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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49570, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094832

RESUMEN

Objetivo: discutir as experiências e contradições no controle da pandemia de Covid-19 sob a perspectiva da epidemiologia e das políticas públicas brasileiras. Conteúdo: o debate apresentado divide-se em duas seções: a primeira traça a reflexão dos parâmetros epidemiológicos sobre a curva epidêmica do SARS-CoV-2, bem como as experiências internacionais para o controle deste fenômeno. A segunda, ancorada nas políticas públicas brasileiras, apresenta uma análise comparada das experiências nacionais e internacionais, discutindo os potenciais reflexos sobre a pandemia, considerando algumas especificidades sociais. Conclusão: frente à impossibilidade de redução de pessoas susceptíveis por meio de estratégias vacinais, a redução da velocidade da curva epidêmica precisa ocorrer por meio de ações de isolamento físico social. Ademais, a construção de políticas públicas que visem a proteção ao trabalhador e a ampliação do investimento no setor saúde são medidas urgentes.


Objective: to discuss experiences and contradictions in the control of the Covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of epidemiology and Brazilian public policies. Content: the discussion presented is divided into two sections: the first one present epidemiological parameters on the epidemic curve of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the international experiences for the control of this phenomenon. The second, anchored in the Brazilian public policies, presents a comparative analysis of national and international experiences, discussing the potential impacts on the pandemic, considering some specific social issues. Conclusion: in the face of impossibility of reducing susceptible people through vaccination strategies, the reduction of the speed of the epidemic curve needs to occur through actions of social distance. In addition, the construction of public policies aimed at protecting workers and expanding investment in the health sector are urgent measures.


Objetivo: discutir las experiencias y contradicciones en el control de la pandemia Covid-19 desde la perspectiva de la epidemiología brasileña y las políticas públicas. Contenido: el debate presentado se divide en dos secciones. El primero traza la reflexión de los parámetros epidemiológicos en la curva epidémica del SARS-CoV-2, así como las experiencias internacionales para el control de este fenómeno. El segunda seccione, anclada en las políticas públicas brasileñas, presenta un análisis comparativo de las experiencias nacionales e internacionales, discutiendo los posibles impactos en la pandemia, considerando algunas especificidades sociales brasileñas. Conclusión: dada la imposibilidad de reducir a las personas susceptibles a través de estrategias de vacunación, la reducción de la velocidad de la curva epidémica debe ocurrir a través de acciones de aislamiento social y físico. Además, la construcción de políticas públicas destinadas a proteger a los trabajadores y ampliar la inversión en el sector de la salud son medidas urgentes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Pandemias , Política Pública , Betacoronavirus
2.
J. Health NPEPS ; 5(1): 20-37, jan.-jun. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1095989

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar o perfil epidemiológico das doenças respiratórias e os indicadores socioeconômicos e de assistência em saúde da região Norte do Brasil durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Método: estudo epidemiológico, de caráter descritivo e quantitativo, em relação ao período de janeiro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2020. Os dados foram coletados no DATASUS e no boletim epidemiológico sobre a COVID-19 do Ministério da Saúde. Os resultados foram dispostos em números absolutos, frequência relativa e medidas de tendência central. Resultados: no período houve 1.163.303 internações, consumindo 891.494.215,40 reais. Pará e Amazonas somam 66% desses gastos. Os meses de abril, maio e junho apresentaram médias maiores de hospitalizações durante todos os anos. A faixa etária mais onerosa foi entre 60 e 69 anos. A região Norte é menos provida de médicos, leitos de UTI e respiradores. Amazonas, Amapá e Roraima têm os maiores coeficientes de incidência de COVID-19 por 1.000.000 de habitantes. Conclusão: a pandemia aumenta a vulnerabilidade socioeconômica e assistencial do sistema de saúde do Norte brasileiro, com sobrecarga e número de óbitos crescente. Portanto, há necessidade urgente de realocar recursos e reorganizar a rede de atenção à saúde.


Objective: to analyze the epidemiological profile of respiratory diseases and the socioeconomic and health care indicators of northern Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: epidemiological study, of a descriptive and quantitative character, in relation to the period from January 2010 to February 2020. Data were collected in DATASUS and in the epidemiological bulletin on COVID-19 of the Ministry of Health. The results were displayed in absolute numbers, relative frequency and measures of central tendency. Results: in the period there were 1,163,303 hospitalizations, consuming 891,494,215.40 reais. Pará and Amazonas account for 66% of these expenses. The months of April, May and June showed higher averages of hospitalizations during all years. The most expensive age group was between 60 and 69 years. The northern region is less equipped with doctors, ICU beds and respirators. Amazonas, Amapá and Roraima have the highest incidence coefficients of COVID-19 per 1,000,000 inhabitants. Conclusion: the pandemic increases the socioeconomic and assistance vulnerability of the health system in northern Brazil, with an overload and an increasing number of deaths. Therefore, there is an urgent need to reallocate resources and reorganize the health care network.


Objetivo: analizar el perfil epidemiológi co de las enfermedades respiratorias y los indicadores socioeconómicos y de salud del Norte de Brasil durante la pandemia COVID- 19. Método: estudio epidemiológico, de carácter descriptivo y cuantitativo, en relación con el período comprendido entre enero de 2010 y febrero de 2020. Los datos se recopilaron en DATASUS y en el boletín epidemiológico sobre COVID-19 del Ministerio de Salud. Los resultados se mostraron en números absolutos. frecuencia relativa y medidas de tendencia central. Resultados: en el período hubo 1.163.303 hospitalizaciones, que consumieron 891.494.215,40 reales. Pará y Amazonas representan el 66% de estos gastos. Los meses de abril, mayo y junio mostraron promedios más altos de hospitalizaciones durante todos los años. El grupo de edad más caro fue entre 60 y 69 años. La región Norte está menos equipada con médicos, camas de UCI y respiradores. Amazonas, Amapá y Roraima tienen las tasas más altas de incidencia de COVID-19 por cada 1,000,000 de habitantes. Conclusión: la pandemia aumenta la vulnerabilidad socioeconómica y asistencial del sistema de salud en el Norte de Brasil, con una sobrecarga y un número creciente de muertes. Por lo tanto, existe una necesidad urgente de reasignar recursos y reorganizar la red de atención médica.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral , Perfil de Salud , Epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias/economía , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Betacoronavirus
3.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 2020 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405411

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a zoonotic respiratory infection originating from Wuhan, China. Rapidly spreading from Wuhan to all inhabited continents of the world, the World Health Organisation declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2019. Infected patients present with fever and cough; radiological features include bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray and computed tomography scanning. Management is supportive with oxygen supplementation, broad-spectrum antibiotics as well as careful fluid balancing. A number of drugs, both new and old, are currently in clinical trials and being used on an experimental basis in clinical practice. The COVID-19 pandemic is the greatest worldwide public health crisis of a generation, and has led to seismic political, economic and social changes. This review provides an overview of COVID-19 for junior doctors who find themselves on a new frontline of healthcare.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 316-318, 2020 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360941

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become pandemic and turn in a challenge for Latin America. Understanding the dynamics of the epidemic is essential for decision making, and to reduce the health, economic, and social impacts of the pandemic. The present study aimed to estimate the effective reproductive number (Rt) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2) infection during the first 10 days of the outbreak in seven Latin American countries with the highest incidence of cases as of March 23, 2020. Furthermore, we chose to compare the seven countries with Spain and Italy given their history with the virus. METHODS: Incidence data retrieved from the COVID-19 data repository by Johns Hopkins University were analyzed. The Rt was calculated for the first 10 days of the epidemic in Brazil, Ecuador, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Mexico, and Peru. Rt estimations were compared with Spain and Italy values for the same interval. RESULTS: The median Rt for the first 10 days of the COVID-19 epidemic were 2.90 (2.67-3.14) for Spain and 2.83 (2.7-2.96) for Italy. Latin American Rt estimations were higher in Ecuador (3.95(3.7-4.21)), Panama (3.95(3.7-4.21)), and Brazil (3.95(3.7-4.21)). The smallest one was observed in Peru (2.36(2.11-2.63)). All Latin American countries had Rt greater than 2. CONCLUSIONS: The initial stages of the COVID-19 epidemic in Latin America suggested a high Rt. Interventions such as domestic and international travel restrictions, educational institutions closure, social distancing, and intensified case surveillance should be adopted to prevent the collapse of the health systems.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384598

RESUMEN

How to overcome informational conformity consumer behavior when faced with threats of death is a social problem in response to COVID-19. This research is based on the terror management theory, the need to belong theory and the materialism theory. It uses a theoretical model to determine the relationships between threats of death and informational conformity consumer behavior. From 1453 samples collected during outbreak of COVID-19 in China, we used a structural equation model to test multiple research hypotheses. The result shows that threats of death are positively associated with a need to belong, materialism and informational conformity consumer behavior. The need to belong and materialism can play a mediating role between threats of death and information conformity consumption behavior, and perceived social support can play a moderating role between threats of death and information conformity consumption behavior.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Neumonía Viral , Conformidad Social , Apoyo Social , Adulto , Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Muerte , Femenino , Humanos , Control Interno-Externo , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Can J Surg ; 63(3): E226-E228, 2020 05 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386471

RESUMEN

Summary: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a massive impact on waits for elective operations, with tens of thousands of scheduled surgeries being cancelled or postponed across Canada. Provincial governments will likely not only reopen elective surgical capacity when it is deemed safe, but also target new funding to address the backlog of cases. There is a dearth of research on whether the provinces' approaches to managing wait lists are equitable from a patients' needs perspective or if they are associated with patients' perception of outcomes. The surgical cost models used in the past won't be useful to governments and hospital managers. New models based on hospitals' marginal costs, associated with running on weekends or off-hours and social distancing parameters, will be needed. Surgeon input, collaboration and leadership during the strategy development, implementation and management of surgical wait lists postpandemic will be imperative, as these decisions will significantly affect the health and lives of many Canadians.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Triaje/normas , Listas de Espera , Canadá/epidemiología , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/economía , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/economía , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Triaje/organización & administración
12.
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(0): E067, 2020 May 13.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397700

RESUMEN

Novel coronavirus spreads very fast and is not easy to control. It has spread over 200 countries or territories. China has taken action to implement containment strategies, including active COVID-19 case finding, tracing, and 14-day quarantine of close contacts, and home isolation of 1.39 billion of people countywide for at least 2 weeks, etc. The combination of these strategies has brought the epidemic under control in China. The United Kingdom had deliberately not implemented containment measures for a while, instead opting to allow herd immunity strategy to develop over time. This is a "do-nothing" strategy whereby the virus is allowed to move through communities naturally until certain proportion of people has been infected, and the epidemic ends without intervention. The author assesses containment strategies versus this herd immunity strategy in real-world application to the COVID-19 epidemic. The author suggests an innovative strategy to balance controlling the epidemic and preventing impediment to economic and social development.

15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401348

RESUMEN

An integrated approach to population health, disease surveillance, and preventive care will dominate the health agenda in the post COVID-19 world. Because of their huge burden and the vulnerability imposed during a health crisis, prevention and care of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will need to be prioritized even further. Maternal and child health are inextricably linked with NCDs and their risk factors. The intergenerational impact of poor maternal nutrition and health conditions during pregnancy, particularly NCD-related pregnancy complications, can be considered as a multiplier of the ongoing pandemic of NCDs. The economic cost of poor maternal health and NCD-related pregnancy complications is likely very high, but is not adequately researched or documented in the context of long-term population health. Interventions to address NCDs in pregnancy have beneficial effects on short-term pregnancy outcomes; but even more importantly, identifying "at-risk" mothers and offspring opens up the opportunity for targeted early preventive action. Preventive actions to address obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases have a common lifestyle approach-identifying any one of these problems in pregnancy provides an opportunity to address them all. Cost-benefit analyses that only focus on the short-term and on one condition do not capture the full value of downstream, long-term benefits for population health. This requires urgent attention from FIGO.

16.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 194599820928987, 2020 May 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393101

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has induced a prioritization of acute care and telehealth, affecting the quantity of patients seen and the modality of their care. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Single-institution study conducted within the Division of Otolaryngology at the Yale School of Medicine. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data on all outpatient appointments within the Division of Otolaryngology were obtained from administrative records of billing and scheduling from March 16 to April 10, 2020. For comparison, a corresponding period from 2019 was also utilized. RESULTS: Of 5913 scheduled visits, 3665 (62.0%) were seen between March 18 and April 12, 2019, in comparison with 649 of 5044 (12.9%) during the corresponding COVID-19-affected period. The majority of completed visits performed in weeks 1 and 2 were in person, while the majority in weeks 3 and 4 were via telehealth. Among subspecialties, a larger proportion of completed visits in 2020 were performed by pediatric and head and neck oncology otolaryngologists as compared with general/specialty otolaryngologists (P < .001). Older adults (≥65 years) were less likely to have telehealth visits than younger adults (18-64 years; 45.6% vs 59.6%, P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: A major decrease in the completion rates of scheduled visits was seen in the COVID-19-affected period, though this was not proportional among subspecialties. An associated increase in telehealth visits was observed. After COVID-19-related hospital policy changes, approximately 2 weeks passed before telehealth visits surpassed in-person visits, though this was not true among older adults.

17.
Indian J Med Ethics ; V(2): 1-3, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393453

RESUMEN

The lockdown of the country, imposed by the government of India, has resulted in additional suffering for the poor without any tangible benefit. The germ theory of disease is an important contribution to human welfare. However, disease has social determinants. Responses to infectious epidemics should be based on social conditions, not only from considerations of equity, but also because they are important for success. Advice from the World Health Organisation has to be tailored to the social realities in India. Current response by the government of India has confined the poor to ghettos. They have lost the means of livelihood without a proper social security net. It is not possible for them to practise social distancing or proper hygiene. The lockdown has the effect of making conditions worse for the poor. Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic, resource allocation, social origins of disease, unplanned lockdown, diversion of resources, lack of social security.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Pobreza , Cuarentena , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , Poblaciones Vulnerables
19.
J Med Ethics ; 2020 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409625

RESUMEN

As the COVID-19 pandemic impacts on health service delivery, health providers are modifying care pathways and staffing models in ways that require health professionals to be reallocated to work in critical care settings. Many of the roles that staff are being allocated to in the intensive care unit and emergency department pose additional risks to themselves, and new policies for staff reallocation are causing distress and uncertainty to the professionals concerned. In this paper, we analyse a range of ethical issues associated with changes to staff allocation processes in the face of COVID-19. In line with a dominant view in the medical ethics literature, we claim, first, that no individual health professional has a specific, positive obligation to treat a patient when doing so places that professional at risk of harm, and so there is a clear ethical tension in any reallocation process in this context. Next, we argue that the changing asymmetries of health needs in hospitals means that careful consideration needs to be given to a stepwise process for deallocating staff from their usual duties. We conclude by considering how a justifiable process of reallocating professionals to high-risk clinical roles should be configured once those who are 'fit for reallocation' have been identified. We claim that this process needs to attend to three questions that we consider in detail: (1) how the choice to make reallocation decisions is made, (2) what justifiable models for reallocation might look like and (3) what is owed to those who are reallocated.

20.
Nature ; 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415239
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