treated nets as well as community case management initiatives using trained malaria testing and treatment volunteers to curb malaria transmission among remote gold mining populations. These include efforts to identify and address gaps in distributing mosquito nets to miners and address miners' barriers to prompt care seeking, malaria testing and treatment adherence. Targeted social and behavior change messaging is needed on net acquisition, use and care, prompt care-seeking, malaria testing and treatment adherence. Additional efforts to ensure the overall sustainability of the community case management initiative include increased publicity of the community case management initiative among miners, use of incentives to promote retention rates among the community case management volunteer testers and public private partnerships between the Guyana Ministry of Health and relevant mining organizations.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Malaria/prevención & control , Mineros/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Oro , Guyana , Humanos , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria/parasitología , Malaria/transmisión , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mineros/estadística & datos numéricos , Minería/organización & administración , Mosquiteros/estadística & datos numéricos , Motivación , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Asociación entre el Sector Público-Privado , Automedicación/psicología , Automedicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
3.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E418-E421, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009901

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: The Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) hosted a workshop in May of 2020 with a goal of critically evaluating Trauma Team Training courses. The workshop was held virtually because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Twenty-three participants attended from 8 countries: Canada, Guyana, Kenya, Nigeria, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda and the United States. More participants were able to attend the virtual meeting than the traditional in-person meetings. Web-based videoconference software was used, participants presented prerecorded PowerPoint videos, and questions were raised using a written chat. The review proved successful, with discussions and recommendations for improvements surrounding course quality, lecture content, skills sessions, curriculum variations and clinical practical scenarios. The CNIS's successful experience conducting an online curriculum review involving international participants may prove useful to others proceeding with collaborative projects during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Congresos como Asunto/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Curriculum , Cirugía General/educación , Cooperación Internacional , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Canadá/epidemiología , Congresos como Asunto/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Cirugía General/métodos , Guyana/epidemiología , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Control de Infecciones/normas , Kenia/epidemiología , Nigeria/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Suiza/epidemiología , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Uganda/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/organización & administración , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/normas , Heridas y Traumatismos/cirugía
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238499, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119591

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Great strides in responding to the HIV epidemic have led to improved access to and uptake of HIV services in Guyana, a lower-middle-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Despite efforts to scale up HIV treatment and adopt the test and start strategy, little is known about costs of HIV services across the care cascade. METHODS: We collected cost data from the national laboratory and nine selected treatment facilities in five of the country's ten Regions, and estimated the costs associated with HIV testing and services (HTS) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) from a provider perspective from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016. We then used the unit costs to construct four resource allocation scenarios. In the first two scenarios, we calculated how close Guyana would currently be to its 2020 targets if the allocation of funding across programs and regions over 2017-2020 had (a) remained unchanged from latest-reported levels, or (b) been optimally distributed to minimize incidence and deaths. In the next two, we estimated the resources that would have been required to meet the 2020 targets if those resources had been distributed (a) according to latest-reported patterns, or (b) optimally to minimize incidence and deaths. RESULTS: The mean cost per test was US$15 and the mean cost per person tested positive was US$796. The mean annual cost per of maintaining established adult and pediatric patients on ART were US$428 and US$410, respectively. The mean annual cost of maintaining virally suppressed patients was US$648. Cost variation across sites may suggest opportunities for improvements in efficiency, or may reflect variation in facility type and patient volume. There may also be scope for improvements in allocative efficiency; we estimated a 28% reduction in the total resources required to meet Guyana's 2020 targets if funds had been optimally distributed to minimize infections and deaths. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first estimates of costs along the HIV cascade in the Caribbean and assessed efficiencies using novel context-specific data on the costs associated with diagnostic, treatment, and viral suppression. The findings call for better targeting of services, and efficient service delivery models and resource allocation, while scaling up HIV services to maximize investment impact.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/economía , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Asignación de Recursos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/economía , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Guyana/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
5.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52946

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To analyze progress in organizational structures, mechanisms, strategies, and enabling factors and barriers towards gender mainstreaming (GM) in health in Guatemala, Guyana, and Peru, given GM’s role in addressing gender inequalities in health as a key structural driver of health equity. Methods. Data was obtained through a grey literature review of laws, policies, and/or program documents and semi-structured qualitative interviews with 37 informants. Analysis was based on a theoretical framework including 7 categories considered essential to advance GM in the health sector. Results. Despite significant efforts and accumulated experiences of GM in health, structural barriers include: wider societal challenges of transforming gender unequal power relations; health system complexity combined with the low technical, political, and financial capacity of institutional structures tasked with GM; and limited coordination with (often weak) National Women’s Machineries (NWMs). In some contexts, barriers are compounded by limited understanding of basic concepts underlying GM (at times exacerbated by misunderstandings related to intersectionality and/or engagement with men) and the absence of indicators to measure GM’s concrete results and impact. Conclusions. Successful GM requires a more strategic and transformational agenda, developed and implemented in coordination with NWMs and civil society and with reference to external bodies (e.g. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women) to go beyond process, with clearer distinction between gender sensitivity and gender transformation, and definition of expected results and indicators to measure advances. These then could be better documented and systematized, enabling GM to be more broadly understood and operationalized as a concrete instrument towards health equity.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Analizar el progreso en las estructuras, mecanismos y estrategias organizativas, así como los factores y las barreras, que favorecen la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en la salud en Guatemala, Guyana y Perú, dado el papel que ello desempeña en el abordaje de las desigualdades de género en la salud como un motor estructural clave de la equidad en salud. Métodos. Se obtuvieron datos a partir de la literatura gris de leyes, políticas o documentos de programas y entrevistas cualitativas semiestructuradas con 37 informantes. El análisis se basó en un marco teórico que incluía 7 categorías consideradas esenciales para avanzar la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en el sector de la salud. Resultados. A pesar de los importantes esfuerzos y las experiencias acumuladas respecto de la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en el sector de la salud persisten obstáculos estructurales, como desafíos sociales más amplios para transformar las relaciones de poder desiguales entre los géneros; la complejidad del sistema de salud combinada con una baja capacidad técnica, política y financiera de las estructuras institucionales encargadas de abordar el tema; y la limitada coordinación con las instituciones nacionales dedicadas a la promoción de la mujer (a menudo débiles). En algunos contextos, los obstáculos se ven agravados por la limitada comprensión de los conceptos básicos subyacentes a la perspectiva de género (a veces exacerbada por una comprensión limitada de la interseccionalidad o el compromiso con los hombres) y la ausencia de indicadores para medir los resultados y el impacto concreto de la incorporación de la perspectiva de género. Conclusiones. Para que la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en la salud sea satisfactoria se requiere una agenda más estratégica y transformadora, elaborada e implementada en coordinación con las instituciones nacionales de promoción de la mujer y la sociedad civil y vinculada a instancias externas (p. ej., el Comité para la Eliminación de la Discriminación contra la Mujer). Es necesario, asimismo, una distinción más clara entre los enfoques sensibles al género y aquellos transformativos de las relaciones desiguales de género, y una definición de los resultados previstos y los indicadores para medir los avances. Estos podrían entonces documentarse y sistematizarse mejor, lo que permitiría que la perspectiva de género se comprendiera más ampliamente y se pusiera en práctica como instrumento concreto para lograr la equidad en salud.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Igualdad de Género , Transversalidad de Género , Políticas Inclusivas de Género , Guyana , Perú , Guatemala , Equidad en Salud , Igualdad de Género , Transversalidad de Género , Políticas Inclusivas de Género , Perú
6.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200043, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667459

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND The number of malaria cases in Roraima nearly tripled from 2016 to 2018. The capital, Boa Vista, considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, reported an increasing number of autochthonous and imported cases. OBJECTIVES This study describes a spatial analysis on malaria cases in an urban region of Boa Vista, which sought to identify the autochthonous and imported cases and associated them with Anopheles habitats and the potential risk of local transmission. METHODS In a cross-sectional study at the Polyclinic Cosme e Silva, 520 individuals were interviewed and diagnosed with malaria by microscopic examination. Using a global positional system, the locations of malaria cases by type and origin and the breeding sites of anopheline vectors were mapped and the risk of malaria transmission was evaluated by spatial point pattern analysis. FINDINGS Malaria was detected in 57.5% of the individuals and there was a disproportionate number of imported cases (90.6%) linked to Brazilian coming from gold mining sites in Venezuela and Guyana. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The increase in imported malaria cases circulating in the west region of Boa Vista, where there are positive breeding sites for the main vectors, may represent a potential condition for increased autochthonous malaria transmission in this space.


Asunto(s)
Anopheles/parasitología , Malaria/diagnóstico , Malaria/transmisión , Mineros/estadística & datos numéricos , Mosquitos Vectores/parasitología , Plasmodium/aislamiento & purificación , Viaje , Adulto , Animales , Anopheles/clasificación , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Oro , Guyana , Humanos , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/parasitología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Plasmodium/clasificación , Análisis Espacial , Población Urbana , Venezuela
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233379, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442197

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is physician-performed at the bedside, and it is a powerful diagnostic tool, especially in resource-limited emergency medicine healthcare settings. This study aims to quantify both the use of ultrasound and its impact on patient care at the Accident and Emergency Department at the Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation (GPHC). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational descriptive analysis of data collected for quality assessment in the GPHC Accident and Emergency Department. Over the course of two months, physicians were asked to record each ultrasound exam performed and record whether the ultrasound results changed patient disposition or the medication used in management. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 173 ultrasound data sheets collected representing 426 ultrasound studies. 196 studies were positive with pathologic findings (46.0%). The use of ultrasound in patient care either changed the patient's final disposition or medication 78.6% of the time. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound is used frequently at the Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation for a wide variety of applications. When utilized, POCUS frequently influenced patient care.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/métodos , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Guyana , Humanos , Masculino , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Embarazo
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008149, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251455

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Individual behavior, particularly choices about prevention, plays a key role in infection transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs). Since the actual risk of infection is often uncertain, individual behavior is influenced by the perceived risk. A low risk perception is likely to diminish the use of preventive measures (behavior). If risk perception is a good indicator of the actual risk, then it has important implications in a context of disease elimination. However, more research is needed to improve our understanding of the role of human behavior in disease transmission. The objective of this study is to explore whether preventive behavior is responsive to risk perception, taking into account the links with disease knowledge and controlling for individuals' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. More specifically, the study focuses on malaria, dengue fever, Zika and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), using primary data collected in Guyana-a key country for the control and/or elimination of VBDs, given its geographic location. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The data were collected between August and December 2017 in four regions of the country. Questions on disease knowledge, risk perception and self-reported use of preventive measures were asked to each participant for the four diseases. A structural equation model was estimated. It focused on data collected from private households only in order to control for individuals' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, which led to a sample size of 497 participants. The findings showed evidence of a bidirectional association between risk perception and behavior. A one-unit increase in risk perception translated into a 0.53 unit increase in self-reported preventive behavior for all diseases, while a one-unit increase in self-reported preventive behavior (i.e. the use of an additional measure) led to a 0.46 unit decrease in risk perception for all diseases (except CL). This study also showed that higher education significantly improves knowledge and that better knowledge increases the take up of preventive measures for malaria and dengue, without affecting risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: In trying to reach elimination, it appears crucial to promote awareness of the risks and facilitate access to preventive measures, so that lower risk perception does not translate into lower preventive behavior.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/prevención & control , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/transmisión , Demografía , Dengue/prevención & control , Dengue/transmisión , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Guyana , Humanos , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/prevención & control , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/transmisión , Malaria/prevención & control , Malaria/transmisión , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control , Infección por el Virus Zika/transmisión
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 32-37, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251804

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to verify the frequency, genotypes, and etiological role of Human Bocavirus (HBoV) in younger Amazonian children with either acute gastroenteritis (AGE) or respiratory infections (ARI). The influence of Rotarix™ vaccination and co-infection status was also investigated. DESIGN: HBoV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) testing was done on both fecal and saliva (1468 samples) from 734 children < 5 months old living in the Amazon (Brazil, Guyana, and Venezuela). High and median HBoV viral load samples were used for extraction, nested PCR amplification, and sequencing for genotyping. HBoV mRNA detection was done by reverse transcription following DNA amplification. RESULTS: The overall HBoV frequencies were 14.2% (69/485; AGE) and 14.1% (35/249; ARI) (p = 0.83). HBoV exclusively infected 4.5% (22/485; AGE) and 4% (10/249) of the Amazonian children (Odds ratios 1.13, 95% confidence interval= 2.42-0.52). HBoV 1 was mainly detected in feces and saliva from AGE children; and HBoV2, from ARI children. HBoV mRNA was detected only in feces. The Rotarix™ vaccination status did not affect the HBoV frequencies. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that, after entry into the air/oral pathways, HBoV1 continues infecting toward the intestinal tract causing AGE. HBoV2 can be a causative agent of AGE and ARI in younger Amazonian children.


Asunto(s)
Gastroenteritis/virología , Bocavirus Humano/genética , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Enfermedad Aguda , Brasil , Coinfección/virología , Heces/virología , Femenino , Genotipo , Guyana , Bocavirus Humano/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Saliva/virología , Venezuela , Carga Viral
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9063808, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047818

RESUMEN

Abstract. Persistent urban-rural disparity in subjective health and quality of life is a growing concern for healthcare systems across the world. In general, urban population performs better on most health indicators compared with their rural counterparts. However, research evidence on the urban-rural disparity on perceived health, happiness, and quality of life among the young adult population is scarce in South American countries like Guyana. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to investigate whether subjective health, happiness, and quality of life differ according to place of residence among the young adult population in Guyana. Methods: Cross-sectional data on 2,434 men and women aging between 15 and 24 years were collected from the most recent Guyana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted in 2014. Outcome variables were perceived: satisfaction about health, life, and happiness, as well as life satisfaction before and after one year from the time of the survey. The urban-rural disparity in reporting satisfaction for these indicators was assessed by multivariate regression methods and by adjusting for relevant sociodemographic factors. Results: More than four-fifth of the respondents reported satisfaction with health (82.4%) and life (81.4%) and 77.9% reported being happy. A vast majority expressed improvement in life situation compared with a year ago (81.4%), and nearly all of the participants (95.4%) expect to have better life situation a year later. Multivariate analysis revealed an inverse association between rural residence and subjective health among men [OR = 0.518, 95%CI = 0.297, 0.901], and happiness [OR = 0.662, 95%CI = 0.381, 0.845] and life satisfaction [OR = 3.722, 95%CI = 1.502, 9.227] among women. Women having secondary [OR = 2.219, 95%CI = 1.209, 3.720] and higher [OR = 1.600, 95%CI = 1.041, 3.302] education also had higher odds of satisfaction with happiness. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the existence of significant urban-rural disparities in perceived health and quality of life among the young adult population in Guyana, especially among women. National health promotion projects should therefore take proper policy actions to address the underlying factors contributing to the urban-rural gaps in order to establish a more equitable healthcare system. Further researches are necessary to explore the underlying causes behind such disparities.


Asunto(s)
Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Felicidad , Satisfacción Personal , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Guyana , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Calidad de Vida , Análisis de Regresión , Población Rural , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana , Adulto Joven
12.
Mycologia ; 112(1): 39-51, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825746

RESUMEN

We report on the discovery and characterization of a novel Fusarium species that produced yellow-orange pseudoflowers on Xyris spp. (yellow-eyed grass; Xyridaceae) growing in the savannas of the Pakaraima Mountains of western Guyana. The petaloid fungal structures produced on infected plants mimic host flowers in gross morphology. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of full-length RPB1 (RNA polymerase largest subunit), RPB2 (RNA polymerase second largest subunit), and TEF1 (elongation factor 1-α) DNA sequences mined from genome sequences resolved the fungus, described herein as F. xyrophilum, sp. nov., as sister to F. pseudocircinatum within the African clade of the F. fujikuroi species complex. Results of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for mating type idiomorph revealed that single-conidial isolates of F. xyrophilum had only one of the MAT idiomorphs (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2), which suggests that the fungus may have a heterothallic sexual reproductive mode. BLASTn searches of whole-genome sequence of three strains of F. xyrophilum indicated that it has the genetic potential to produce secondary metabolites, including phytohormones, pigments, and mycotoxins. However, a polyketide-derived pigment, 8-O-methylbostrycoidin, was the only metabolite detected in cracked maize kernel cultures. When grown on carnation leaf agar, F. xyrophilum is phenotypically distinct from other described Fusarium species in that it produces aseptate microconidia on erect indeterminate synnemata that are up to 2 mm tall and it does not produce multiseptate macroconidia.


Asunto(s)
Mimetismo Biológico , Flores , Fusarium/clasificación , Poaceae/microbiología , ADN de Hongos/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fusarium/citología , Fusarium/genética , Genes del Tipo Sexual de los Hongos/genética , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Guyana , Filogenia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Esporas Fúngicas/clasificación , Esporas Fúngicas/citología , Esporas Fúngicas/genética
13.
Ambio ; 49(6): 1241-1255, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606885

RESUMEN

REDD+ remains a critical tool for dealing with increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Like other global-level initiatives, REDD+ has strong supporters and critics. Despite the division over its merits, little has been done to understand how a national-level audience responds to the program's arrival in a partner country and which players drive a program's implementation. Here we coded the archives of two Guyanese newspapers to identify the policy actors, institutions, and concepts (players) that drove the implementation of the country's Low Carbon Development Strategy (LCDS). Two groups of players-super-key and key-dictated the direction of the LCDS implementation. Super-key players used the state-owned media to advocate their positions, while players who felt they would be punished by the LCDS implementation published their positions in the privately-owned media. Therefore, like responses to other global-level environmental challenges, views around the LCDS were divided.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Emociones , Guyana
14.
Int J Psychol ; 55(4): 618-628, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621908

RESUMEN

Guyana, a low-to-middle-income country (LMIC) in South America, leads the world in youth suicide. As an understanding of risk and protective factors is critical to the development of culturally informed suicide prevention efforts, research exploring these factors among youth in Guyana is needed. The current study expands on current research on adolescent suicide in Guyana and LMICs broadly by using qualitative focus groups and interviews to explore adult stakeholders' and youth's perspectives. Participants included 17 adult stakeholders and 40 adolescents in Guyana. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Themes related to participants' perceptions of risk factors for suicide included demographic characteristics, pressure and expectations, adults' responses to youth, limited coping with stressful life events and exposure to suicide. Themes related to protective factors for suicide included positive social support and involvement in community activities. Findings have implications for the development and tailoring of suicide prevention efforts for Guyanese youth.


Asunto(s)
Factores Protectores , Suicidio/prevención & control , Adulto , Femenino , Guyana , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
15.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020. (WHO/HEP/ECH/CCH/20.01.07).
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-336274
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 158: 107929, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738996

RESUMEN

Diabetes is an increasing challenge for low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and access to HbA1c testing is limited. HbA1c, a measure of glycaemic control averaged over 3 months, provides both clinicians and policymakers with a tool to identify the risk of long-term diabetes comorbidity. We describe the steps used to implement standardised testing in Guyana South America and the initial results according to a locally developed protocol as part of a country-wide project to improve the care of people with all forms of diabetes The steps identified include: a standardised method traceable to a recognized international reference standard, participation in a quality control cycle with an international reference laboratory, a clinical pathway for testing to reduce inappropriate use and minimize resource wastage, training of technicians in operation and maintenance of equipment, identification of a suitable space with constant power supply, a reliable procurement system, education of healthcare professionals on interpretation and follow-up of results and feedback of programme results to improve clinical practice. Some steps for implementation of the national HbA1c testing program were initiated better than others. Initial unreliability of the service undermined confidence in the system. Failure to follow the testing protocol led to some patients being tested too soon and others too late. Cost of reagents was about 5.60 USD/test. We trained 340 people in diabetes care and knowledge was improved but were unable to assess whether it was appropriately applied. Over one third of people tested in the 30-70 age group had an HbA1c over 9% (75 mmol/mol) and this did not improve over the 5 years of testing. Despite the difficulties we think our unique experience of implementation of a nationwide HbA1c testing programme has important lessons for other LMICs.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Guyana , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , América del Sur
17.
Zootaxa ; 4576(3): zootaxa.4576.3.2, 2019 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715747

RESUMEN

Anomaloglossus is a species-rich genus of frogs endemic to the Guiana Shield that still harbors several unnamed species. Within the A. stepheni species group (which includes four valid nominal species), A. baeobatrachus has an uncertain taxonomic status, notably because the holotype was an unvouchered specimen depicted in a popular journal. Another member of this group, A. leopardus, was only superficially described, lacking information on the sex of specimens in the type series and on advertisement call. Therefore, these two taxa need clarifications in order to allow the description of the extant undescribed species. In this paper, we redescribe A. baeobatrachus based on newly collected material from the species type locality and provide information about its reproductive ecology. We also provide an amended definition of A. leopardus using newly collected material from its type locality. These two species form a clade along with a third species from the Eastern Guiana Shield, which is also described herein. The reproductive biology of A. baeobatrachus and A. stepheni is very similar. Both species have endotrophic and nidicolous tadpoles, despite being distantly related, suggesting independent evolution of this breeding mode. The new species and A. leopardus, on the other hand, have exotrophic tadpoles.


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Reproducción , Animales , Guyana , Larva
18.
Zootaxa ; 4585(2): zootaxa.4585.2.2, 2019 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716167

RESUMEN

The fasciolariid fauna from two expeditions to French Guiana is examined and augmented with published records and material of other collections from the Guianas and northeastern Brazil. Twelve species of Fasciolaria and Aurantilaria (Fasciolariinae), Aristofusus, Lyonsifusus and Fusinus s.l. (Fusininae), and Lamellilatirus and Polygona (Peristerniinae) are reported and discussed. Nine species are represented in expedition collections, and reports of three other species are evaluated. Two morphologically distinct species of Lamellilatirus are described as new; type localities of both are off French Guiana, 114-118 m. Ten Guianan fasciolariids range variously northward to Caribbean South America and the Lesser Antilles and southward to Ceará, Brazil; one other extends into the northern Caribbean, and one extends southward to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Animales , Brasil , Región del Caribe , Guyana Francesa , Guyana
19.
Zootaxa ; 4664(2): zootaxa.4664.2.4, 2019 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716678

RESUMEN

A new species of Cetopsis is described from Guiana Shield drainages in Guyana and Suriname. The new species is found in the Konawaruk River and tributaries, Essequibo River basin, Guyana, and in the Mauritie Creek, tributary to the Tempati River, upper Commewijne River basin, Suriname. The new taxon can be distinguished from all congeners by a combination of features: dark spots on sides of the body eye-sized or larger, dark, bilobed patch at the base of the caudal fin, absence of a dark humeral spot, absence of dark pigmentation along the fin-membrane posterior to the first dorsal-fin ray, dark pigmentation at the base of the dorsal fin, dark spots extending ventrally to the bases of anal-fin rays, and 41 total vertebrae with 28 caudal vertebrae. Data on internal anatomy of the new species were incorporated into a previously-published phylogenetic analysis and resolves the position of the new species as the sister group of C. motatanensis, from Lago Maracaibo basin. The new Cetopsis is the first species of the genus known to occur exclusively in the Guiana Shield.


Asunto(s)
Bagres , Animales , Guyana , Filogenia , Ríos , Suriname
20.
Zootaxa ; 4664(1): zootaxa.4664.1.4, 2019 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716689

RESUMEN

Chrysomydas Wilcox, Papavero Pimentel, 1989 (Diptera, Mydidae, Mydinae, Stratiomydina), is a poorly known monotypic genus, with the type-species, C. nitidulus (Olivier, 1811), recorded from Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, and Suriname. The present work aims to provide an updated diagnosis for the genus and type-species, C. nitidulus, along with the description of C. phoenix Calhau Lamas sp. nov. from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, based on a male imago and associated pupal exuviae. Additionally, the first bionomic data for the genus are reported, with the rearing of adult C. nitidulus in the laboratory from larvae collected under the decaying trunk of a coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. The new species is easily distinguished from C. nitidulus by the predominantly black tergal and scutal setulae, which are golden in the type-species. They also differ by the male genitalia and shape of the proboscis.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Animales , Brasil , Guyana Francesa , Guyana , Masculino , Suriname
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