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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e049653, 2021 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858874

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of young people who grew up in poverty in low/middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: A phone survey administered between August and October 2020 to participants of a population-based longitudinal cohort study established in 2002 comprising two cohorts born in 1994-1995 and 2001-2002 in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh and Telangana), Peru and Vietnam. We use logistic regressions to examine associations between mental health and pandemic-related stressors, structural factors (gender, age), and lifelong protective/risk factors (parent and peer relationship, wealth, long-term health problems, past emotional problems, subjective well-being) measured at younger ages. SETTING: A geographically diverse, poverty-focused sample, also reaching those without mobile phones or internet access. PARTICIPANTS: 10 496 individuals were approached; 9730 participated. Overall, 8988 individuals were included in this study; 4610 (51%) men and 4378 (49%) women. Non-inclusion was due to non-location or missing data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms consistent with at least mild anxiety or depression were measured by Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (≥5) or Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (≥5). RESULTS: Rates of symptoms of at least mild anxiety (depression) were highest in Peru at 41% (32%) (95% CI 38.63% to 43.12%; (29.49-33.74)), and lowest in Vietnam at 9% (9%) (95% CI 8.16% to 10.58%; (8.33-10.77)), mirroring COVID-19 mortality rates. Women were most affected in all countries except Ethiopia. Pandemic-related stressors such as health risks/expenses, economic adversity, food insecurity, and educational or employment disruption were risk factors for anxiety and depression, though showed varying levels of importance across countries. Prior parent/peer relationships were protective factors, while long-term health or emotional problems were risk factors. CONCLUSION: Pandemic-related health, economic and social stress present significant risks to the mental health of young people in LMICs where mental health support is limited, but urgently needed to prevent long-term consequences.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Pandemias , Adulto , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Salud Mental , Perú/epidemiología , Vietnam/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 219, 2021 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874941

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the impact of distance cataract surgical wet laboratory training on surgical competency of ophthalmology residents at a tertiary-level ophthalmic training center in Trujillo, Peru. METHODS: Three five-week distance wet lab courses were administered through Cybersight, Orbis International's telemedicine platform. Weekly lectures and demonstrations addressed specific steps in phacoemulsification surgery. Each lecture had two accompanying wet lab assignments, which residents completed and recorded in their institution's wet lab and uploaded to Cybersight for grading. Competency was assessed through anonymous grading of pre- and post-training surgical simulation videos, masked as to which occurred before and after training, using a standardized competency rubric adapted from the Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric (OSCAR, scale of 0-32). Day one best-corrected post-operative visual acuity (BVCA) was assessed in the operative eye on the initial consecutive 4-6 surgeries conducted by the residents as per the norms of their residency training. An anonymous post-training satisfaction survey was administered to trainees'. RESULTS: In total, 21 ophthalmic residents participated in the courses, submitting a total of 210 surgical videos. Trainees' average competency score increased 6.95 points (95%CI [4.28, 9.62], SD = 5.01, p < 0.0001, two sample t-test) from 19.3 (95%CI [17.2, 21.5], SD = 4.04) to 26.3 (95%CI [24.2, 28.3], SD = 3.93). Visual acuity for 92% of post-training resident surgeries (n = 100) was ≥20/60, meeting the World Health Organization's criterion for good quality. CONCLUSIONS: Structured distance wet lab courses in phacoemulsification resulted in significantly improved cataract surgical skills. This model could be applicable to locations where there are obstacles to traditional in-person training, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Extracción de Catarata/educación , Competencia Clínica , Internado y Residencia , Oftalmología , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina , Humanos , Laboratorios , Oftalmología/educación , Perú
3.
Yale J Biol Med ; 94(1): 23-40, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795980

RESUMEN

Introduction: Lockdowns are designed to slow COVID-19 transmission, but they may have unanticipated relationships with other aspects of public health. Assessing the overall pattern in population health as a country implements and relaxes a lockdown is relevant, as these patterns may not necessarily be symmetric. We aimed to estimate the changing trends in cause-specific mortality in relation to the 2020 COVID-19 related lockdowns in Peru. Methods: Based on data from the Peruvian National Death Information System (SINADEF), we calculated death rates per 10 million population to assess the trends in mortality rates for non-external and external causes of death (suicides, traffic accidents, and homicides). We compared these trends to 2018-2019, before, during, and after the lockdown, stratified by sex, and adjusted by Peruvian macro-region (Lima & Callao (capital region), Coast, Highland, and Jungle). Results: Non-external deaths presented a distinctive pattern among macro-regions, with an early surge in the Jungle and a later increase in the Highland. External deaths dropped during the lockdown, however, suicides and homicides returned to previous levels in the post-lockdown period. Deaths due to traffic accidents dropped during the lockdown and returned to pre-pandemic levels by December 2020. Conclusions: We found a sudden drop in external causes of death, with suicides and homicides returning to previous levels after the lifting of the lockdown. Non-external deaths showed a differential pattern by macro-region. A close monitoring of these trends could help identify early spikes among these causes of death and take action to prevent a further increase in mortality indirectly affected by the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Causas de Muerte/tendencias , Política de Salud , Accidentes de Tránsito/mortalidad , Accidentes de Tránsito/tendencias , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Homicidio/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Perú/epidemiología , Suicidio/tendencias
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803073

RESUMEN

Recently, studies linking the emotion of dispositional gratitude to cyberbullying have attracted attention. However, this is still a seminal research area that requires further scientific studies. Through longitudinal data, this study aims to analyze the mitigating effect of gratitude on cybervictimization and two indicators of adolescent subjective well-being, namely school and life satisfaction. To this end, 221 adolescents attending private schools in Peru (age: mean (M) = 12.09; standard deviation (SD) = 0.89) were selected to respond to a self-administered questionnaire in two waves that were six months apart. Descriptive data show that 27% of cybervictims also suffer other types of traditional bullying. The overlaps between forms of bullying contribute to higher probabilities of experiencing low school and life satisfaction compared to non-victims after six months. The results of the moderation analysis show that experience high gratitude help students to maintain stable levels of life satisfaction regardless of the prevalence of cyberbullying after six months The results are discussed in terms of the relevance of fostering gratitude from early ages.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Víctimas de Crimen , Ciberacoso , Adolescente , Humanos , Lactante , Internet , Satisfacción Personal , Perú , Factores Protectores , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Lima; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 6, 2021. 38 p. ilus..
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177779

RESUMEN

El trabajo en conjunto de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, el Programa Mundial de Alimentos, el Estado y la sociedad civil ha sido muy valioso. Se estableció una dinámica cercana, fluida y de permanente retroalimentación con la DIRESA Áncash, que permitió que el personal de salud aproveche de la mejor manera la asistencia técnica. El componente tecnológico del proyecto fue innovador y muy útil. La introducción de herramientas tecnológicas, como la Sala de Situación Interactiva y el aplicativo móvil Alerta COVID, han permitido tener información en tiempo real del comportamiento de la enfermedad en la región. Implementar un plan de trabajo con la participación activa de los agentes comunitarios de salud fue determinante, porque reforzaron los mensajes de conductas saludables, la vigilancia sanitaria y fueron el nexo entre la comunidad y el servicio de salud. La entrega de bonos y kits de higiene permitió que la población vulnerable pueda mantener una cuarentena en aislamiento con las necesidades básicas cubiertas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Sistemas Locales de Salud/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Comunicación en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Perú/epidemiología
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): 91-98, abril 2021. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151240

RESUMEN

Objetivo. Evaluar la reproductibilidad de las pruebas de competencia motriz (CM) de transposición lateral y salto lateral, y estimar percentiles por edad y sexo para niños que viven a altitud modera del Perú.Método. Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo transversal en la provincia de Arequipa (Perú). Se evaluó el peso, la estatura y la circunferencia de cintura. Se calculó el índice de masa corporal e índice ponderal. Se evaluó la prueba de transposición lateral y salto lateral (ambas de la batería Kopfer test für Kinder).Resultados. La muestra estuvo constituida por 885 niñas y 897 niños de 6,0 a 16,9 años. El error técnico de medida intraevaluador para ambas pruebas de CM oscilaron entre 1,75 y 3,9 repeticiones en ambos sexos, mientras que el coeficiente de correlación intraclase fue de 0,77 a 0,99. Los límites de acuerdo oscilaron entre -7,3 y 6,8 repeticiones en ambas pruebas. Se estimaron percentiles 5º, 15º, 50º, 85º y 95º por el método Least-Mean-Square algorithm. Los puntos de corte adoptados para las pruebas CM fueron bajo: < p15; regular: de p15 a p85; y alto: > p85.Conclusión. Las pruebas de transposición lateral y salto lateral mostraron una elevada capacidad de reproductibilidad. Los percentiles propuestos pueden servir para valorar la CM y podrían ser incluidos y adaptados como indicadores de desempeño en la educación física.


Objective. To assess the reproducibility of two motor competence (MC) tests: moving sideways and jumping sideways, and to estimate age and sex percentiles for children living at moderate altitude in Peru.Method. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in the province of Arequipa, Peru. Weight, height, and waist circumference were assessed. Body mass index and ponderal index were estimated. The moving sideways and jumping sideways tests were assessed (both from the Körper test für Kinder test battery).Results. The sample was made up of 885 girls and 897 boys aged 6.0-16.9 years. The intra-evaluator technical error of measurement for both MC tests ranged between 1.75 and 3.9 repetitions in both males and females, whereas the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.77-0.99. Agreement limits ranged between -7.3 and 6.8 repetitions for both tests. The 5th, 15th, 50th, 85th, and 95th percentiles were estimated using the Least-Mean-Square algorithm. The cut-off points for MC tests were low: < p15; medium: p15-p85; and high: > p85. Conclusion. Moving sideways and jumping sideways showed a high capacity for reproducibility. The proposed percentiles may be useful to assess MC and could be included and adapted as performance indicators in physical education


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Destreza Motora , Perú , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico , Estándares de Referencia , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Altitud
7.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(5): 670-673, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865058

RESUMEN

To date, there have been no molecular typing studies to identify the Sporothrix species circulating in Abancay, a hyperendemic area of sporotrichosis in Peru. To identify six clinical isolates of the Sporothrix schenckii complex from Abancay, Peru, we used PCR-sequencing of the calmodulin gene, and a phylogenetic analysis was conducted with these and additional sequences from GenBank. All clinical isolates were identified as S. schenckii (sensu stricto). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the six clinical isolates from Abancay, Peru clustered in a clade along with sequences from Costa Rica, Iran, South Africa, and four other sequences from Peru. These findings reveal the presence of S. schenckii (sensu stricto) in Abancay, Peru.


Asunto(s)
Sporothrix , Humanos , Irán , Perú/epidemiología , Filogenia , Sudáfrica , Sporothrix/genética
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2310, 2021 04 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875648

RESUMEN

Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) are major substrates for plant metabolism and have been implicated in mediating drought-induced tree mortality. Despite their significance, NSC dynamics in tropical forests remain little studied. We present leaf and branch NSC data for 82 Amazon canopy tree species in six sites spanning a broad precipitation gradient. During the wet season, total NSC (NSCT) concentrations in both organs were remarkably similar across communities. However, NSCT and its soluble sugar (SS) and starch components varied much more across sites during the dry season. Notably, the proportion of leaf NSCT in the form of SS (SS:NSCT) increased greatly in the dry season in almost all species in the driest sites, implying an important role of SS in mediating water stress in these sites. This adjustment of leaf NSC balance was not observed in tree species less-adapted to water deficit, even under exceptionally dry conditions. Thus, leaf carbon metabolism may help to explain floristic sorting across water availability gradients in Amazonia and enable better prediction of forest responses to future climate change.


Asunto(s)
Carbohidratos/análisis , Sequías , Bosques , Estaciones del Año , Árboles/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Bolivia , Brasil , Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono , Cambio Climático , Geografía , Perú , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Azúcares/metabolismo , Árboles/clasificación , Clima Tropical
9.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 577-584, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891480

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic is a colossal challenge for global health; nonetheless, specific subgroups face considerably higher risks for infection and mortality. Among patients with malignant diseases, those with hematologic neoplasms are at a higher risk for poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to register treatment modifications associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and their short-term consequences in Latin America. METHODS: Multicenter, prospective, observational, cohort study including patients older than 14 years from 14 centers in four countries (Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, and Panama) who had a confirmed diagnosis of acute leukemia, and who were undergoing active treatment since the first COVID-19 case in each country until the cutoff on July 15, 2020. RESULTS: We recruited 635 patients. Treatment modifications because of the COVID-19 pandemic were reported in 40.8% of cases. The main reason for such modifications was logistic issues (55.0%) and the most frequent modification was chemotherapy delay (42.0%). A total of 13.1% patients developed COVID-19 disease, with a mortality of 37.7%. Several factors were identified as independently associated with mortality, including a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (odds ratio 2.38 [95% CI, 1.47 to 3.84]; P < .001), while the use of telemedicine was identified as a protective factor (odds ratio 0.36 [95% CI, 0.18 to 0.82]; P = .014). CONCLUSION: These results highlight the collateral damage of COVID-19 in oncology patients.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Leucemia Mieloide/terapia , Oncología Médica/métodos , /aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /virología , Comorbilidad , Epidemias , Femenino , Guatemala/epidemiología , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide/epidemiología , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Panamá/epidemiología , Perú/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
10.
Lima; OPS; 2021-04-06. (OPS/PER/COVID-19/21-0001).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-53612

RESUMEN

Este documento muestra los retos y acciones que se desplegaron en la región Áncash, resaltando el rol de los actores involucrados, los logros obtenidos y las recomendaciones del equipo técnico a cargo.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Comunicación en Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Servicios de Salud , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Pandemias , Perú , Américas
11.
Medwave ; 21(2): e8142, 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905406

RESUMEN

Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 is a potentially severe and rare condition that still needs a better understanding to guide its management. Reports worldwide, and especially in Latin America, are still scarce. This report presents ten cases of pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 in children between 2 and 12 years old treated in a Peruvian hospital, diagnosed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was detected through serological tests (immunoglobulin M or G). Most had gastrointestinal symptoms. Therapeutics consisted mainly of intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids, ivermectin, hydroxychloroquine, digoxin, and antibiotic therapy. Three patients underwent mechanical ventilation; no mortality occurred in this case series. In conclusion, the manifestations presented here are similar to those reported in the literature. A timely diagnosis is necessary for proper management.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Hospitalización , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/terapia , /diagnóstico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Perú , Respiración Artificial , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/fisiopatología
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 275, 2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736597

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) requires spatial proximity between infectious cases and susceptible persons. We assess activity space overlap among MDRTB cases and community controls to identify potential areas of transmission. METHODS: We enrolled 35 MDRTB cases and 64 TB-free community controls in Lima, Peru. Cases were whole genome sequenced and strain clustering was used as a proxy for transmission. GPS data were gathered from participants over seven days. Kernel density estimation methods were used to construct activity spaces from GPS locations and the utilization distribution overlap index (UDOI) was used to quantify activity space overlap. RESULTS: Activity spaces of controls (median = 35.6 km2, IQR = 25.1-54) were larger than cases (median = 21.3 km2, IQR = 17.9-48.6) (P = 0.02). Activity space overlap was greatest among genetically clustered cases (mean UDOI = 0.63, sd = 0.67) and lowest between cases and controls (mean UDOI = 0.13, sd = 0.28). UDOI was positively associated with genetic similarity of MDRTB strains between case pairs (P < 0.001). The odds of two cases being genetically clustered increased by 22% per 0.10 increase in UDOI (OR = 1.22, CI = 1.09-1.36, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Activity space overlap is associated with MDRTB clustering. MDRTB transmission may be occurring in small, overlapping activity spaces in community settings. GPS studies may be useful in identifying new areas of MDRTB transmission.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/epidemiología , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/transmisión , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/transmisión , Adulto , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Red Social , Adulto Joven
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e042934, 2021 03 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692179

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Following well-established practices in demography, this article discusses several measures based on the number of COVID-19 deaths to facilitate comparisons over time and across populations. SETTINGS: National populations in 186 United Nations countries and territories and populations in first-level subnational administrative entities in Brazil, China, Italy, Mexico, Peru, Spain and the USA. PARTICIPANTS: None (death statistics only). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: An unstandardised occurrence/exposure rate comparable to the Crude Death Rate; an indirectly age-and-sex standardised rate that can be derived even when the breakdown of COVID-19 deaths by age and sex required for direct standardisation is unavailable; the reduction in life expectancy at birth corresponding to the 2020 number of COVID-19 deaths. RESULTS: To date, the highest unstandardised rate has been in New York, at its peak exceeding the state 2017 crude death rate. Populations compare differently after standardisation: while parts of Italy, Spain and the USA have the highest unstandardised rates, parts of Mexico and Peru have the highest standardised rates. For several populations with the necessary data by age and sex for direct standardisation, we show that direct and indirect standardisation yield similar results. US life expectancy is estimated to have declined this year by more than a year (-1.26 years), far more than during the worst year of the HIV epidemic, or the worst 3 years of the opioid crisis, and to reach its lowest level since 2008. Substantially larger reductions, exceeding 2 years, are estimated for Panama, Peru, and parts of Italy, Spain, the USA and especially, Mexico. CONCLUSIONS: With lesser demand on data than direct standardisation, indirect standardisation is a valid alternative to adjust international comparisons for differences in population distribution by sex and age-groups. A number of populations have experienced reductions in 2020 life expectancies that are substantial by recent historical standards.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Brasil/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , México/epidemiología , New York/epidemiología , Panamá/epidemiología , Perú/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Infez Med ; 29(1): 37-45, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664171

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between COVID-19 severity and androgenic alopecia in patients hospitalized in the Surgery Service of Honorio Delgado Espinoza Hospital in Arequipa, Peru. A cross-sectional study was performed in male patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Alopecia, clinical characteristics, treatment, and evolution were collected. In all, 98 patients were included; median age was 55 years old (range 18-89), 32.7% with comorbidities, and 45.9% with androgenic alopecia. The severity of COVID-19 infection was moderate to severe in 13.2% of patients without alopecia, and in 88.9% of patients with alopecia (p>0.001). In the logistic regression model analysis, patients with alopecia had a higher risk of presenting moderate to severe symptoms due to SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR: 80.2; 95% CI 16.2-397.7). In conclusion, the severity of infection was statistically significant in patients over 60 years old and those with alopecia.


Asunto(s)
Alopecia/etiología , /complicaciones , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alopecia/terapia , /mortalidad , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
15.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112364, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774565

RESUMEN

Gold mining is the largest source of mercury (Hg) pollution worldwide. The discharge of mercury in the environment bears direct human health risks and is likely to increase cascading effects throughout local food chains. In the Peruvian Amazon the mining process consists of slashing and burning trees, followed by extraction of gold-bearing sediment, amalgamation with Hg and gold recovery, leading each year to the degradation of 6,000-10,000 ha and the release of 180 metric tons of Hg per year to the enviroment. The purpose of this study was to determine soil Hg levels in soils of abandoned alluvial gold mine spoils and undisturbed forest in the Madre de Dios region, the epicenter of alluvial gold mining in Peru. We selected gold mine spoils of the two most important technologies locally applied for gold extraction, i.e., Minimally Mechanized Mining (MMM) and Highly Mechanized Mining (HMM), in the native communities of Laberinto and Kotzimba, respectively. We collected 127 and 35 soil samples (0-20cm depth) from potentially contaminated sites and undisturbed forest, respectively. Physicochemical analysis and determination of Hg levels were determined for all soil samples. None of the samples had Hg concentrations above Peruvian, Canadian and British Environmental Quality Standards for Agricultural Soil (6.6mg/kg). Hg levels in MMM and HMM were not significantly different between the two areas. The main variables explaining variation of soil Hg concentrations were the vegetation cover, soil organic matter, soil pH and clay particle content, which explained up to 80% of data set variation. Surprisingly, highest Hg concentrations were found in untouched old-growth forest bordering the mine spoils, but there was also a trend of increasing Hg concentrations with the regenerating vegetation. Our findings suggest that Hg concentrations in old mine spoils are low and shouldn't stand in the way of efforts to restore soil conditions and develop sustainable land uses. However, it is urgent to end the use of Hg in mining operation to decrease human and environmental risks.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Contaminantes del Suelo , Canadá , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Oro , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Minería , Perú , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248885, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760876

RESUMEN

One of the biggest challenges during the pandemic has been obtaining and maintaining critical material to conduct the increasing demand for molecular tests. Sometimes, the lack of suppliers and the global shortage of these reagents, a consequence of the high demand, make it difficult to detect and diagnose patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, negatively impacting the control of virus spread. Many alternatives have enabled the continuous processing of samples and have presented a decrease in time and cost. These measures thus allow broad testing of the population and should be ideal for controlling the disease. In this sense, we compared the SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection effectiveness by Real time RT-PCR using two different protocols for RNA extraction. The experiments were conducted in the National Institute of Health (INS) from Peru. We compared Ct values average (experimental triplicate) results from two different targets, a viral and internal control. All samples were extracted in parallel using a commercial kit and our alternative protocol-samples submitted to proteinase K treatment (3 µg/µL, 56°C for 10 minutes) followed by thermal shock (98°C for 5 minutes followed by 4°C for 2 minutes); the agreement between results was 100% in the samples tested. In addition, we compared the COVID-19 positivity between six epidemiological weeks: the initial two in that the Real time RT-PCR reactions were conducted using RNA extracted by commercial kit, followed by two other using RNA obtained by our kit-free method, and the last two using kit once again; they did not differ significantly. We concluded that our in-house method is an easy, fast, and cost-effective alternative method for extracting RNA and conducing molecular diagnosis of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/métodos , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Endopeptidasa K/metabolismo , Humanos , Pandemias , Perú/epidemiología , ARN/genética , ARN/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Viral/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , /genética
19.
Evid Based Dent ; 22(1): 18-19, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772124

RESUMEN

Design Three-armed randomised clinical trial.Study selection The study's aim was to examine the effectiveness of providing oral health promotion, prevention and a restorative programme at mother and child health clinics (MCHs) through a multidisciplinary team. This was studied by collecting data on the participants' caries rates. The study sample consisted of 368 Peruvian children, aged 0-3 years, who were from low socioeconomic areas of Peru and were studied over three different MCHs. The interventions used in this study are split into active intervention group (AG), passive intervention group (PG) and control group (CG). The AG group had multiple interventions, such as multiple training courses for nurses on dental health, oral health-related information cards (OHICs) and atraumatic restorative treatment (ART)-trained dentists. The PG implemented OHICs and ART-trained dentists, and the CG nurses received a 45-minute lecture on the importance of oral health and regular protocols followed.Data analysis/data extraction and synthesis Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) scores were used to measure the participants' caries rates. The CAST scores were collected over a three-year period by two calibrated and trained dentists. The CAST scores ranged from 0 (no caries) to 8 (loss of tooth due to caries), although the authors only collected data from scores 3-8 as this was indicating disease presence.Results The results were gathered for each arm of the study and compared using analysis of variance. The results showed that it was statistically significant (P <0.001) that the AG group had a lower rate of carious dentine compared to the PG and CG groups. The percentage of carious dentine prevalence was 10%, 60.5% and 63.0%, respectively.Conclusion The conclusion of the paper is that using a multidisciplinary approach - with trained nurses, delivery of oral health inspection and advice - can reduce the rate of caries in 0-3-year-olds.


Asunto(s)
Tratamiento Restaurativo Atraumático Dental , Caries Dental , Niño , Preescolar , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Países en Desarrollo , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Perú
20.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 320(5): H1851-H1861, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710927

RESUMEN

High altitude-related excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The experimental aim of this study was to determine the effects of microvesicles isolated from Andean highlanders with EE on endothelial cell inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and nitric oxide (NO) production. Twenty-six male residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m), were studied: 12 highlanders without EE (age: 40 ± 4 yr; BMI: 26.4 ± 1.7; Hb: 17.4 ± 0.5 g/dL, Spo2: 86.9 ± 1.0%) and 14 highlanders with EE (43 ± 4 yr; 26.2 ± 0.9; 24.4 ± 0.4 g/dL; 79.7 ± 1.6%). Microvesicles were isolated, enumerated, and collected from plasma by flow cytometry. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured and treated with microvesicles from highlanders without and with EE. Microvesicles from highlanders with EE induced significantly higher release of interleukin (IL)-6 (89.8 ± 2.7 vs. 77.1 ± 1.9 pg/mL) and IL-8 (62.0 ± 2.7 vs. 53.3 ± 2.2 pg/mL) compared with microvesicles from healthy highlanders. Although intracellular expression of total NF-κB p65 (65.3 ± 6.0 vs. 74.9 ± 7.8.9 AU) was not significantly affected in cells treated with microvesicles from highlanders without versus with EE, microvesicles from highlanders with EE resulted in an ∼25% higher (P < 0.05) expression of p-NF-κB p65 (173.6 ± 14.3 vs. 132.8 ± 12.2 AU). Cell reactive oxygen species production was significantly higher (76.4.7 ± 5.4 vs. 56.7 ± 1.7% of control) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS) activation (231.3 ± 15.5 vs. 286.6 ± 23.0 AU) and NO production (8.3 ± 0.6 vs. 10.7 ± 0.7 µM/L) were significantly lower in cells treated with microvesicles from highlanders with versus without EE. Cell apoptotic susceptibility was not significantly affected by EE-related microvesicles. Circulating microvesicles from Andean highlanders with EE increased endothelial cell inflammation and oxidative stress and reduced NO production.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we determined the effects of microvesicles isolated from Andean highlanders with excessive erythrocytosis (EE) on endothelial cell inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NO production. Microvesicles from highlanders with EE induced a dysfunctional response from endothelial cells characterized by increased cytokine release and expression of active nuclear factor-κB and reduced nitric oxide production. Andean highlanders with EE exhibit dysfunctional circulating extracellular microvesicles that induce a proinflammatory, proatherogenic endothelial phenotype.


Asunto(s)
Aclimatación , Altitud , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Policitemia/sangre , Adulto , Apoptosis , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/patología , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/patología , Humanos , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo III/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Perú , Fenotipo , Policitemia/patología , Policitemia/fisiopatología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Factor de Transcripción ReIA/metabolismo
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