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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49596, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1094830

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever as principais recomendações sobre ações de prevenção de contágio relacionadas à exposição ocupacional dos profissionais de saúde atuantes frente à COVID-19, disponíveis até março de 2020. Conteúdo: A atual pandemia da doença causada pelo novo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2 tem transmissão favorecida pelo contato próximo e desprotegido com secreções ou excreções de pacientes infectados, principalmente por meio de gotículas salivares. Práticas organizacionais de prevenção devem ser previstas antes da chegada do paciente ao serviço de saúde, reduzindo o fluxo de atendimento, no primeiro atendimento e durante as ações assistenciais, para minimizar a exposição ocupacional ao agente biológico. Profissionais de saúde classificados como grupo de risco devem ser afastados de atividades de risco de contaminação. Aqueles contaminados ou adoecidos devem permanecer em quarentena para minimizar a propagação da COVID-19. Considerações finais: os cuidados para prevenção de contaminação de trabalhadores nesta pandemia pelo novo coronavírus devem ser priorizados, evitando impactos negativos na assistência à população que busca atendimento nos serviços de saúde.


Objective: to describe the main recommended actions on prevention actions related to occupational exposure of health professionals working at COVID-19, available until March 2020. Content: The current pandemic disease caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has its transmission favored by close and unprotected contact with secretions or excretions from infected patients, mainly through salivary droplets. Organizational prevention practices should be prioritized, since patient's arrival at the health service, optimizing the flow of care, the first care and during health care actions, to minimize occupational exposure to the biological agent. Health professionals classified as a risk group should be removed from activities at risk of contamination. Those contaminated or adulterated must remain in quarantine to minimize the spread of COVID-19. Final considerations: care to avoid contamination of workers in this pandemic by the new coronavirus must be prioritized, prevented from affecting the assistance to the population that seeks assistance in health services.


Objetivo: describir las principales acciones recomendadas sobre acciones de prevención relacionadas con la exposición ocupacional de los profesionales de la salud que trabajan en COVID-19, disponible hasta marzo de 2020. Contenido: La enfermedad pandémica actual causada por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 tiene su transmisión favorecida por contacto cercano y sin protección con secreciones o excreciones de pacientes infectados, principalmente a través de gotas salivales. Se deben priorizar las prácticas de prevención organizacional, desde la llegada del paciente al servicio de salud, optimizando el flujo de atención, la primera atención y durante las acciones de atención de salud, para minimizar la exposición ocupacional al agente biológico. Los profesionales de la salud clasificados como grupo de riesgo deben ser retirados de las actividades en riesgo de contaminación. Las personas contaminadas o adulteradas deben permanecer en cuarentena para minimizar la propagación de COVID-19. Consideraciones finales: se debe priorizar la atención para evitar la contaminación de los trabajadores en esta pandemia por el nuevo coronavirus, evitando que afecte la asistencia a la población que busca asistencia en los servicios de salud.

2.
Ars pharm ; 61(2): 63-79, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-188101

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: En diciembre de 2019, se detectaron los primeros casos de enfermedad respiratoria causada por un coronavirus emergente, al que se denominó SARS-CoV-2, que en los primeros meses de 2020 se ha extendido por todo el mundo con características de pandemia. MÉTODO: Se examinaron las publicaciones más relevantes en relación con los objetivos de la revisión. RESULTADOS: La enfermedad, conocida como COVID-19, cursa con tos, fiebre y dificultad respiratoria. Las formas más graves, que afectan principalmente a personas de edad avanzada y con determinadas comorbilidades, se manifiestan por afectación de la función respiratoria, que requiere ventilación mecánica, y síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, que puede conducir a un choque séptico con fallo multiorgánico, y altas tasas de mortalidad. En esta revisión se examina el estado actual de conocimientos sobre las características y origen del SARS-CoV-2, su replicación, y la patogénesis, clínica, diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención de COVID-19. CONCLUSIONES: Las características del SARS-CoV-2 y la clínica de COVID-19 son bien conocidas. La PCR es la técnica de referencia para el diagnóstico de laboratorio; se dispone de ensayos para detección de antígenos y de anticuerpos, con margen de optimización. Los protocolos de tratamiento incluyen la corrección de la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y administración de agentes antivirales. Existen vacunas en desarrollo


INTRODUCTION: In December 2019, the first cases of respiratory disease caused by an emerging coronavirus were detected. The causative agento f the outbreak was called SARS-CoV-2, and in the first months of 2020 it spread throughout the world as a pandemic. METHOD: The most relevant publications concerned with the aims of the review were examined. RESULTS: The disease, known as COVID-19. Patients show cough, fever, and respiratory distress. The most severe forms, mainly affecting the elderly and associated with various comorbidities, are manifested by impaired respiratory function, requiring mechanical ventilation, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which can lead to septic shock with multi-organ failure and high mortality rates. This review examines the current state of knowledge about the characteristics and origin of SARS-CoV-2, its replication, and the pathogenesis, clinical, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are well known. PCR is the reference technique for laboratory diagnosis; assays for the detection of antigens and antibodies are available, with optimization possibilities. Treatment protocols include attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response and administration of antiviral agents. There are vaccines in development


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/terapia
3.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47389

RESUMEN

A atual pandemia da doença causada pelo novo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2, denominada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) como COVID-19 (WHO, 2020c), levou os serviços de saúde a um novo cenário que influencia a saúde e segurança dos diversos profissionais envolvidos nos cuidados à população. Esta realidade, já vivenciada em países como China e Itália, traz preocupação social e profissional com a necessidade de reavaliação das ações para prevenção da COVID-19 entre os trabalhadores expostos ao vírus durante suas atividades laborais. A transmissão é favorecida pelo contato próximo e desprotegido com secreções ou excreções de um paciente infectado, principalmente por meio de gotículas salivares. Outros fluidos corporais não estão claramente implicados na transmissão do novo coronavírus, mas se considera que o contato desprotegido com sangue, fezes, vômitos e urina pode colocar o profissional em risco de adoecimento (CDC, 2020c).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Neumonía Viral , Riesgos Laborales , Personal de Salud , Salud Laboral , Atención de Enfermería
4.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200500. 25 p.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1096377

RESUMEN

El documento contiene las disposiciones y medidas para operativizar las prestaciones de prevención y control de la anemia en el contexto de la Emergencia Nacional por COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Guías como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Control , Anemia
8.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(3): 259-260, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385982

RESUMEN

The epidemic caused by COVID-19 has been highly concerned by the international community including World Health Organization (WHO). This is an ongoing battle for human life and health. We should always remember and learn lessons from the past, which could be promoted to all over the country, even the world. Many phenomena and problems in the work of epidemic prevention, control and treatment are worthy of our deep reflection. We should use scientific approach and dialectical materialism to make a practical and realistic summary. The purpose is to win the battle as soon as possible, and more importantly, to avoid repeating the same mistakes and prevent pestilence before it happens.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Organización Mundial de la Salud
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(5): 484-485, 2020 May 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388946

RESUMEN

At present, the prevention and control of COVID-19 in China has entered a critical period. Recently, various areas outside Hubei Province have gradually begun to resume work and production, but the development of the epidemic situation is still uncertain and complex. A few days ago, researchers gradually began to pay attention to asymptomatic infection of 2019-novel coronavirus and described the disease process of asymptomatic infection and the possibility of being a source of infection. This provided a scientific basis for further optimizing and improving epidemic prevention and control measures. Paying attention to the screening and self-protection of high-risk groups and strengthening the level of detection should be helpful to the detection and management of asymptomatic infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , China , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Pandemias
12.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(5): 438-440, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390368

RESUMEN

COVID-19 not only affects the physical health of Chinese people, but also their psychological health. This article mainly summarized the causes, clinical manifestations and preventive measures of COVID-19 impact on psychology of Chinese people, and presented two representative cases at the same time.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/virología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medio Social
13.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 170-177, 2020 May 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391660

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a grade B infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In pace with the spreading of the disease, biosafety risk of the biological specimen preservation in biobanks has been significantly increased and biosafety protection during biological specimen preservation become increasingly important. According to the related national rules and the corresponding guidelines of Chinese Medical Association, this paper introduced the etiology about SARS-CoV-2, epidemiology about COVID-19, and the biosafety protection principles of individuals and biological specimen storage places in the process of personal protection, protection of collection, transport, handling, preservation, detection, post-detection disposal and emergencies of biological specimen. Emphasized to carry out a strict biosafety-risk assessment on biological specimen basing on virus load information, infectivity, and sample type (possible contact transmission, aerosol transmission, and fecal oral transmission).


Asunto(s)
Contención de Riesgos Biológicos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Manejo de Especímenes , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Manejo de Especímenes/normas
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396400

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced the health public authorities to impose extraordinary policies to limit the virus spread. Lockdown has been recognized as an effective measure to minimise the risk of infection. The effect of this extreme and prolonged situation on glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is unknown. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and Flash glucose monitoring (FGM) allow health care professionals to remotely monitored sensor glucose levels. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of lockdown on glycaemic control in adults with T1D. METHODS: People with T1D on multiple daily insulin injections and using CGM or FGM were included. Sensor data from the 2 weeks before the start of the COVID-19 lockdown and from the 2 weeks after 5 weeks of consecutive lockdown were compared. RESULTS: 147 subjects were selected (age: 39±14 years (15-80), 54% male (n=80), diabetes duration: 18±11 years). Forty six percent (n=68) were CGM users and 54% (n=79) FGM users. Estimated HbA1c was reduced from 57±11 mmol/l to 55±11 mmol/l (7.38±1.0% to 7.16±1.0%), (p<0.001). Time 70-180 mg/dl was increased from 60.3±16.0 to 62.8±17.0 (p=0.009). Time >180 mg/dl and >250 mg/dl were reduced from 36.0±17.2 to 32.6±17.5 (p<0.001) and from 11.9±11.8 to 9.4±10.3%, (p=0.001), respectively. Time in hypoglycaemia remained unchanged. Estimated HbA1c and time in range 70-180 mg/dl showed an improvement in 62% (n=91) of the subjects. Sensor use (93%) and coefficient of variation (36%) remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: No deterioration in glycaemic control was found as a result of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(0): E067, 2020 May 13.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397700

RESUMEN

Novel coronavirus spreads very fast and is not easy to control. It has spread over 200 countries or territories. China has taken action to implement containment strategies, including active COVID-19 case finding, tracing, and 14-day quarantine of close contacts, and home isolation of 1.39 billion of people countywide for at least 2 weeks, etc. The combination of these strategies has brought the epidemic under control in China. The United Kingdom had deliberately not implemented containment measures for a while, instead opting to allow herd immunity strategy to develop over time. This is a "do-nothing" strategy whereby the virus is allowed to move through communities naturally until certain proportion of people has been infected, and the epidemic ends without intervention. The author assesses containment strategies versus this herd immunity strategy in real-world application to the COVID-19 epidemic. The author suggests an innovative strategy to balance controlling the epidemic and preventing impediment to economic and social development.

16.
BMJ ; 369: m1642, 2020 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371466

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychological effects on clinicians of working to manage novel viral outbreaks, and successful measures to manage stress and psychological distress. DESIGN: Rapid review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed/Medline, PsycInfo, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and Google Scholar, searched up to late March 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Any study that described the psychological reactions of healthcare staff working with patients in an outbreak of any emerging virus in any clinical setting, irrespective of any comparison with other clinicians or the general population. RESULTS: 59 papers met the inclusion criteria: 37 were of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), eight of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), seven of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), three each of Ebola virus disease and influenza A virus subtype H1N1, and one of influenza A virus subtype H7N9. Of the 38 studies that compared psychological outcomes of healthcare workers in direct contact with affected patients, 25 contained data that could be combined in a pairwise meta-analysis comparing healthcare workers at high and low risk of exposure. Compared with lower risk controls, staff in contact with affected patients had greater levels of both acute or post-traumatic stress (odds ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.28 to 2.29) and psychological distress (1.74, 1.50 to 2.03), with similar results for continuous outcomes. These findings were the same as in the other studies not included in the meta-analysis. Risk factors for psychological distress included being younger, being more junior, being the parents of dependent children, or having an infected family member. Longer quarantine, lack of practical support, and stigma also contributed. Clear communication, access to adequate personal protection, adequate rest, and both practical and psychological support were associated with reduced morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Effective interventions are available to help mitigate the psychological distress experienced by staff caring for patients in an emerging disease outbreak. These interventions were similar despite the wide range of settings and types of outbreaks covered in this review, and thus could be applicable to the current covid-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Personal de Salud/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Cuarentena/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia
18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-11, 2020 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381140

RESUMEN

U.S. hospitals are engaged in an infection control arms race. Hospitals, specialties, and professional groups are spurring one another on to adopt progressively more aggressive measures in response to Covid-19 that often exceed federal and international standards. Examples include universal masking of providers and patients, decreasing thresholds to test asymptomatic patients, using face-shields and N95 respirators regardless of symptoms and test results, novel additions to the list of aerosol-generating procedures, and more comprehensive personal protective equipment including hair, shoe, and leg covers. In this article, we review the factors underlying this arms race, including fears about personal safety, ongoing uncertainty around how SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted, confusion about what constitutes an aerosol-generating procedure, increasing recognition of the importance of asymptomatic infection, and the limited accuracy of diagnostic tests. We consider the detrimental effects of a maximal infection control approach and the research studies that are needed to eventually de-escalate hospitals and to inform more evidence-based and measured strategies.

20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383431

RESUMEN

Most countries around the world have responded promptly to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) challenge by adopting considered and scientifically guided strategies for its containment. However, the situation is more complex for nations where malaria is endemic, as they now have the additional burden of COVID-19. In such nations, the healthcare systems are either in the preparatory or containment phase of the current pandemic. This enforced, sudden, and sharp public health refocus is likely to result in the disruption of annual malaria control activities such as distribution of insecticide-impregnated bed nets, indoor residual spraying of insecticide, maintenance of malaria surveillance, and mass provision of antimalarial drugs. Nonetheless, we feel that the best facets of COVID-19 public health management can become new guiding principles in malaria-endemic countries to improve malaria control and hasten malaria elimination. Redirection against malaria of the best public health initiatives used in COVID-19 containment could fast-track the global goal of a malaria-free world. Such public health advancement could be one positive outcome from the scourge of COVID-19.

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