Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.254
Filtrar
1.
R Soc Open Sci ; 9(7): 220142, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911195

RESUMEN

Undisclosed discrepancies often exist between study registrations and their associated publications. Discrepancies can increase risk of bias, and when undisclosed, they disguise this increased risk of bias from readers. To remedy this issue, we developed an intervention called discrepancy review. We provided journals with peer reviewers specifically assigned to check for undisclosed discrepancies between registrations and manuscripts submitted to journals. We performed discrepancy review on 18 manuscripts submitted to Nicotine and Tobacco Research and three manuscripts submitted to the European Journal of Personality. We iteratively refined the discrepancy review process based on feedback from discrepancy reviewers, editors and authors. Authors addressed the majority of discrepancy reviewer comments, and there was no opposition to running a trial from authors, editors or discrepancy reviewers. Outcome measures for a trial of discrepancy review could include the presence of primary or secondary outcome discrepancies, whether publications that are not the primary report from a clinical trial registration are clearly described as such, whether registrations are permanent, and an overarching subjective assessment of the impact of discrepancies in published articles. We found that discrepancy review could feasibly be introduced as a regular practice at some journals interested in this process. A full trial of discrepancy review would be needed to evaluate its impact on reducing undisclosed discrepancies.

2.
Cir Esp (Engl Ed) ; 2022 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914718
3.
Arch Plast Surg ; 49(4): 538-542, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919550

RESUMEN

Performing the first peer review of a plastic surgical research article can be an overwhelming task. However, it is an essential scholarly skill and peer review is used in a multitude of settings: evaluation of journal articles, conference abstracts, and research proposals. Furthermore, peer reviewing provides more than just the opportunity to read and help improve other's work: peer reviewing can improve your own scientific writing. A structured approach is possible and recommended. In these ten tips, we provide guidance on how to successfully conduct the first peer reviews. The ten tips on peer reviewing concern: 1) Appropriateness: are you qualified and prepared to perform the peer review? 2) Familiarization with the journal and its reviewing guidelines; 3) Gathering first impressions of the paper followed by specific tips for reviewing; 4) the abstract and introduction; 5) Materials, methods, and results (including statistical considerations); and 6) discussion, conclusion, and references. Tip 7 concerns writing and structuring the review; Tips 7 and 8 describe how to provide constructive criticism and understanding the limits of your expertise. Finally, Tip 10 details why-and how-you become a peer reviewer. Peer review can be done by any plastic surgeon, not just those interested in an academic career. These ten tips provide useful insights for both the aspiring and the experienced peer reviewer. In conclusion, a systematic approach to peer reviewing is possible and recommended, and can help you getting started to provide quality peer reviews that contribute to moving the field of plastic surgery forward.

4.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 14(7): 870-874, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914848

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Subjective, objective, assessment, and plan (SOAP) notes are widely utilized within pharmacy curricula. Implementation of a peer-review process for these assignments may improve student competence. Evidence is lacking regarding correlation between student-to-student peer-review and faculty grades for SOAP notes and correlation of SOAP note peer-evaluation to individual performance. METHODS: Third year pharmacy students completed two SOAP notes in Pharmacotherapeutics IV. A peer-review process was implemented in spring 2020. After each SOAP note, students were assigned a peer's assignment to evaluate utilizing the same 50-point rubric as the faculty. SOAP note grades were compared between the 2019 and 2020 cohorts. RESULTS: Analysis included 98 students in spring 2019 and 92 students in 2020. SOAP note faculty grades were different between 2019 and 2020 for the first SOAP note (37.6 vs. 41.1, P < .001) but not for the second (42.3 vs. 42.7, P = .49). Peer-review grades were higher for both SOAP notes compared to faculty grades. Peer-review grades did not differ between the first and second SOAP notes (45.5 vs. 45.6) while faculty grades did (41.2 vs. 42.7). The difference in scores from peer-review compared to faculty grades was -4.4 points for the first SOAP note and - 2.9 points for the second SOAP note (P = .08). CONCLUSIONS: The peer-review process did not appear to improve SOAP note performance. Students tended to score better on the second note and appeared to gain proficiency in the peer evaluation process, suggesting a possible benefit of including additional SOAP notes.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Educacional , Estudiantes de Farmacia , Curriculum , Docentes , Humanos , Revisión por Pares
5.
Lancet ; 400(10347): 159, 2022 07 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843240
6.
Lancet ; 400(10347): 160, 2022 07 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843244
7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(59): 8164, 2022 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822410
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e058225, 2022 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906062

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco has been a complex global problem that has adversely affected almost all the sectors of society. However, the ill-effects are often most reflected in humanitarian settings, which inadvertently are surmounted by fragile systems. We aim to map tobacco prevention and control intervention in humanitarian settings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will follow the guidelines of the Joanna Briggs Institute. A comprehensive search strategy was designed using Medical Subject Heading terms, subject experts and pertinent reviews. The search was conducted on Medline (through PubMed and Ovid), EMBASE (through OVID), ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, EBSCO (through CINAHL Complete), Scopus and Web of Science databases. Two reviewers will independently screen the identified studies on removing duplicates, which shall be followed by data extraction using a pretested data extraction form. A narrative synthesis approach will be employed to collate the findings from the studies and tabular formats would be used to aid the representation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will identify, map and synthesise the interventions for tobacco prevention and control in the humanitarian settings. An ethics committee approval was not sought for this body of work as it does not include human subjects. Results from the study will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications.


Asunto(s)
Proyectos de Investigación , Tabaco , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Revisión por Pares , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Uso de Tabaco/prevención & control
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e063372, 2022 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835522

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The paramedic practice environment presents unique challenges to data documentation and access, as well as linkage to other parts of the healthcare system. Variable or unknown data quality can influence the validity of research in paramedicine. A number of database quality assessment (DQA) frameworks have been developed and used to evaluate data quality in other areas of healthcare. The extent these or other DQA practices have been applied to paramedic research is not known. Accordingly, this scoping review aims to describe the range, extent and nature of DQA practices within research in paramedicine. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will follow established methods for the conduct (Johanna Briggs Institute; Arksey and O'Malley) and reporting (Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews) of scoping reviews. In consultation with a professional librarian, a search strategy was developed representing the applicable population, concept and context. This strategy will be applied to MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine), Embase (Elsevier), Scopus (Elsevier) and CINAHL (EBSCO) to identify studies published from 2011 through 2021 that assess paramedic data quality as a stated goal. Studies will be included if they report quantitative results of DQA using data that relate primarily to the paramedic practice environment. Protocols, commentaries, case studies, interviews, simulations and experimental data-processing techniques will be excluded. No restrictions will be placed on language. Study selection will be performed by two reviewers, with a third available to resolve conflicts. Data will be extracted from included studies using a data-charting form piloted and iteratively revised based on studies known to be relevant. Results will be summarised in a chart of study characteristics, DQA-specific outcomes and key findings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required. Results will be submitted to relevant conferences and peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: 10.17605/OSF.IO/Z287T.


Asunto(s)
Medicina , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Humanos , Revisión por Pares , Proyectos de Investigación , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
11.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271002, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797386

RESUMEN

Drug repurposing has been applied in the biomedical field to optimize the use of existing drugs, leading to a more efficient allocation of research resources. In oncology, this approach is particularly interesting, considering the high cost related to the discovery of new drugs with therapeutic potential. Computational methods have been applied to predict associations between drugs and their targets. However, drug repurposing has not always been promising and its efficiency has yet to be proven. Therefore, the present scoping review protocol was developed to screen the literature on how in silico strategies can be implemented in drug repurposing in oncology. The scoping review will be conducted according to the Arksey and O'Malley framework (2005) and the Joanna Briggs Institute recommendations. We will search the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, as well as the grey literature. We will include peer-reviewed research articles involving in silico strategies applied to drug repurposing in oncology, published between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2021. Data will be charted and findings described according to review questions. We will report the scoping review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Review guidelines (PRISMA-ScR).


Asunto(s)
Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Revisión por Pares , Atención a la Salud , Proyectos de Investigación , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
12.
Anal Methods ; 14(28): 2731, 2022 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796255
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e059782, 2022 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863824

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have changed the treatment landscape for multiple cancer types. Sex plays an important role in both the development of cancer as well as the functioning of the immune system. Though a difference in response to immune therapy is emerging between men and women it is unclear how this difference affects cancer outcomes and what the potential underlying mechanisms are for those effects. The objective of this study is to describe the influence that sex has on the outcomes experienced by cancer patients on ICI therapy and to identify and analyse any knowledge gaps in the field. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: The framework for this methodology was guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute Manual for Evidence Synthesis. The search and review will be conducted from January 2022 to June 2022. Two independent researchers will screen titles and abstracts followed by full-text screening for manuscript inclusion. Full length studies published between 2010 and December 2021 found in PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Scopus describing the influence of sex differences on cancer outcomes in patients treated with ICIs will be included. After data are extracted it will be summarised for presentation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The findings of this scoping review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The results will be used to inform future studies on the potential differential impacts of ICIs. All data are from published openly accessible sources and therefore no ethical clearance is necessary.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de Puntos de Control Inmunológico , Neoplasias , Atención a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Inhibidores de Puntos de Control Inmunológico/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Revisión por Pares , Proyectos de Investigación , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e061446, 2022 07 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803642

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The objective of the scoping review is to understand what has been reported in the literature regarding facilitators and barriers to using smart television (smart TV) among older adults in care settings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The scoping review will adopt the Joanna Briggs Institute scoping review methodology. It will occur between March and August 2022. It will consider literature on using smart TV with older adults in care settings. A three-step search strategy will be applied: (1) to identify keywords and index terms from MEDLINE and CINAHL; (2) to do a search using identified keywords and index terms across chosen databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, AgeLine, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google) and (3) to hand search the reference lists of all selected literature for additional literature. Further, we will search using Google for grey literature. Two research assistants will independently screen the titles and abstracts by referring to the inclusion criteria. After that, two researchers will independently assess the full text of selected literature by referring to the inclusion criteria. We will present the data in a table with narratives that answer the questions of the scoping review. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The scoping review does not require ethics approval because it collects data from the publicly available literature. The findings will offer insights to inform the use of smart TV among older adults in care settings for education, practice, policy and future research. The scoping review results will also be disseminated through conference presentations and an open-access publication in a peer-reviewed journal.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Proyectos de Investigación , Anciano , Humanos , Revisión por Pares , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Televisión
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e057026, 2022 07 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820751

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Electronic clinical decision support (eCDS) tools are used to assist clinical decision making. Using computer-generated algorithms with evidence-based rule sets, they alert clinicians to events that require attention. eCDS tools generating alerts using nudge principles present clinicians with evidence-based clinical treatment options to guide clinician behaviour without restricting freedom of choice. Although eCDS tools have shown beneficial outcomes, challenges exist with regard to their acceptability most likely related to implementation. Furthermore, the pace of progress in this field has allowed little time to effectively evaluate the experience of the intended user. This scoping review aims to examine the development and implementation strategies, and the impact on the end user of eCDS tools that generate alerts using nudge principles, specifically in the critical care and peri-anaesthetic setting. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This review will follow the Arksey and O'Malley framework. A search will be conducted of literature published in the last 15 years in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Web of Science and SAGE databases. Citation screening and data extraction will be performed by two independent reviewers. Extracted data will include context, e-nudge tool type and design features, development, implementation strategies and associated impact on end users. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This scoping review will synthesise published literature therefore ethical approval is not required. Review findings will be published in topic relevant peer-reviewed journals and associated conferences.


Asunto(s)
Anestésicos , Cuidados Críticos , Electrónica , Humanos , Revisión por Pares , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Tecnología
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863628
17.
18.
J Surg Res ; 279: 368-373, 2022 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820318

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Various online platforms, such as YouTube, are used for surgical education. Esophageal surgery is sophisticated and surgical videos may help reduce the time it takes for surgeons to learn these complicated operations. There is no clear consensus regarding the quality and reliability of esophagectomy videos on YouTube. We aimed to evaluate esophageal surgery videos published on YouTube in terms of quality and reliability. METHODS: The keywords "esophagectomy" and "surgery" were both searched on YouTube and the first 150 results were evaluated. Eighty two videos were included in the analysis. The quality and reliability of the videos were determined using the esophagectomy scoring system (ESS) developed by the authors, the Journal of the American Medical Association benchmark criteria, and the video power index. RESULTS: A total of 82 videos were reviewed. About two-thirds of the videos demonstrated the Ivor Lewis technique and included surgeries performed using the thoracoscopic/laparoscopic method. The videos were analyzed as per the source of the upload: academic (25.7%), industry-sponsored (9.7%), or individual (64.6%). When the scores were compared by the origin of the videos, industry-sponsored videos scored significantly higher than the videos produced by individuals and academic centers (P = 0.01). While the ESS and Journal of the American Medical Association benchmark criteria scores were significantly correlated (P = 0.00), no correlation was found between video length, video power index score, and ESS score. CONCLUSIONS: Conducting a professional evaluation of videos before they are published on YouTube may enhance video quality. Moreover, valuable videos of better quality can be produced by improving the ESS and by assessing more videos.

19.
Sci Technol Human Values ; 47(4): 670-697, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35813182

RESUMEN

In this paper, we analyze the role of science and technology studies (STS) journal editors in organizing and maintaining the peer review economy. We specifically conceptualize peer review as a gift economy running on perpetually renewed experiences of mutual indebtedness among members of an intellectual community. While the peer review system is conventionally presented as self-regulating, we draw attention to its vulnerabilities and to the essential curating function of editors. Aside from inherent complexities, there are various shifts in the broader political-economic and sociotechnical organization of scholarly publishing that have recently made it more difficult for editors to organize robust cycles of gift exchange. This includes the increasing importance of journal metrics and associated changes in authorship practices; the growth and differentiation of the STS journal landscape; and changes in publishing funding models and the structure of the publishing market through which interactions among authors, editors, and reviewers are reconfigured. To maintain a functioning peer review economy in the face of numerous pressures, editors must balance contradictory imperatives: the need to triage intellectual production and rely on established cycles of gift exchange for efficiency, and the need to expand cycles of gift exchange to ensure the sustainability and diversity of the peer review economy.

20.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e062572, 2022 07 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788067

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Time-varying exposure is an important issue that should be addressed in longitudinal observational studies using routinely collected data (RCD) for drug treatment effects. How well investigators designed, analysed and reported time-varying exposure, and to what extent the divergence that can be observed between different methods used for handling time-varying exposure in these studies remains uncertain. We will conduct a cross-sectional study to comprehensively address this question. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We have developed a comprehensive search strategy to identify all studies exploring drug treatment effects including both effectiveness and safety that used RCD and were published in core journals between 2018 and 2020. We will collect information regarding general study characteristics, data source profile, methods for handling time-varying exposure, results and the interpretation of findings from each eligibility. Paired reviewers will screen and extract data, resolving disagreements through discussion. We will describe the characteristics of included studies, and summarise the method used for handling time-varying exposure in primary analysis and sensitivity analysis. We will also compare the divergence between different approaches for handling time-varying exposure using ratio of risk ratios. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethical approval is required because the data we will use do not include individual patient data. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications.


Asunto(s)
Quimioterapia , Revisión por Pares , Proyectos de Investigación , Datos de Salud Recolectados Rutinariamente , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Factores de Tiempo
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...