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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673382

RESUMEN

Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) resources in schools is critical for disease prevention and control, especially during public health emergencies. In Belize, systematic, national data on WASH in schools are needed to inform public health decisions and interventions. From December 2021 to January 2022, a national survey was sent electronically to government and government-aided primary and secondary schools in Belize (N = 308) to gather information on WASH services. From the survey, 12 pilot schools were selected based on the highest self-reported need for WASH resources to participate in additional evaluation and intervention, which included environmental nudges, supplemental supply provision, and hand hygiene education. To understand how the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic may have influenced hand hygiene, facility assessments to evaluate access to hand hygiene resources were conducted in person when most schools reopened for face-to-face learning during the pandemic (March 2022) and 15 months later (June 2023). Among the schools participating in the national survey (N = 221), 55% reported times when water was not available at the schools. Almost 9 in 10 schools (89%) had a functional handwashing station, and 47% reported always having soap for handwashing. Between baseline and follow-up at the 12 pilot schools, we observed decreases in the proportion of functional handwashing access points (-11%), functional handwashing access points accessible for individuals with disabilities (-17%) and small children (-29%), and functional alcohol-based hand rub dispensers (-13%). Despite the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we observed gaps in WASH resources in schools in Belize during the onsite assessments at the pilot schools. Schools should be encouraged and provided with WASH resources to maintain vigilance for disease control measures.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Higiene , Saneamiento , Instituciones Académicas , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Belice/epidemiología , Abastecimiento de Agua , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Higiene de las Manos/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Vaccine X ; 15: 100380, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37693845

RESUMEN

Background: We analyzed the factors associated with vaccine uptake, vaccination intention, and reasons for vaccine hesitancy in Belize. Methods: We collected a nationally representative household survey of the population in Belize aged 15 years and older (September-October 2021). We compared potential correlates between vaccinated and unvaccinated people using Chi-square tests. Then, we performed logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with vaccination uptake among all respondents and vaccination intention among the unvaccinated. Results: Our analysis included data from 1261 interviews. Nearly four out of every five people reported being vaccinated, having received at least one dose. Adolescents and young adults were more likely to be unvaccinated. Significant differences were observed for most behavioral variables. Among the 41.7% of the unvaccinated respondents who said they would probably not or definitely not get vaccinated, the primary reason for their hesitation was fear of side effects. Additionally, almost one third of the unvaccinated individuals expressed a lack of trust in vaccines. Factors associated with increased likelihood of vaccination were efficacy beliefs, self-efficacy and vaccine attitudes. People who believed it was easy to get a vaccine were over 23 times (OR 23.63 [95% CI: 14.21-39.27]) more likely to be vaccinated, while those who believed in vaccine safety were 2.57 times [OR 95% CI: 1.52-4.35] more likely to be vaccinated. Among the unvaccinated, factors associated with intention to get vaccinated were self-identifying as Garifuna and having clear efficacy beliefs. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study describing factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine uptake and vaccine hesitancy in Belize. Our findings revealed that accessibility has been the primary limitation in increasing vaccine coverage, and <7% of the eligible population have been strong vaccine deniers. To enhance vaccine uptake, targeted outreach efforts are necessary to address access barriers. Our results call for increased efforts improving self-efficacy, efficacy beliefs, and perceived norms.

3.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 163, 2023 08 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37620814

RESUMEN

Belize has the highest national prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) of Central and South America, and fifth direst in the world. T2D is the leading cause of death in Belize, a country facing burdens of increasing prevalence with few resources. Since March of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the difficulties of those living with T2D in Belize. To address T2D issues in Belize, our interdisciplinary research team explored the barriers to care and self-management for adult patients with T2D in Belize prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic.Research relationships between Canadian (ARH) and Belizean (LE) authors have been ongoing since 2016. Together we used a qualitative Constructivist Grounded Theory design generating knowledge through 35 semi-structured patient interviews, 25 key informant discussions, and participant observation with field notes between February 2020 to September 2021. We used Dedoose analysis software for a systematized thematic coding process, as well as iterative verification activities. Findings revealed several barriers to care and self-management, including: 1) the tiered health and social care system with major gaps in coverage; 2) the unfulfilled demand for accurate health information and innovative dissemination methods; and 3) the compounding of loss of community supports, physical exercise, and health services due to COVID-19 restrictions. In the post-pandemic period, it is necessary to invest in physical, nutritional, economic, and psychosocial health through organized activities adaptable to changeable public health restrictions. Recommendations for activities include sending patients informational and motivational text messages, providing recipes with accessibly sourced T2D foods, televising educational workshops, making online tools more accessible, and mobilising community and peer support networks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Belice , Canadá , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Pandemias , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud
4.
PLoS One ; 18(8): e0289212, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37535596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a primary cause of death in Belize, a low-income country with the highest rates in Central and South America. As many people in Belize cannot consistently access biomedical treatment, a reality that was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, plant medicine usage is estimated to have increased in recent years. This exploratory study seeks to understand which plants are being used, patterns of usage, and the state of patient-provider communication around this phenomenon. METHODS: Implementing a Constructivist Grounded Theory qualitative design, the research team conducted 35 semi-structured interviews with adults living with T2DM, 25 informant discussions, and participant observation with field notes between February 2020 and September 2021. Data analysis followed systematized thematic coding procedures using Dedoose analytic software and iterative verification processes. RESULTS: The findings revealed that 85.7% of participants used plants in their T2DM self-management. There were three main usage patterns, namely, exclusive plant use (31.4%), complementary plant use (42.9%), and minimal plant use (11.4%), related to factors impacting pharmaceutical usage. Almost none of participants discussed their plant medicine usage with their health care providers. CONCLUSIONS: Plant species are outlined, as are patients' reasons for not disclosing usage to providers. There are implications for the advancement of understanding ethnobotanical medicine use for T2DM self-management and treatment in Belize and beyond.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Belice , Pandemias , Etnobotánica , Investigación Cualitativa
5.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 69(4): 1033-1042, 2023 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36748178

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are vulnerable to burnout, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic in the low resource settings. Belize is a small Central American developing country known for its chronic healthcare worker shortage and this is the first study to assess burnout prevalence and its associated factors among healthcare workers in Belize. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of burnout and its associated factors in HCWs in Belize covering multiple domains (mental health, physical symptoms, and coping behaviors) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey that was developed and validated by a panel of experts was delivered online to all the healthcare workers in Belize from September to November 2021. Burnout was assessed using Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Depression and anxiety screening was carried out using the Patient Health Questionnaire - 2 (PHQ-2) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2-item (GAD-2). Burnout associated factors were estimated using logistic regression models. FINDINGS: Of the total of 263 participants, 27.76% had overall burnout: 56.65% had personal, 54.37% had work-related, and 19.39% had patient-related burnout. Burnout was positively associated with anxiety (OR: 3.14 [1.67, 5.92]), depression (OR: 4.45 [2.30, 8.61]), intentions of quitting their jobs (OR: 2.59 [1.49, 4.51]), health status worsening (OR: 2.21 [1.26, 3.87]), multiple physical symptom presentation (OR: 1.19, [1.10, 1.29]), and use of multiple maladaptive coping behaviors (OR: 1.66, [1.30, 2.12]). INTERPRETATION: Healthcare workers in Belize showed substantial levels of burnout which were significantly associated with using maladaptive coping behaviors, presenting multiple physical symptoms, quitting their jobs, health status worsening, and other mental health issues. These findings should be used to develop and implement programs such as regular health check-ups, health promotion awareness campaigns, and worker recruitment strategies which would improve the working conditions, quality of life, and psychological well-being of our healthcare workers.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , COVID-19 , Humanos , Salud Mental , Estudios Transversales , Belice , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , COVID-19/epidemiología , Adaptación Psicológica , Agotamiento Psicológico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S34-S41, 2022 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502419

RESUMEN

Existing acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance systems can be leveraged to identify and characterize emerging pathogens, such as SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated with ministries of health and implementing partners in Belize, Ethiopia, Kenya, Liberia, and Peru to adapt AFI surveillance systems to generate COVID-19 response information. Staff at sentinel sites collected epidemiologic data from persons meeting AFI criteria and specimens for SARS-CoV-2 testing. A total of 5,501 patients with AFI were enrolled during March 2020-October 2021; >69% underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. Percentage positivity for SARS-CoV-2 ranged from 4% (87/2,151, Kenya) to 19% (22/115, Ethiopia). We show SARS-CoV-2 testing was successfully integrated into AFI surveillance in 5 low- to middle-income countries to detect COVID-19 within AFI care-seeking populations. AFI surveillance systems can be used to build capacity to detect and respond to both emerging and endemic infectious disease threats.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estados Unidos , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Prueba de COVID-19 , Fiebre/epidemiología
7.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; November 7, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografía en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1400917

RESUMEN

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for November 1-7, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Belice/epidemiología , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Infecciones/epidemiología
8.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; November 14, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografía en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1400919

RESUMEN

Two (2) new infographic report update on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for November 8-14, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Belice/epidemiología , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Infecciones/epidemiología
9.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; November 22, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografía en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1400920

RESUMEN

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for November 15-22, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Belice/epidemiología , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Infecciones/epidemiología
10.
Belize; PAHO; 2022-11-14. (PAHO/BLZ/22-0001).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56347

RESUMEN

In 2022 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is celebrating its 120th anniversary. Operating as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, PAHO provides technical cooperation to its Member States to address communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, strengthen health systems, and respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Americas. In addition, in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for the Americas, PAHO participates in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other United Nations agencies, funds, and programs to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. At the subregional level, PAHO works with integration mechanisms to position health and its determinants on the political agenda. The 2021 Country Annual Reports reflect PAHO’s technical cooperation in countries and territories in implementing the Country Cooperation Strategies, responding to their needs and priorities, and operating within the framework of PAHO’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Responding to COVID-19 and Preparing for the Future, they highlight PAHO’s actions on the COVID-19 pandemic and its continuing efforts in priority areas such as health emergencies, health systems and services, communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases and mental health, health throughout the life course, and health equity. They also provide a financial summary for the biennium 2020-2021.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Urgencias Médicas , Sistemas de Salud , Servicios de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Equidad , Equidad de Género , Diversidad Cultural , Cooperación Técnica , Américas , Belice
11.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; October 31, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografía en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1400913

RESUMEN

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for October 25-31, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Belice/epidemiología , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Infecciones/epidemiología
12.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health, Belize; October 6, 2022,. 1 p.
Monografía en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1397724

RESUMEN

On October 10, 2022, the world will commemorate World Mental Health Day under the theme "Make mental health and wellbeing for all a global priority." The theme was chosen to address the inequalities exposed by the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact globally on people's mental health.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Salud Mental , Belice , Salud Pública
13.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; October 4, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografía en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398535

RESUMEN

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for October 1-4, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Belice/epidemiología , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Infecciones/epidemiología
14.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; October 11, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografía en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398663

RESUMEN

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for October 5-11, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Belice/epidemiología , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Infecciones/epidemiología
15.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; October 17, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografía en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398689

RESUMEN

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for October 12-17, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Belice/epidemiología , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Infecciones/epidemiología
16.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; October 24, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografía en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398707

RESUMEN

Two (2) new infographic daily report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for October 18-24, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Belice/epidemiología , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Infecciones/epidemiología
17.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; September 27, 2022. 2 p. ilus, maps, graf.
Monografía en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398531

RESUMEN

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for September 24-27, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Belice/epidemiología , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Infecciones/epidemiología
18.
Belmopan; Ministry of Health and Wellness, Belize; September 30, 2022. 2 p. ilus, graf, maps.
Monografía en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1398533

RESUMEN

Two (2) new infographic report updates on Covid-19 consisting of PCR and rapid tests done in Belize for September 28-30, 2022 depicting the heat map by districts, cumulative and daily statistics, hospitalizations, new positive cases and vaccination rate.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Belice/epidemiología , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Infecciones/epidemiología
19.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-08-15. (PAHO/CRB/COVID-19/22-0001).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56262

RESUMEN

Health workers are crucial in the preparedness and response to COVID-19, but the pandemic has evidenced the shortage of human resources for health (HRH) in certain countries, reduced or lack of protective equipment, and timely protocols to address occupational, health and safety issues. Health workers have been infected by the virus with consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality. Consequently, available staff workload is expected to increase. While the COVID-19 pandemic has stressed health workforce shortages in countries, it has also led to identifying ways to rapidly hire and train the health workforce. The recognition and understanding of the mechanisms used by countries (such as recruitment processes, type of redeployment, incentives) will provide evidence on ways to address health worker shortages during such outbreaks and therefore implementation gaps will be reduced. This report informs and analyzes the impact of COVID-19 on health workers' occupational health and safety concerns, working conditions, as well as policy responses to address these issues and to increase HRH surge capacity in Belize, Grenada, and Jamaica. The report also describes elements related to HRH and COVID-19 vaccination in selected countries and shares the experiences from Belize, Grenada, and Jamaica (members of CARICOM), which represent different areas of the Caribbean. The report will also inform the HRH Action Task Force and its contribution to technical cooperation and HRH management support. The target audience includes policy-makers, academics, and researchers on addressing health worker issues during health emergencies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Personal de Salud , Recursos Humanos , Salud Laboral , Belice , Grenada , Jamaica
20.
Belize; PAHO; 2021-08-02. (PAHO/BLZ/21-0001).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54576

RESUMEN

Founded in 1902 as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has developed recognized competence and expertise, providing technical cooperation to its Member States to fight communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, to strengthen health systems, and to respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Region of the Americas. In addition, acting in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office, PAHO participates actively in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other agencies, the funds and programs of the United Nations system to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. This 2020 annual report reflects PAHO’s technical cooperation in the country for the period, implementing the Country Cooperation Strategy, responding to the needs and priorities of the country, and operating within the framework of the Organization’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Universal Health and the Pandemic – Resilient Health Systems, it highlights PAHO’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as its continuing efforts in priority areas such as communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases, mental health, health throughout the life course, and health emergencies. It also provides a financial summary for the year under review.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Prioridades en Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Acceso Universal a los Servicios de Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Factores de Riesgo , Salud Mental , Administración Financiera , COVID-19 , Américas , Belice
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