Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.141
Filtrar
1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200572, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886871

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The genetic heterogeneity of Leishmania parasites is a major factor responsible for the wide variety of Leishmania-associated manifestations. Consequently, understanding the genetic make-up of Leishmania species using suitable molecular markers is an important component of realising local and regional scale disease risk. The cytochrome b (cytb) is frequently used to type New World Leishmania species. However, its potential to discriminate Leishmania species and variants requires further evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To explore the capacity of cytb gene to identify New World Leishmania species and variants and to develop an approach able to type local Leishmania species and variants. METHODS: We retrieved 360 partial and complete Leishmania cytb gene sequences publicly available in GenBank database to study all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the cytb gene that differentiate New World Leishmania species. This information was used to develop an approach based upon the polymorphisms found in a DNA segment of 948bp. We also compared the typing results found with this technique with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) profiling obtained using HSP70 gene as target. One hundred Panamanian isolates were used to both typed Leishmania species and assess local genetic variability. FINDINGS: We found complete agreement between our cytb approach and the PCR-RFLP profiling method based on HSP70 for Leishmania species identification. Ninety-two isolates were identified as L. panamensis, although other Viannia species were found circulating at a lower frequency. Three L. panamensis haplotypes were identified in Panamanian provinces. We also provide an initial report of L. guyanensis haplotypes circulating in Panama. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Cytb gene sequence encompasses key main SNPs that aid to identify Leishmania species. The cytb approach developed with this information was able to identify and assess genetic variability of local Leishmania species found in this study.


Asunto(s)
Leishmania , Leishmaniasis Cutánea , Citocromos b/genética , ADN Protozoario/genética , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Panamá , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción
2.
Zool Res ; 42(3): 272-279, 2021 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797210

RESUMEN

A new species of the genus Atelopus, Atelopus fronterizo sp. nov., from eastern Panama is described herein based on molecular, morphological, and bioacoustic evidence. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners occurring in the region by a combination of the following characters: (1) phalangeal reduction in thumb; (2) SVL (females only) (35.1-50.1; n=13), HW/SVL (0.23-0.34; n=59), EYND/HW (0.27-0.39; n=60), TIBL/SVL (0.41-0.56; n=58), and HAL/SVL (0.22-0.28; n=49); (3) dorsal color pattern with green or yellow background and extensive dark olive blotches forming transversal bands or mottling; (4) advertisement call duration 176-235 ms with 19-34 pulses, average pulse rate 131.69 pulses/s, and dominant frequency 2 422.50-2 606.50 Hz. The new species is nested within the Central American clade of Atelopus. The minimum Kimura-2-parameter (K2P) genetic divergence between Atelopus fronterizo sp. nov. and its most phylogenetically similar congeners ( A. certus and A. glyphus) is >2.6% for 16S and >4.9% for COI (Table 1). The phylogenetic relationship is strongly supported by ultrafast bootstrap values for the maximum-likelihood trees of both genetic markers (16S, 96; COI, 100, Figure 1A). Bayesian analysis of the concatenated sequences resulted in a tree with similar topology and high posterior probability support (0.99; Supplementary Figure S1). In addition, haplotype networks inferred from COI and 16S (Supplementary Figure S2) showed a well-separated clade containing the new species (two for COI, four for 16S). The number of mutational steps between haplotypes for the new species samples is very low (1-4 in 16S; one in COI), and the minimum number of mutational steps from the nearest species is nine for 16S (distance to A. certus) and 28 for COI (distance to A. glyphus).


Asunto(s)
Bufonidae/clasificación , Bufonidae/genética , Distribución Animal , Animales , Panamá , Filogenia , Especificidad de la Especie
3.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 21, 2021. 39 p. ilus..
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178267

RESUMEN

A la fecha, se reportan 3.689 pacientes (1,0%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 374 pacientes (0,1%) se encuentran hospitalizados (317 en sala general y 57 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 350.347 (97,2%) casos como recuperados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Panamá/epidemiología
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190171, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852670

RESUMEN

The leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) are a group of insects that suck sap from vascular plants. The host plants of most species of Cicadellidae are unknown, but some species are known to have a wide range of food plants, while others are host plant specific. The aim of this study was to record the food and host plants for leafhoppers in a Neotropical rainforest. The study area was located in the lowland forests of Panama Province (Central Panama) in two National Parks. Sampling was done in the undergrowth, canopy and emergent strata to collect the cicadellids feeding on the trees, shrubs, seedlings, and vines there. We collected 118 cicadellid adult representing 24 species, 21 genera, and six subfamilies, which fed on 49 species of plants, belonging to 31 families. The subfamily with the largest number of species was the Cicadellinae with 11, while the plant family with the most species was the Fabaceae with five species, and the favorite plant was Anacardium excelsum, which hosted six cicadellid species and 10 individuals. According to estimates by Shannon Weiner, leafhopper communities are more diverse on trees than on shrubs, vines, or grasses.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Animales , Bosques , Humanos , Insectos , Panamá , Plantas Comestibles
5.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 6, 2021. 31 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152192

RESUMEN

A la fecha, se reportan 4.329 pacientes (1,2%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 493 pacientes (0,1%) se encuentran hospitalizados (430 en sala general y 63 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 345.120 (96,9%) casos como recuperados


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Panamá/epidemiología
6.
Zootaxa ; 4904(1): zootaxa.4904.1.1, 2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756640

RESUMEN

An updated catalogue of the Anthribidae of Panama is provided, including 134 species in 30 genera, 14 tribes and two subfamilies. A total of 44 species in the following genera are recorded for the first time in the country: Corrhecerus Schoenherr, Eugonus Schoenherr, Euparius Schoenherr, Gymnognathus Schoenherr, Nemotrichus Labram Imhoff, Phaenithon Schoenherr, Piesocorynus Dejean, Anthiera Alonso-Zarazaga Lyal, Ptychoderes Schoenherr, Stenocerus Schoenherr and Toxonotus Lacordaire. The genera Corrhecerus Schoenherr, Eugonus Schoenherr and Anthiera Alonso-Zarazaga Lyal are recorded for the first time in Panama. Although more than 60 unnamed morphospecies were recognized in Panamanian and American collections, at this time no new taxa are described. An illustrated key to the genera of Anthribidae of Panama is included.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos/clasificación , Animales , Panamá , Filogenia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4933(3): zootaxa.4933.3.5, 2021 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756788

RESUMEN

Alpheus viserion sp. n. is described based on the material from Bocas del Toro archipelago on the Caribbean coast of Panama. The new species is morphologically closest to three members of the speciose A. armillatus H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 species complex, viz. A. carlae Anker, 2012, A. angulosus McClure, 2002, and A. tenuis Kim Abele, 1988, differing from them, as well as from all the other species currently included in this complex, by a suite of morphological characters and a diagnostic colour pattern. With the description of yet another new shrimp species from Bocas del Toro, the authors hope to contribute to the awareness that this archipelago represents one of the most biologically diverse places in the Caribbean Sea and to encourage the preservation of the remaining natural habitats of this unique area.


Asunto(s)
Decápodos , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Región del Caribe , Panamá
8.
Zootaxa ; 4938(2): zootaxa.4938.2.3, 2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756979

RESUMEN

The monophyly and taxonomic validity of some currently accepted genera of gall wasps in the Cynipini (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) are being challenged by recent systematic studies. Here we used morphological and molecular data to re-describe and revise the taxonomic limits of the monotypic genus Kokkocynips Pujade-Villar Melika, previously recorded only from Mexico.                We describe a new species from Panama, Kokkocynips panamensis Medianero Nieves-Aldrey, reared from galls on Quercus salicifolia Neé, and add new records from Mexico for the type species of the genus K. doctorrosae Pujade-Villar. Six Nearctic species, Dryocosmus rileyi (Ashmead, 1896), D. imbricariae (Ashmead, 1896), D. coxii (Basset, 1881), D. deciduus (Beutenmueller, 1913), Callirhytis difficilis (Ashmead, 1887) and C. attractans (Kinsey, 1922) are transferred to Kokkocynips. Species of Kokkocynips are associated only with red oaks (Quercus section Lobatae (Fagaceae)) and are distributed in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, from Canada through Mexico and Panama. Taxonomic limits of Kokkocynips are discussed in light of the molecular phylogenetic relationships of the studied species. Diagnostic characters, gall description, distribution, and biological data of Kokkocynips species are given, including a key for the identification of the asexual generations of seven species.


Asunto(s)
Himenópteros , Avispas , Animales , Panamá , Filogenia
9.
Oecologia ; 195(4): 1019-1029, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675408

RESUMEN

Young successional tropical forests are crucial in the global carbon cycle because they can quickly sequester large quantities of atmospheric carbon. However, lianas (woody vines) can significantly decrease biomass accumulation in young regenerating forests. Lianas are abundant in tropical dry forests, and thus we hypothesized that lianas reduce biomass accretion in dry forests. Lianas may be particularly detrimental to the growth of young trees, which are vulnerable to competition from lianas. Alternatively, lianas may have a stronger negative effect on the largest trees because lianas seek the high-light environment at the top of the forest canopy. We tested these hypotheses using a liana-removal experiment in 13 dry forest stands that ranged from 1 to 70 years in southwestern Panama. We measured biomass accumulation annually for more than 10,000 stems from 2013 to 2017. Contrary to our expectations, liana removal had no effect on tree biomass accumulation across our successional forests and throughout our study period. Liana removal did not benefit smaller trees or larger trees. Lianas did not increase biomass accumulation on recruits, and did not increase biomass loss due to mortality. Surprisingly, removing lianas had a negative effect on three out of 41 tree species. Lianas had no effect on biomass accumulation and loss, possibly because: (1) trees allocated resources to roots instead of stems, (2) trees and lianas partitioned water, (3) higher irradiance after liana removal reduced soil moisture, or (4) low water availability might have been such a strong stressor that it reduced plant-plant competition.


Asunto(s)
Árboles , Clima Tropical , Biomasa , Bosques , Panamá
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e042934, 2021 03 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692179

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Following well-established practices in demography, this article discusses several measures based on the number of COVID-19 deaths to facilitate comparisons over time and across populations. SETTINGS: National populations in 186 United Nations countries and territories and populations in first-level subnational administrative entities in Brazil, China, Italy, Mexico, Peru, Spain and the USA. PARTICIPANTS: None (death statistics only). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: An unstandardised occurrence/exposure rate comparable to the Crude Death Rate; an indirectly age-and-sex standardised rate that can be derived even when the breakdown of COVID-19 deaths by age and sex required for direct standardisation is unavailable; the reduction in life expectancy at birth corresponding to the 2020 number of COVID-19 deaths. RESULTS: To date, the highest unstandardised rate has been in New York, at its peak exceeding the state 2017 crude death rate. Populations compare differently after standardisation: while parts of Italy, Spain and the USA have the highest unstandardised rates, parts of Mexico and Peru have the highest standardised rates. For several populations with the necessary data by age and sex for direct standardisation, we show that direct and indirect standardisation yield similar results. US life expectancy is estimated to have declined this year by more than a year (-1.26 years), far more than during the worst year of the HIV epidemic, or the worst 3 years of the opioid crisis, and to reach its lowest level since 2008. Substantially larger reductions, exceeding 2 years, are estimated for Panama, Peru, and parts of Italy, Spain, the USA and especially, Mexico. CONCLUSIONS: With lesser demand on data than direct standardisation, indirect standardisation is a valid alternative to adjust international comparisons for differences in population distribution by sex and age-groups. A number of populations have experienced reductions in 2020 life expectancies that are substantial by recent historical standards.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Brasil/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , México/epidemiología , New York/epidemiología , Panamá/epidemiología , Perú/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
Biol Bull ; 240(1): 16-22, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730538

RESUMEN

AbstractIt is accepted that temperature affects offspring size in ectotherms. However, the processes that result in temperature-induced changes are not well understood. We sought to determine when temperature changes during development induce changes in hatching size and how long hatchlings reflect the previous thermal experiences of their mother. Juveniles of the common tropical slipper snail Crepidula cf. marginalis were collected at Playa Venado, Panama; were raised in the laboratory at either 24 °C or 28 °C, temperatures experienced in nature; and were reciprocally moved between the two temperatures. In the first experiment, the animals were moved immediately after oviposition to determine whether temperatures experienced during oogenesis or embryogenesis contribute to differences in hatching size. The second experiment transplanted animals between the same two temperatures after the first brood hatched. The subsequent three broods were measured to determine how long the legacy of the first temperature persists. We found that (i) the temperature the mother experienced during oogenesis significantly affects hatching size, whereas the temperature experienced during embryogenesis does not; and (ii) hatching size is impacted for at least two broods after a change in temperature (≥17 days). These results show that hatching size is a legacy of temperatures experienced prior to oviposition and that this legacy does not persist for more than two brooding cycles. It remains unclear whether this rapid response to environmental temperature is adaptive or the result of a physiological constraint on oogenesis. Understanding the process whereby temperature influences offspring size will provide insight into the potential for organisms to respond to temperature changes and, ultimately, climate change.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Embrionario , Oogénesis , Animales , Femenino , Panamá , Caracoles , Temperatura
12.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mar. 10, 2021. 46 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151141

RESUMEN

A la fecha, se reportan 6.487 pacientes (1,9%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 847 pacientes (0,2%) se encuentran hospitalizados (717 en sala general y 130 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 331.233 (96,2%) casos como recuperados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Panamá/epidemiología
13.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mar. 24, 2021. 36 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151433

RESUMEN

A la fecha, se reportan 4.664 pacientes (1,3%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 720 pacientes (0,2%) se encuentran hospitalizados (622 en sala general y 98 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 339.239 (96,7%) casos como recuperados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Panamá/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129823, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592508

RESUMEN

Several studies show that many water bodies in developing countries are increasingly affected by anthropogenic pressure, such as agricultural activities, domestic and industrial wastewater. However, data is scarce in several of such countries, including Panama. Thus, in this work, the ecotoxicological status of selected rivers in Panama with distinct input sources were evaluated using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo bioassays combined with a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry screening of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), using a library of over 3200 chemicals. A total of 68 CECs, including pharmaceuticals and metabolites, pesticides and several industrial chemicals, could be tentatively identified. Additionally, the zebrafish embryo bioassays showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in embryo mortality/abnormalities when incubated with water samples from two rivers, Matasnillo and Curundú (47.5% and 32%, respectively). Importantly, a positive correlation between ecotoxicological endpoints and some of the detected CECs was observed. The findings demonstrate that both rivers are under strong anthropogenic pressure, and therefore, management actions are urgently needed to decrease their level of contamination. Overall, this study further supports the use of the zebrafish embryo bioassay as a fast, high throughput approach for screening the toxicity of water samples, and highlights the advantages of combining ecotoxicological assays with high-resolution mass spectrometry to an expedite assessment of the ecotoxicological status of water bodies.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Bioensayo , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Espectrometría de Masas , Panamá , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Pez Cebra
15.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 24, 2021. 41 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151140

RESUMEN

A la fecha, se reportan 9.145 pacientes (2,7%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 1.344 pacientes (0,4%) se encuentran hospitalizados (1.149 en sala general y 195 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 319.821 (95,2%) casos como recuperados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Panamá/epidemiología
16.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 9, 2021. 41 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151139

RESUMEN

A la fecha, se reportan 28.827 pacientes (8,8%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 2.058 pacientes (0,8%) se encuentran hospitalizados (1.844 en sala general y 214 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 290.124 (88,9%) casos como recuperados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Panamá/epidemiología
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(7)2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514519

RESUMEN

The composition of tick microbiomes varies both within and among tick species. Whether this variation is intrinsic (related to tick characteristics) or extrinsic (related to vertebrate host and habitat) is poorly understood but important, as microbiota can influence the reproductive success and vector competence of ticks. We aimed to uncover what intrinsic and extrinsic factors best explain the microbial composition and taxon richness of 11 species of neotropical ticks collected from eight species of small mammals in 18 forest fragments across central Panama. Microbial richness varied among tick species, life stages, and collection sites but was not related to host blood source. Microbiome composition was best explained by tick life stage, with bacterial assemblages of larvae being a subset of those of nymphs. Collection site explained most of the bacterial taxa with differential abundance across intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Francisella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent, but their proportional abundance differed greatly among tick species, and we found both positive and negative cooccurrence between members of these two genera. Other tick endosymbionts (e.g., Coxiella and Rickettsiella) were associated with specific tick species. In addition, we detected Anaplasma and Bartonella in several tick species. Our results indicate that the microbial composition and richness of neotropical ticks are principally related to intrinsic factors (tick species and life stage) and collection site. Taken together, our analysis informs how tick microbiomes are structured and can help anchor our understanding of tick microbiomes from tropical environments more broadly.IMPORTANCE Blood-feeding arthropod microbiomes often play important roles in disease transmission, yet the factors that structure tick microbial communities in the Neotropics are unknown. Utilizing ticks collected from live animals in neotropical forest fragments, this study teases apart the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic tick-associated factors on tick microbial composition as well as which specific microbes contribute to differences across tick species, tick life stages, the mammals they fed on, and the locations from where they were sampled. Furthermore, this study provides revelations of how notable tick-associated bacterial genera are interacting with other tick-associated microbes as well as the forest animals they encounter.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiota , Garrapatas/microbiología , Animales , Bosques , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/microbiología , Mamíferos/parasitología , Ninfa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ninfa/microbiología , Panamá , Garrapatas/crecimiento & desarrollo
18.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; Ene. 20, 2021. 23 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150952

RESUMEN

Este documento es una guía para apoyar a los comunicadores de salud pública, es decir del Ministerio de Salud y de la Caja de Seguro Social, y al Estado en la preparación y ejecución de una estrategia de comunicación sobre vacunas, incluida la planificación para cada fase del despliegue y para públicos específicos, para la cual la OPS/OMS en Panamá estaría brindando apoyo y asesoría técnica en su implementación.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Comunicación en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Panamá
19.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ene. 27, 2021. 53 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151138

RESUMEN

A la fecha, se reportan 44.500 pacientes (14,3%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 2.586 pacientes (0,8%) se encuentran hospitalizados (2.370 en sala general y 216 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 259.095 (83,2%) casos como recuperados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Panamá/epidemiología
20.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ene. 13, 2021. 32 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151137

RESUMEN

A la fecha, se reportan 53.115 pacientes (19,0%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 2.482 pacientes (0,9%) se encuentran hospitalizados (2.257 en sala general y 225 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 219.144 (78,5%) casos como recuperados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Panamá/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...