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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238874, 2022. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249231

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT This research was aimed to explore the helminth parasitic diseases in Schizothorax plagiostomus (the snow trout) from river Swat and river Panjkora, Pakistan. Collection of 360 fish specimens have done from the lower, middle and upper reaches of both the rivers through gill nets, cast nets, dragon nets and hooks. All the samples were examined in the University of Malakand, Zoology Department for helminth parasites during the months from January 2015 to December 2016. Of the total examined fish samples 21.9% (n=79) were infected with Rhabdochona spp including 17.7% (n=32/180) in river Swat and 26.6% (n=47/180) in river Panjkora. Highest month-wise prevalence (p=0.09878,p<0.05) was reported in May (30%), then by February and October each (26.6%) while the lowest during August (13.3%). Highest prevalence (p=0.9723, p<0.05) was reported in summer season (26.6%), while lowest in the winter season (20%). Adults were highly infected (p=< 0.0001) in prevalence (63.7%) followed by sub-adults (13.2%) while no infection was found in juvenile specimens. Females fish samples had higher (p=0.0277, p>0.05) prevalence (28.8%) than males (16.6%). Fishes of the lower reaches had highest (p=0.0029, P>0.05) prevalence (31.7%) followed by middle reaches (16.5%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in samples of fish collected from upper reaches (9.87%). Present study address that Rhabdochona spp in the intestine of snow trout has a long term relationship and call as a natural infection in cyprinids and zoonotic risk to human.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo explorar as doenças parasitárias por helmintos em Schizothorax plagiostomus (a truta das neves) do rio Swat e do rio Panjkora, Paquistão. A coleta de 360 ​​espécimes de peixes foi feita nos trechos inferior, médio e superior de ambos os rios por meio de redes de emalhar, de lançamento, de dragão e anzóis. Todas as amostras foram examinadas na Universidade de Malakand, Departamento de Zoologia, para helmintos parasitas durante os meses de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016. Do total de amostras de peixes examinadas, 21,9% (n = 79) estavam infectados com Rhabdochona spp, incluindo 17,7% (n = 32/180) no rio Swat e 26,6% (n = 47/180) no rio Panjkora. A maior prevalência no mês (p = 0,09878, p <0,05) foi relatada em maio (30%), depois em fevereiro e outubro cada (26,6%), enquanto a menor em agosto (13,3%). A maior prevalência (p = 0,9723, p <0,05) foi relatada no verão (26,6%), enquanto a menor no inverno (20%). Os adultos foram altamente infectados (p = <0,0001) na prevalência (63,7%), seguidos por subadultos (13,2%), enquanto nenhuma infecção foi encontrada em espécimes juvenis. As amostras de peixes do sexo feminino tiveram maior (p = 0,0277, p> 0,05) prevalência (28,8%) do que o masculino (16,6%). Os peixes do curso inferior tiveram maior (p = 0,0029, P> 0,05) prevalência (31,7%) seguida do curso médio (16,5%), enquanto a menor prevalência foi observada em amostras de peixes coletados do curso superior (9,87%). O presente estudo aborda que Rhabdochona spp no ​​intestino da truta das neves tem uma relação de longo prazo e pode ser considerada uma infecção natural em ciprinídeos e risco zoonótico para humanos.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 776-784, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153399

RESUMEN

Abstract Present study was conducted to record ecotoparasitic prevalence in bat fauna of the northwestern parts of Pakistan. A total of 204 bat specimens representing 14 species were captured during a two year survey, extending from June 2015 through May 2016. A species of soft ticks Argas vespertilionis was identified from 23 bat specimens. Similarly, members of the family Dermanyssoidae (dermanyssoid mites) were isolated from 10 bat specimens, that of Spinturnicidae (spinturnicid mites) from 3 and Streblidae (bat flies) from 2 bat specimens. These parasites were collected using entomological tweezers and were identified on morphological basis. Further studies on parasitic prevalence, molecular characterization of bat parasites and their control measures are recommended.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para registrar a prevalência de ectoparasitas na fauna de morcegos em partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 204 espécimes de morcegos, representando 14 espécies, foi capturado durante uma pesquisa de dois anos, de junho de 2015 a maio de 2016. A espécie de carrapato Argas vespertilionis foi identificada em 23 espécimes de morcegos. Da mesma forma, os membros da família Dermanyssidae (ácaros dermanyssoid) foram isolados de 10 espécimes de morcego, os da Spinturnicidae (ácaros spinturnicid), de 3, e os da Streblidae (mosca de morcego), de 2 espécimes de morcego. Esses parasitas foram coletados com pinça entomológica e identificados com base morfológica. Estudos adicionais sobre prevalência parasitária, caracterização molecular de parasitas de morcego e suas medidas de controle devem ser realizados.

3.
Infectio ; 25(2): 114-119, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250077

RESUMEN

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de sífilis, hepatitis B y virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en una población privada de la libertad de un establecimiento carcelario masculino de Bogotá D.C.-Colombia en 2019. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en un establecimiento carcelario masculino de Bogotá, se incluyeron personas privadas de la libertad, mayores de 18 años. Los sujetos fueron sometidos a pruebas de detección de anticuerpos contra el Treponema pallidum, Antígenos de Superficie contra hepatitis B (HBsAg) y Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) y respondieron un cuestionario estructurado para la descripción de conductas de riesgo. Resultados: Participaron 447 sujetos, ubicados en 7 pabellones del establecimiento carcelario. La prevalencia de sífilis fue del 5.8% (IC95% 3.8 - 8.4), del 1.1% para VIH (IC95% 0.4 - 2.6), y del 0.45% para hepatitis B crónica (IC95% 0.05 - 1.6). Discusión: A pesar de que la prevalencia documentada para estas patologías es más alta que en la población general, los resultados son más bajos que los reporta dos en instituciones de condiciones similares en otras latitudes. Se recomienda que el establecimiento continúe desarrollando políticas de promoción y prevención de estas patologías dentro de su población.


Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of syphilis, hepatitis B and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the male prison population in Bogotá, Colombia in 2019. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a male prison center in Bogotá, in which sequential sampling, stratified by ward, included people deprived of liberty, over 18 years of age and who voluntarily agreed to participate in the investigation. Subjects underwent tests for antibodies to Treponema pallidum, Surface Antigens against hepatitis B (HBsAg) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and they answered a structured questionnaire for the description of risk behaviors. Results: A total of 447 subjects were included, belonging to 7 prison wards. The prevalence of syphilis was 5.8% (95% CI 3.8 - 8.4), 0.5% for chronic hepatitis B (95% CI 0.05 - 1.6) and 1.1% for HIV (95% CI 0.4 - 2.6). Discussion: Although the documented prevalence for these pathologies is higher than in the general population, the results are lower than those reported in other institutions with similar conditions in other latitudes. It is recommended that the institution continue to strengthen its policies for the promotion and prevention of these pathologies within its population.

4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(3): 274-283, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250107

RESUMEN

Abstract Background The SARS-COV2 pandemic has deeply affected the availability for training and competing for recreational and professional athletes. However, to date, the disease's course among the athletic population has not been *studied . Objectives To compare the observed and expected rates of hospitalization for COVID-19 and to establish relationships between demographics and sportive characteristics of an athletic sample, and the COVID-19 infection rate. Material and Methods This study uses cross-sectional data sampling through an online questionnaire to collect data from recreational and professional athletes. Based on self-reports, athletes were grouped in COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 cases. To decrease detection bias for each four patients who reported being hospitalized, one additional virtual patient was added to the sample. The observed rate of hospitalization (ORH) was compared with age expected rate of hospitalization (ERH) from the literature data. A multivariate model (MM) was developed to establish independent relationships between the prevalence of COVID-19 cases and the variables mentioned above. The statistical significance level was defined for a p-value<0.05. Results Answers from 1,701 individuals were analyzed. The COVID-19 group was comprised of 99 (5.8%) individuals, four of whom reported having been hospitalized. ORH and ERH were respectively of 5.0% and 18.1% (p=0.001). In the MM female gender (OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.19), cycling (OR=2.91, 95% CI 1.58 to 5.39), swimming (OR=2.97, 95% CI 1.14 to 7.74), and triathlon (OR=2.10, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.91) were independently associated with a COVID-19 prevalence. Conclusion Self-reported rates of hospitalization for COVID-19 among athletes were much lower than expected. The prevalence of positive cases of COVID-19 was independently higher for cyclists, triathletes, and swimmers than for runners.

5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(3): 284-293, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250110

RESUMEN

Abstract Background The new American Heart Association guidelines for hypertension (HT) proposed a reduction of the diagnostic cut-off point, leading to a substantial increase in the prevalence of HT. Objectives To assess the prevalence of HT determined by the traditional criteria, the AHA criteria, and home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) in a population of young adults attending a primary healthcare unit, and its association with cardiovascular risk. Methods A cross-sectional population study on adults aged from 20 to 50 years attending a primary healthcare unit, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data, cardiovascular risk factors, office blood pressure and HBPM were registered. The diagnosis of HT was defined by traditional criteria (office BP ≥ 140 x 90 mmHg) and by the new (AHA) criteria (office BP ≥ 130 x 80 mmHg). Bivariate analysis was used for comparisons between the two diagnostic criteria, and Kappa coefficient was used to assess the agreement in diagnosis between office BP and HBPM. The level of significance adopted was 5% (p<0.05). Results A total of 472 individuals were evaluated (male: 39%; mean age: 38.5 ± 8.7 years). The prevalence of HT was 23.5% and raised to 41.1% with the new AHA criteria. The prevalence of HT using HBPM was 25.5%, but the diagnostic agreement was low (kappa=0.028) with changes in diagnosis in 18% of the cases. Conclusion The prevalence of HT almost doubled with the new AHA diagnostic criteria for HT. HBPM seemed to be an important instrument in HT diagnosis in this population. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

6.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(2): 111-116, maio-ago. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252357

RESUMEN

O ambiente hospitalar é um dos locais com maiores chances de acontecer quadros de infecções, sendo um dos motivos a utilização irrestrita dos aparelhos celulares tanto por pacientes quanto por profissionais da saúde que não se preocupam com as boas práticas de higienização. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de micro­organismos em aparelhos celulares da equipe de enfermagem da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) de um hospital na região noroeste paranaense. Participaram da pesquisa 22 colaboradores da UTI, sendo colhidos swabs umedecidos em caldo Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) dos aparelhos celulares de cada um dos participantes e, posteriormente, as amostras foram incubadas e realizadas as análises microbiológicas. Além disso, aplicou-se um questionário para se conhecer sobre o manuseio do telefone celular por parte dos colaboradores. Na análise microbiológica, observou-se crescimento em todas as amostras de pelo menos um micro­organismo (100% nos meios Ágar Sal Manitol e Ágar Sangue, e 27,3% em Ágar MacConkey). Posteriormente, realizou-se comparação com as respostas do questionário e com o resultado da amostra, sendo que apenas 13,6% dos colaboradores relataram realizar sempre higienização dos aparelhos, porém também houve crescimento de micro­organismos nos aparelhos desses colaboradores. A partir dos dados obtidos, espera-se o envolvimento da Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH) para desenvolver ações que reduzam a prevalência e a gravidade da contaminação no ambiente hospitalar.(AU)


Hospital environments are one of the most likely places for the development of infections, with one of the reasons being the unrestricted use of cell phones by both patients and health professionals, with disregard to good hygiene practices. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of microorganisms on cell phones of the nursing staff at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a hospital in the northwestern region of Paraná. A total of twenty-four ICU employees participated in the research. Swabs were collected from the cell phones of each participant and were then moistened in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth. Subsequently, the samples were incubated, and a microbiological analysis was carried out. In addition, a questionnaire was applied to learn out about the employee's handling of the cell phone. From the microbiological analysis, growth of at least one microorganism (100% in the Agar Salt Mannitol and Blood Agar, and 27.3% in MacConkey Agar) could be observed in all samples. Subsequently, a comparison was made with the answers to the questionnaire and with the sample result, with only 13.6% of employees reporting that they always clean the devices. However, even the devices that were reported as being cleaned presented microorganisms. With the data obtained, the Hospital Infection Control Commission (HICC) is expected to be involved in order to develop actions to reduce prevalence, incidence, and the severity of contamination in hospital environments.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Técnicas Microbiológicas/instrumentación , Teléfono Celular , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Prevalencia , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Grupo de Enfermería
7.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(3): 269-276, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249196

RESUMEN

Objective: Sepsis survivors present a wide range of sequelae; few studies have evaluated psychiatric disorders after sepsis. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in sepsis survivors. Method: Anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms in severe sepsis and septic shock survivors 24 h and 1 year after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge were assessed using the Beck Anxiety/Depression Inventories and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Differences in psychiatric symptoms over time and the influence of variables on these symptoms were calculated with marginal models. Results: A total of 33 patients were enrolled in the study. The frequencies of anxiety, depression and PTSD 24 h after ICU discharge were 67%, 49%, and 46%, respectively and, among patients re-evaluated 1 year after ICU discharge, the frequencies were 38%, 50%, and 31%, respectively. Factors associated with PTSD included serum S100B level, age, and Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) score. Factors associated with depression included patient age and cumulative dose of dobutamine. IQCODE score and cumulative dose of haloperidol in the ICU were associated with anxiety after ICU discharge. Conclusion: Patients who survive sepsis have high levels of psychiatric symptoms. Sepsis and associated treatment-related exposures may have a role in increasing the risk of subsequent depression, anxiety, and PTSD.

8.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 160-174, ene.-jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas | ID: biblio-1155521

RESUMEN

Há crescente interesse sobre o comportamento abusivo sofrido por trabalhadores nas cozinhas de restaurantes comerciais, uma vez que agressões físicas e verbais parecem ser comuns neste contexto laboral. Este estudo objetivou identificar a prevalência do assédio moral e descrever as características das situações em que ele ocorre entre trabalhadores da gastronomia. Participaram do estudo 160 indivíduos com graduação em gastronomia, sendo que 95 eram do sexo feminino (59,4%), com idade média de 30,81 anos (DP = 8,34). Os mesmos responderam ao Questionário Biossociodemográfico e Laboral e ao Questionário de Atos Negativos, cujos dados foram analisados descritivamente. Os resultados indicaram elevados índices de prevalência de assédio moral (63,1%) e de violência psicológica (33,8%), que alertam sobre a importância de divulgar informações sobre o assédio moral e seus prejuízos, visando a uma maneira mais saudável de gerenciar e trabalhar na cozinha.


Great interest in abusive behavior suffered by workers in commercial restaurant kitchens was observed. In this work context, verbal and physical aggression seems to be common. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of moral harassment and describe the characteristics of the situations in which it occurs among gastronomy workers. Participants were 160 individuals undergraduate in gastronomy and 95 were female (59.4%), that have an average age of 30.81 years (SD = 8.34). The participants answered the Biosociodemographic and Labor Questionnaire and the Negative Acts Questionnaire, whose data were analyzed descriptively. The results indicated high prevalence rates of moral harassment (63.1%) and psychological violence (33.8%), which warn the importance of disclosing information about bullying and its harms, aiming at a healthier way to manage and work in the kitchen.


Una creciente preocupación por el comportamiento abusivo que sufren los trabajadores en las cocinas de restaurantes comerciales ha sido observada. Esta agresión puede ser verbal o física y parece ser común en este contexto laboral. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalencia del bullying y describir las características de las situaciones en las que ocurre entre los trabajadores de la gastronomía. Los participantes fueron 160 individuos con un título en gastronomía, de los cuales 95 eran mujeres (59.4%), con una edad promedio de 30.81 años (DE = 8.34). Los participantes respondieron el Cuestionario Biosociodemográfico y Laboral y el Cuestionario de Actos Negativos, cuyos datos fueron analizados descriptivamente. Los resultados indicaron altas tasas de prevalencia de acoso moral (63.1%) y violencia psicológica (33.8%), que advierten sobre la importancia de divulgar información sobre el acoso y sus daños, con el objetivo de una forma más saludable de manejar y trabajar en la cocina.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Restaurantes , Trabajo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Culinaria , Agresión , Acoso Escolar , Violencia Laboral , Grupos Profesionales
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(5): 1805-1816, maio 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249513

RESUMEN

Resumo Este estudo objetivou descrever a prevalência da hanseníase e verificar os fatores associados às formas clínicas multibacilares em cenário da Estratégia Saúde da Família, prioritário para o controle e a vigilância da doença no nordeste brasileiro. Trata-se de estudo transversal, que utilizou dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação relativos aos casos de hanseníase notificados em Imperatriz, Maranhão, entre 2008 e 2017. Determinaram-se as prevalências a cada ano e para o período. Para associar as variáveis e as formas clínicas multibacilares, utilizaram-se modelos de regressão de Poisson, com nível de significância de 5%. Dos 2.476 casos de hanseníase analisados, a maioria referiu-se às formas clínicas multibacilares. A prevalência variou entre 15,6 e 7,8/10 mil habitantes, encontrando-se níveis alto e muito alto de endemicidade. As variáveis sexo masculino, faixas etárias entre 30 e 59 anos e ≥60 anos, escolaridade <8 anos, grau 2 de incapacidade física, episódio reacional tipos 1 e 2 e zona de residência urbana apresentaram associações significativas (p≤0,05) com as formas clínicas multibacilares. Tais achados podem servir de base para elaboração e implementação de medidas de controle e vigilância da hanseníase, direcionando as ações para os grupos mais vulneráveis e tornando-se mais efetivas.


Abstract This study aimed to describe the prevalence of leprosy and verify the factors associated with multibacillary clinical types in a Family Health Strategy priority setting to control and monitor the disease in northeastern Brazil. This cross-sectional study used data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System related to leprosy cases notified in Imperatriz, Maranhão, between 2008 and 2017. The prevalence was determined yearly and for the period. Poisson regression models with a significance level of 5% were employed to associate the variables and the multibacillary clinical types. Most of the 2,476 leprosy cases analyzed referred to multibacillary clinical types. The prevalence ranged from 7.8 and 15.6/10,000 inhabitants, with high and very high endemicity levels. The variables male, age groups between 30 and 59 years and ≥60 years, schooling <8 years, level 2 physical disability, types 1 and 2 reactive episodes, and urban residence area showed significant associations (p≤0.05) with multibacillary clinical types. Such findings can serve as a basis for elaborating and implementing leprosy control and surveillance measures, gearing actions to the most vulnerable groups, and becoming more effective.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 392-397, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153365

RESUMEN

Abstract Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disease in cats. However, scarce data on its prevalence are available in Brazil. Persian cats and Persian-related breeds were assessed by molecular genotyping for a C to A transversion in exon 29 of PKD1 gene to determine ADPKD prevalence in a Brazilian population. Genomic DNA extracted from peripheral whole blood or oral swabs samples was used to amplify exon 29 of PKD1 gene employing a PCR-RFLP methodology. From a total of 616 animals, 27/537 Persian and 1/17 Himalayan cats showed the single-nucleotide variant (C to A) at position 3284 in exon 29 of feline PKD1. This pathogenic variation has been identified only in heterozygous state. The prevalence of ADPKD in Persian cats and Persian-related breeds was 5.03% and 1.6%, respectively. There was no significant association between feline breed, gender or age with ADPKD prevalence. Of note, the observed ADPKD prevalence in Persian cats and Persian-related breeds in Brazil was lower than the ones reported in other parts of the world. This finding may be related to genetic counseling and consequent selection of ADPKD-free cats for reproduction.


Resumo A doença renal policística autossômica dominante (DRPAD) é a doença genética mais comum em gatos. No entanto, poucos dados sobre sua prevalência estão disponíveis no Brasil. Gatos Persas e de raças relacionadas foram avaliados por genotipagem molecular para a transversão C→A no exon 29 do gene PKD1 felino para determinar a prevalência de DRPAD. DNA genômico extraído de sangue total periférico ou amostras de swabs orais foram utilizados para amplificar o exon 29 do gene PKD1 pela técnica de PCR-RFLP. De um total de 616 gatos, 27/537 Persas e 1/17 Himalaia mostraram a variante de nucleotídeo único (C→A) na posição 3284 no exon 29 do gene PKD1. Esta variante patogênica foi identificada apenas em heterozigose. A prevalência de DRPAD em gatos Persas e raças relacionadas foram de 5,03% e 1,6%, respectivamente. Não houve associações significativas entre raça, gênero ou idade dos felinos e incidência de DRPAD. A prevalência de DRPAD em gatos Persas e raças relacionadas no Brasil foi menor do que em outras partes do mundo, o que pode estar relacionado ao aconselhamento genético e consequente seleção de gatos sem ADPKD para reprodução.

11.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3457, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251798

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: la presión arterial elevada, fue el principal factor asociado con mortalidad prematura, tras causar casi 10 millones de muertes y más de 200 millones de años de vida ajustados por discapacidad en el mundo y el que más muertes, de causa cardiovascular, origina. Es una enfermedad silenciosa, raramente causa síntomas en las primeras etapas, por lo general, no se diagnostica oportunamente. Objetivo: caracterizar la prevalencia y mortalidad por hipertensión arterial en Cuba, en el decenio 2009- 2018. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio ecológico, sobre la hipertensión arterial en Cuba. Se tuvieron en cuenta, la dispensarización, las tasas de mortalidad brutas por las enfermedades del sistema circulatorio, del corazón y las hipertensivas en el decenio 2009- 2018. Los anuarios estadísticos publicados por la Dirección Nacional de Estadísticas, del Ministerio de Salud Pública de esos años fueron la fuente de información. Resultados: la prevalencia total de la hipertensión arterial en Cuba presentó un ligero aumento en el decenio. Fue más frecuente en las personas del sexo femenino. Las tasas de mortalidad por enfermedades hipertensivas exhibieron una tendencia al incremento. Conclusiones: las tasas de prevalencia de hipertensión arterial reportadas en Cuba en el primer nivel de atención de salud estuvieron en el rango intermedio entre las cifras mundiales y la región de las Américas. En el decenio su prevalencia general mostró un ligero incremento, en tanto que la mortalidad por enfermedades hipertensivas casi se duplicó, lo que sugiere la necesidad de optimizar la pesquisa activa de hipertensión arterial.


ABSTRACT Introduction: High blood pressure was the main factor associated with premature mortality, causing almost 10 million deaths and more than 200 million disability-adjusted life years in the world, also being the factor that causes the majority of deaths due to cardiovascular causes. It is a silent disease that rarely causes symptoms in early stages of the disease. It is usually not diagnosed promptly. Objective: To characterize the prevalence and mortality due to arterial hypertension in Cuba in the decade 2009-2018. Material and methods: An ecological study was carried out on arterial hypertension in Cuba. Dispensarization, gross mortality rates due to diseases of the circulatory system, heart diseases and hypertensive diseases were taken into account in the decade 2009-2018. The source of information was made up by the statistical yearbooks corresponding to those years published by the National Directorate of Statistics of the Ministry of Public Health. Results: The total prevalence of arterial hypertension in Cuba presented a slight increase in the decade. It was more frequent in the female sex. Mortality rates from hypertensive diseases exhibited an increasing trend. Conclusions: The prevalence rates of arterial hypertension reported in Cuba in the first level of health care were in the intermediate range between the world figures and the region of the Americas. In the decade, its general prevalence showed a slight increase, while mortality from hypertensive diseases almost doubled, which suggests the need to optimize the active screening for arterial hypertension.

12.
Salud ment ; 44(2): 91-102, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252155

RESUMEN

Abstract Introdution Burnout syndrome is a social and health problem in college students. Objective To synthesize evidence from previous studies on the prevalence of burnout syndrome in university students in their three-dimensional approach. Method The search strategies followed the PRISMA guidelines and were based on the following descriptive terms: "burnout," "studies," "prevalence," "students." Pubmed, Web of Science Core Collection, PsicINFO, and Scielo were consulted. An evaluation of the quality of the information was carried out applying the STROBE positioning guidelines. Results We found 1,406 studies that were reduced to 46 studies for final analysis using the STROBE statement, eventually leaving 20 studies. One study (5%) was conducted in North America, five (25%) in Asia, nine (45%) in Latin America, and five (25%) in Europe. Of the 20 studies evaluated in the systematic review, those that had the best overall evaluation in the STROBE analysis were selected for discussion, corresponding to 10 (out of 75% of STROBE). Overall prevalence of each dimension of the syndrome was estimated at 55.4% for emotional exhaustion, 31.6% for cynicism, and 30.9% for academic efficacy. Discussion and conclusion Moderate levels of burnout syndrome prevail in the different populations of university students of different careers worldwide. In only a few studies is the prevalence low and this could be due to multiple evaluative variables.


Resumen Introducción El síndrome de burnout es un problema social y de salud en los estudiantes universitarios. Objetivo Sintetizar las pruebas de estudios anteriores sobre la prevalencia del síndrome de burnout en estudiantes universitarios en su enfoque tridimensional. Método Las estrategias de búsqueda siguieron las pautas de PRISMA y se basaron en los siguientes términos descriptivos: "burnout", "estudios", "prevalencia", "estudiantes". Se consultaron Pubmed, Web of Science Core Collection, PsicINFO y Scielo. Se llevó a cabo una evaluación de la calidad de la información aplicando las directrices de posicionamiento de STROBE. Resultados Se encontraron 1,406 estudios que se redujeron a 46 estudios para el análisis final utilizando la declaración STROBE, con lo que quedaron finalmente 20 estudios. Un estudio (5%) se llevó a cabo en América del Norte, cinco (25%) en Asia, nueve (45%) en América Latina y cinco (25%) en Europa. De los 20 estudios evaluados en la revisión sistemática, se seleccionaron para su discusión aquellos que tuvieron la mejor evaluación general en el análisis de la STROBE, correspondientes a 10 (de un 75% de la STROBE). La prevalencia general de cada dimensión del síndrome se estimó en un 55.4% para el agotamiento emocional, un 31.6% para el cinismo y un 30.9% para la eficacia académica. Discusión y conclusión Los niveles moderados del síndrome de burnout prevalecen en las diferentes poblaciones de estudiantes universitarios de distintas carreras en todo el mundo. En sólo unos pocos estudios la prevalencia es baja y esto podría deberse a múltiples variables evaluativas.

13.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 55(1): 27-34, ene. - abr. 2021. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1248277

RESUMEN

Introducción: la diabetes mellitus (DM) se considera un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de adenocarcinoma ductal de páncreas (ACDP). Objetivos: describir la prevalencia de DM y glucemia en ayuno alterada (GAA) al diagnóstico de ACDP en pacientes asistidos en un centro de referencia gastroenterológico; analizar las diferencias en las características personales y nutricionales en pacientes con ACDP y DM, ACDP y GAA, y ACDP sin DM ni GAA; establecer el tiempo transcurrido desde el diagnóstico de DM hasta diagnosticar ACDP. Materiales y métodos: de octubre de 2019 a marzo de 2020 se revisaron 465 historias clínicas de las Secciones Oncología y Nutrición de pacientes >18 años con diagnóstico de ACDP. Resultados: se registraron 171 historias clínicas (36,7%) con ACDP y DM, y 294 (63,2%) con ACDP sin DM. En el 45,1% de las primeras, el intervalo entre el diagnóstico de DM y el de ACDP fue <1 año, y en el 17,65%, 15,69% y 21,57% los lapsos correspondieron a 1 y 5 años, entre 5 y 10 años y >10 años respectivamente. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de DM en ACDP fue superior a la registrada en la población general (37% vs 12,7%), siendo del 45,10% cuando se presentó dentro del primer año del diagnóstico oncológico. Nuestros resultados concuerdan con la bibliografía internacional que relaciona la DM de reciente diagnóstico como factor asociado a la presencia de ACDP por factores de riesgo compartidos, variables fisiopatológicas de la DM o a consecuencia de la terapéutica farmacológica de la misma.


Introduction: diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a risk factor for the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Objectives: describe the prevalence of DM and of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) at the diagnosis of PDAC, among patients assisted in a gastroenterological reference center. Analyze differences in personal and nutritional characteristics in patients with both PDAC and DM; with both PDAC and IFG; and with PDAC but neither DM nor IFG. Determine the time lapse between the diagnosis of DM and the diagnosis of PDAC. Materials and methods: between October 2019 and March 2020, we analyzed 465 clinical records of PDAC-diagnosed patients over 18 years, from Oncology and Nutrition Sections. Results: 171 clinical records (36.7%) showed both PDAC and DM; 294 clinical records (63.2%) showed PDAC but not DM. In 45.1% of the former, the interval between the diagnosis of DM and that of PDAC was <1 year, and in 17.65%, 15.69% and 21.57%, the lapses corresponded to 1 and 5 years, between 5 and 10 years y >10 years, respectively. Conclusions: the prevalence of DM in PDAC patients (37%) is higher than that registered in the overall population (12.7%), reaching a 45.10% when detected during the first year of oncological diagnosis. Our results match the international literature relating recently-diagnosed DM with the presence of PDAC, as effect of shared risk factors between both diseases, or DM pathophysiology factors, or DM pharmacological therapeutic


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus , Páncreas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Glucemia , Glucosa , Oncología Médica
14.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(1): 37-46, Jan.-Apr. 2021. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas | ID: biblio-1250151

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of chronic noncommunicable disease (CND) are rocketting over the world, including in young adults. The WHO estimates that more than half of the deaths in the world, even in underdeveloped countries, are caused by CND. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure (HBP) and dyslipidemia and its associated factors. METHODS: The authors carried out a cross-sectional study of 1,431 schools in the public-school system of Monte, Brazilian Western Amazon, with children and adolescents aged 6 to 15 years. A random sampling of 496 individuals was carried out. The OpenEpi platform was used to calculate the sample size, considering p<0.05 and a presumed prevalence of CND of 50%. The authors applied a clinical-epidemiological questionnaire, made anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. Diagnostic parameters recommended by the recent guidelines of the Ministry of Health in Brazil were used. RESULTS: Prevalence of CND was: Obesity 11.8%, HBP of 6.7% and dyslipidemia of 25.4%. After multivariate log-binomial analysis of the dependent variables, the statistically significant risk factors were overweight 18.4%, sedentary lifestyle 32.2%, family history of cardiovascular disease 23.4%, family history of HBP 84.2%, family dyslipidemia 55.8%, family obesity 38.7% and family chronic renal disease 40.6%. CONCLUSION: The findings pointed out to a context with a relatively high prevalence of CND, as well as their associated factors. Intervention measures such as health education, food education, stimulation of physical exercise, better school feeding and an improvement of the public health system are needed to mitigate the occurrence of CND.


INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência de Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis (DCNT) está aumentando em todo o mundo, inclusive em adultos jovens. A OMS estima que mais da metade das mortes no mundo, mesmo em países subdesenvolvidos, são causadas por DCNT. OBJETIVO: O estudo teve como objetivo estimar a prevalência de obesidade, pressão arterial elevada (PAE) e dislipidemia e seus fatores associados. MÉTODO: Os autores realizaram um estudo transversal com uma amostra randomizada de 496 de 1.431 alunos das escolas da rede pública de ensino de Monte Negro, Amazônia Ocidental, com crianças e adolescentes de 6 a 15 anos. Foi realizada uma amostragem aleatória de 496 indivíduos. Para o cálculo do tamanho da amostra foi utilizada a plataforma OpenEpi, considerando p <0,05 e prevalência presumida de DCNT de 50%. Os autores aplicaram um questionário clínico-epidemiológico, realizaram medidas antropométricas e exames laboratoriais. Foram utilizados parâmetros diagnósticos recomendados pelas diretrizes recentes do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. Os dados foram analisados por por tetes estatísticos univariados e depois, multivariados, para se detectar associação entre causas e desfechos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de DCNT foi: Obesidade 11,8%, Pressão Arterial Elevada de 6,7% e dislipidemia de 25,4%. Após análise log-binomial multivariada das variáveis dependentes, os fatores associados estatisticamente significativos foram sobrepeso 18,4%, sedentarismo 32,2%, história familiar de doença cardiovascular 23,4%, história familiar de hipertensão arterial sistêmica 84,2%, dislipidemia familiar 55,8%, obesidade familiar 38,7% e doença renal crônica familiar 40,6%. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados apontam para um contexto com prevalência relativamente elevada de DCNT, bem como seus fatores associados em crianças/adolescentes. Medidas de intervenção como educação em saúde, educação alimentar, estímulo à prática de exercícios físicos, melhor alimentação escolar e melhoria do sistema público de saúde são necessárias para mitigar a ocorrência de DCNT.

15.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(1): 6-12, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177663

RESUMEN

Introduction: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are the subject of many studies, some of them reporting a prevalence of up to 50 percent. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with HIV neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in São Paulo city, Brazil. Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional study including 106 HIV-1-infected patients, employing direct interview and neuropsychological tests, applied by trained neuro-psychologists with expertise in the tests. Other, similar assessment tools we used were Brief Neurocognitive Questionnaire, International HIV Dementia Scale, Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Social Support Scale for People with HIV/Aids, Assessment of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Questionnaire, and a complex neuropsychological assessment. Results: We included 106 patients from May 2015 to April 2018. We found a high prevalence of HAND in our patients (45%), with 27.5% presenting asymptomatic neurological impairment (ANI) and 17.5% mild neurological dysfunction (MND); only one patient presented HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (0.9%). Women were more likely to have MND (52.9%) and the only case of HAD was also female. The high prevalence of neurocognitive disorders was independent of the immunological status, use of efavirenz, or virological control. Conclusions: This study may mirror the national and international scenarios, showing a high prevalence of HAND (45%) and the prevalence of some risk factors, in special among women.


Introdução: As doenças neurocognitivas associadas ao HIV (HAND), são o assunto de muitos estudos, alguns deles relatando uma prevalência de até 50 por cento. Objetivos: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados aos distúrbios neurocognitivos do HIV (HAND) em uma coorte de pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1 na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Metodologia: Estudo transversal descritivo incluindo 106 pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1, utilizando entrevista direta e testes neuropsicológicos, aplicados por neuropsicólogos treinados com experiência nos testes. Foram utilizados também: Questionário Neurocognitivo Breve, Escala Internacional de Demência do HIV, Atividades Instrumentais de Vida Diária de Lawton, Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão, Escala de Apoio Social para Pessoas com HIV / Aids, Avaliação da Adesão à Terapia Antiretroviral Questionário e uma bateria de avaliação neuropsicológica complexa. Resultados: Foram avalaidos 106 pacientes de maio de 2015 a abril de 2018. Foi observado uma alta prevalência de HAND em nossos pacientes (45%), com 27,5% apresentando comprometimento neurológico assintomático (ANI) e 17,5% comprometimento cognitive leve (MND); apenas um paciente apresentou demência associada ao HIV (DAH) (0,9%). As mulheres eram mais propensas a ter MND (52,9%) e o único caso de HAD também era do sexo feminino. A alta prevalência de distúrbios neurocognitivos foi independente do estado imunológico, uso de efavirenz ou controle virológico. Conclusões: Este estudo pode espelhar o cenário nacional e internacional, mostrando uma alta prevalência de HAND (45%) e a prevalência de alguns fatores de risco, em especial entre as mulheres.

16.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 78(2): 130-135, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249118

RESUMEN

Abstract Background: The relationship between birth by cesarean section (CS) and allergic diseases’ prevalence continues to be controversial. We aimed to investigate if being born by CS is associated with the prevalence of allergic diseases and their symptoms in schoolchildren. Methods: This study included children between 6 and 7 years of age, selected by population-based sampling. We investigated the presence of allergic diseases and their symptoms, family history of asthma, smoking in parents, breastfeeding, exposure to pets, the season of birth, number of siblings, consumption of unpasteurized cow’s milk, and mode of birth. Results: We included 1003 subjects (526 girls), of which 44.2% were born through CS. The prevalence of allergic diseases did not differ according to birth mode. Asthma in either parent, current smoking by the mother, breastfeeding, and unpasteurized cow’s milk consumption were associated with wheezing at some time in life. Conclusions: No association between CS birth mode and allergic diseases and their symptoms was found.


Resumen Introducción: La relación entre el nacimiento por operación cesárea y las enfermedades alérgicas es controversial. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar si el nacimiento por cesárea se asocia con la prevalencia de las enfermedades alérgicas y sus síntomas en escolares. Métodos: Estudio transversal que incluyó una muestra probabilística de niños de 6 a 7 años. Se registraron la presencia de enfermedades alérgicas y sus síntomas, la historia familiar de asma, el tabaquismo en los padres, la alimentación al seno materno, la exposición a mascotas, la estación de nacimiento, el número de hermanos, el consumo de leche no pasteurizada de vaca y la vía de nacimiento. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1003 sujetos (526 niñas), de los cuales el 44.2% nacieron por cesárea. La prevalencia de enfermedades alérgicas no difirió según la vía de nacimiento. El antecedente de asma en alguno de los progenitores, el tabaquismo actual en la madre, la lactancia materna y el consumo de leche no pasteurizada de vaca se asociaron con sibilancias presentes alguna vez en la vida. Conclusiones: No se demostró asociación entre el nacimiento por cesárea y las enfermedades alérgicas y sus síntomas.

17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): 99-105, abril 2021. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151488

RESUMEN

Introducción. La obesidad infantil en España es preocupante y el entorno familiar puede influir en su desarrollo. Los objetivos fueron determinar la prevalencia de exceso de peso en adolescentes, evaluar variables familiares que pudieran condicionarla y determinar la percepción corporal de los padres.Población y métodos. Estudio transversal; se incluyeron alumnos de cinco centros de secundaria del Área V de Murcia. Se registró antropometría de los alumnos y se administró una encuesta a los padres con variables de peso, talla, ejercicio, estudios, tipo de familia y percepción corporal. Se realizó el análisis mediante tablas de contingencia y asociación con d de Somers.Resultados. Participaron 421 alumnos (edad: 12,8 ± 0,6 años); el 21,1 % tenían sobrepeso, y el 19,5 %, obesidad. Existió asociación entre padres e hijos con sobrecarga ponderal (d de Somers con p < 0,05). Si ambos padres eran sedentarios, sus hijos realizaban menos ejercicio. A mayor nivel de estudios parental, menor tasa de sobrepeso infantil (p < 0,05). El sobrepeso-obesidad en los hijos fue mayor en familias separadas o monoparentales. El 32 % de los padres no percibía el exceso de peso de sus hijos ni el 53 % en sí mismos.Conclusiones. La prevalencia de exceso de peso en esta muestra fue del 40,6 %. El estado nutricional de los padres, el nivel de estudios y el tipo de familia se asociaron con la obesidad infantil. Influyó en mayor medida la figura materna. Existió una infraconsideración de la obesidad por parte de los padres.


Introduction. In Spain, childhood obesity is worrying, and its development might be influenced by the family setting. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of excess weight among adolescents, evaluate family variables that could affect it, and determine parents' body perception.Population and methods. Cross-sectional study; students from five secondary schools in health area V of the Region of Murcia were included. Students' anthropometric measurements were recorded and a survey was administered to parents, including variables such as weight, height, exercise, level of education, family structure, and body perception. The analysis was done using contingency tables and the association with Somers' D measures.Results. Four hundred and twenty one students participated (age: 12.8 ± 0.6 years old); 21.1 % were overweight and 19.5 %, obese. There was an association between parent and child excess weight (Somers' D with a p value < 0.05). If both parents had a sedentary lifestyle, their children would exercise less. The higher the level of parental education, the lower the rate of childhood overweight (p < 0.05). Overweight-obesity among children was higher in separated or single-parent families. In total, 32 % of parents misperceived their children's excess weight and 53 %, their own.Conclusions. In this sample, the prevalence of excess weight was 40.6 %. Parents' nutritional status, level of education, and family structure were associated with childhood obesity. Mothers had a greater influence on the development of their children's overweight. Parents underestimated obesity.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso , Estilo de Vida , Padres , España/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Familia , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología
18.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(1): 1-7, Abril 30, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222342

RESUMEN

Introducción: La policitemia afecta del 1 a 5% de los recién nacidos, se asocia a complica-ciones por afectación orgánica y sistémica en el neonato que puede ser prevenible. El ob-jetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la prevalencia de Policitemia neonatal y sus factores asociados en recién nacidos en un servicio de maternidad Público de la ciudad de Cuenca-Ecuador. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, el universo estuvo conformado por todos los recién nacidos en el servicio de maternidad del Hospital ¨Vicente Corral Moscoso¨. La muestra fue probabilística de 470 neonatos y sus madres. Para identificar asociación se realizó mediante X2 y para medir intensidad de asociación se utilizó OR (IC 95%) y valor de P < 0.05. Resultados: Ingresaron al estudio en forma aleatoria 470 casos. Se obtuvo una prevalencia del 12.8%. La residencia materna del 93% fue por sobre los 2000 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Los factores asociados fueron: bajo peso al nacer (OR 3.8; IC95%: 1.9 ­ 7.5) P < 0.001), patología materna incluida la diabetes (OR 2.6, IC95%: 1.3 ­ 5.2) P = 0.013), toxemia del em-barazo (OR 2.3; IC95%: 0.7 ­ 7.6) P = 0.134 y asociación negativa con prematuridad (OR 0.3; IC 95%: 0.07 ­ 1.2) P = 0.099. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de policitemia neonatal es alta y se asocia significativamente con bajo peso al nacer, patología materna.


Introduction: Polycythemia affects 1 to 5% of newborns, it is associated with complications due to organic and systemic involvement in the newborn that can be preventable. The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence of neonatal polycythemia and its associated factors in newborns in a public maternity service in the city of Cuenca-Ecuador. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, the universe was made up of all new-borns in the maternity service of the ¨Vicente Corral Moscoso¨ Hospital. The sample was probabilistic of 470 neonates and their mothers. To identify association, it was performed using X2 and to measure association intensity, OR (95% CI) and P value <0.05 were used. Results: 470 cases were randomly entered into the study. A prevalence of 12.8% was ob-tained. The 93% maternal residence was above 2000 meters above sea level. The associat-ed factors were: low birth weight (OR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9 - 7.5) P <0.001), maternal pathology including diabetes (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3 - 5.2) P = 0.013), pregnancy toxemia (OR 2.3; 95% CI: 0.7 - 7.6) P = 0.134 and negative association with prematurity (OR 0.3; 95% CI: 0.07 - 1.2) P = 0.099. Conclusions: the prevalence of neonatal polycythemia is high and is significantly associated with low birth weight, maternal pathology.


Asunto(s)
Policitemia , Recién Nacido , Factores de Riesgo , Recien Nacido con Peso al Nacer Extremadamente Bajo
19.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(1): 1-7, Abril 30, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222349

RESUMEN

Introducción: Las Infecciones asociadas a la atención de la salud (IAAS) son procesos infecciosos transmisibles que se presentan después de 48 horas de hospitalización sin estar presentes en el momento de ingreso. El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer la prevalencia y sus factores asociados. Métodos: El presente estudio de tipo transversal y analítico se realizó en el área de Pediatría y Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos del Hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso de Cuenca, Ecuador en el período Mayo 2018-Octubre 2019. Se incluyeron con una muestra probabilística niños de 29 días de edad hasta menores de 16 años. Las variables observadas fueron la presencia de IAAS, edad, estado nutricional, diagnóstico de ingreso, días de hospitalización, uso de ventilación mecánica, uso de catéteres, sitio de internación, germen aislado y resistencia antibiótica. Se utiliza estadística descriptiva y razón de prevalencia (RP). Resultados: Fueron 385 casos, 212 hombres (55.1%). La edad más prevalente: lactantes 31.4%. La prevalencia de IAAS fue del 13.5% (IC95% 13.33-13.68%). La principal IAAS fue la sepsis (40.4%), seguida por la neumonía (36.5%). La edad <24 meses RP 2.55 (IC95% 1.5-4.2, P<0.001), Desnutrición RP 4.07 (IC95% 2.5-6.6, P=<0.001), hospitalización >14 días RP 32.0 (IC95% 16.6-61.6 P<0.001), uso de catéter venoso central RP 16.6 (IC95% 8.7-32.2, P<0.001). Conclusiones: Existe una prevalencia de IASS mayor al 10% y se asocia con factores que condiciona mayor permanencia hospitalaria, desnutrición y uso de dispositivos invasivos.


Introduction: Infections associated with health care (HAI) are communicable infectious processes that occur after 48 hours of hospitalization without being present at the time of admission. The objective of the present study was to establish the prevalence and its associated factors. Methods: The present cross-sectional and analytical study was carried out in the area of Pediatrics and the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Vicente Corral Moscoso Hospital in Cuenca, Ecuador in the period May 2018-October 2019. Children of 29 days of age to under 16 years were included with a probabilistic sample. The variables observed were the presence of HAI, age, nutritional status, admission diagnosis, days of hospitalization, use of mechanical ventilation, use of catheters, hospitalization site, isolated germ, and antibiotic resistance. Descriptive statistics and prevalence ratio (PR) are used. Results: There were 385 cases, 212 men (55.1%). The most prevalent age: infants 31.4%. The prevalence of HAI was 13.5% (95% CI 13.33-13.68%). The main HAI was sepsis (40.4%), followed by pneumonia (36.5%). Age <24 months PR 2.55 (95% CI 1.5-4.2, P <0.001), Malnutrition PR 4.07 (95% CI 2.5-6.6, P = <0.001), hospitalization> 14 days PR 32.0 (95% CI 16.6-61.6 P <0.001), so from central venous catheter RP 16.6 (95% CI 8.7-32.2, P <0.001). Conclusions: There is a prevalence of IASS greater than 10% and it is associated with factors that condition longer hospital stays, malnutrition and the use of invasive devices.


Asunto(s)
Pediatría , Infección Hospitalaria , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Factores de Riesgo , Desnutrición
20.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(275): 5514-5529, abr.-2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1224213

RESUMEN

Objetivo: discutir sobre o impacto do déficit de investimentos para o tratamento da Doença de Chagas no Brasil. Método: trata-se de uma revisão narrativa da literatura realizada nas seguintes bases de dados: SCIELO, LILACS, BIREME e MEDLINE. A amostra final foi composta por 27 artigos científicos publicados entre o período de 2000 a 2020. Resultados: o Brasil é um dos países com maior prevalência de pacientes portadores da doença, porém pouco se avançou em pesquisas nessa área, de modo a repercutir em um baixo incentivo e investimento dos governantes e da indústria farmacêutica para a Doença de Chagas, tendo em vista a doença ser de progressão lenta e o diagnóstico e o tratamento serem tardios. Conclusão: fica evidente a falta de investimento e políticas públicas que possibilitem o diagnóstico e o tratamento precoce da doença tendo como conseqüência um déficit na qualidade de vida dos pacientes.(AU)


Objective: to discuss the impact of the investment deficit for the treatment of Chagas Disease in Brazil. Method: This is a narrative review of the literature conducted in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, BIREME and MEDLINE. The final sample consisted of 27 scientific articles published between 2000 and 2020. Results: Brazil is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of patients with the disease, but little progress has been made in research in this area, so as to have a low incentive and investment from governments and the pharmaceutical industry for Chagas Disease, in view of the disease being of slow progression and the diagnosis and treatment are late. Conclusion: it is evident the lack of investment and public policies that make possible the diagnosis and early treatment of the disease with the consequence of a deficit in the quality of life of the patients.(AU)


Objetivo: discutir el impacto del déficit de inversión para el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas en Brasil. Método: se trata de una revisión narrativa de la literatura realizada en las siguientes bases de datos: SCIELO, LILACS, BIREME y MEDLINE. La muestra final consistió en 27 artículos científicos publicados entre 2000 y 2020. Resultados: el Brasil es uno de los países con mayor prevalencia de pacientes con la enfermedad, pero se ha avanzado poco en la investigación en esta área, para tener un bajo incentivo e inversión de los gobiernos y de la industria farmacéutica para la enfermedad de Chagas, considerando que la enfermedad es de progresión lenta y el diagnóstico y tratamiento son tardíos. Conclusión: es evidente la falta de inversión y de políticas públicas que permitan el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz de la enfermedad con el consiguiente déficit en la calidad de vida de los pacientes.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Prevalencia , Enfermedad de Chagas/terapia , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Política de Salud , Inversiones en Salud , Terapéutica/economía , Política de Salud
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