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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(2): 372-385, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102546

RESUMEN

A população LGBT (Lésbicas, Gays, Bissexuais, Travestis e Transexuais), por não se encaixar nos padrões heteronormativos, recebe um tratamento pejorativo e excludente, o que limita o acesso aos serviços de saúde. Este estudo tem como objetivos avaliar a implementação da Política Nacional de Saúde Integral à População LGBT (PNAIPLGBT) na atenção básica de saúde e compreender o conhecimento de enfermeiros da Estratégia Saúde da Família acerca da diversidade sexual e da homofobia. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório e de natureza qualitativa. Os participantes relatam ausência ou limitação de conhecimento sobre a PNAIPLGBT. Assim, a falta de conhecimento sobre o público LGBT e o despreparo dos profissionais de saúde para acolher o público em questão resultam na restrição do acesso da população LGBT aos serviços de saúde, o que afeta diretamente na realização da Política Nacional de Atenção Integral à População LGBT.


The LGBT population (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transvestite and Transsexual), since it does not fit the heteronormative patterns, ends up receiving a pejorative and exclusive treatment, which limits access to health services. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of the National Policy on Comprehensive Health for LGBT Population (PNAIPLGBT) in basic health care and to understand the knowledge of nurses in the Family Health Strategy regarding sexual diversity and homophobia. This is a descriptive, exploratory study of a qualitative nature. Participants report absence or limitation of knowledge about PNAIPLGBT. Thus, the lack of knowledge about the LGBT public and the lack of preparation of health professionals to welcome the public in question results in the limitation of LGBT population access to health services, which directly affects the implementation of the National Policy of Comprehensive Attention to Population LGBT.


La población LGBT (Lesbianas, Gays, Bisexuales, Travestis y Transexuales) por no encajar en los patrones heteronormativos acaba recibiendo un trato peyorativo y excluyente, lo que limita el acceso a los servicios de salud. Este estudio tiene como objetivos evaluar la implementación de la Política Nacional de Salud Integral a la Población LGBT (PNAIPLGBT) en la atención básica de salud y comprender el conocimiento de enfermeros de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia en lo referente a la diversidad sexual y la homofobia. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, exploratorio de naturaleza cualitativa. Los participantes reportan ausencia o limitación de conocimiento sobre la PNAIPLGBT. Así, la falta de conocimiento sobre el público LGBT y el despreparo de los profesionales de salud en acoger al público en cuestión, resulta en la limitación del acceso de la población LGBT a los servicios de salud lo que afecta directamente en la implementación de la Política Nacional de Atención Integral a la Población LGBT.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Política Pública , Enfermería en Salud Comunitaria , Sexualidad , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Investigación Cualitativa , Homofobia , Diversidad de Género , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(2): 355-371, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102538

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste artigo é problematizar a relação entre eugenia e racismo associada às doenças genéticas, especificamente à doença falciforme, tendo como referência o caso do Programa de Triagem Populacional (PTP), cuja implantação em Salvador, Bahia, não se concretizou devido às mobilizações sociais. Realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa, ancorada na perspectiva feminista e antirracista, que aliou a análise documental da proposta do programa e entrevistas em profundidade com mulheres negras com doença falciforme acerca da percepção sobre o conteúdo do programa. A análise do documento evidenciou conteúdos racistas e eugenistas, relacionados com um discurso de cerceamento do direito reprodutivo de mulheres com este agravo. Entre as mulheres negras entrevistadas, prevaleceu o sentimento de indignação frente à interdição de seu direito reprodutivo. Há necessidade de destituir práticas institucionais que se forjam sob o crivo do racismo institucional e produzem violências sobre os corpos negros.


This article seeks to discuss the relationship between racism and eugenics associated with genetic diseases, specifically with the sickle cell disease, having as reference the case of the Population Screening Program (PTP ­ Programa de Triagem Populacional), which was planned to be implemented in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and was unsuccessful, since it was inhibited by social movements. A qualitative research was conducted, based on the feminist and anti-racist perspective, which combined document analysis of the program proposal and in-depth interviews with black women with sickle cell disease in order to understand their perception of the program. The results indicate that the PTP proposal had explicit references to restrictions of the reproductive right of women with sickle cell disease, as well as revealed eugenics besides racist premises. Regarding the perception of the participants of the study, the feeling of indignation prevailed, especially towards the restriction of their reproductive rights. There is a need to eradicate institutional practices that are forged under a cloak of institutional racism producing violence against black bodies.


El objetivo de este artículo es problematizar la relación entre eugenesia y racismo, asociada a las enfermedades genéticas, en particular a la anemia de células falciformes, teniendo como referencia el PTP Programa de Triagem Populacional (Programa de Selección Poblacional), cuya implementación en Salvador, Bahía, no se ha concretado debido a las movilizaciones sociales. Se realizó una investigación cualitativa, fundamentada en la perspectiva feminista e antirracista, aliada al análisis documental de la propuesta del programa y entrevistas en profundidad con mujeres negras con anemia de células falciformes acerca de la percepción sobre el contenido del programa. El análisis del documento evidenció referencias explícitas a restricciones del derecho reproductivo de mujeres con anemia de células falciformes, presentando en muchas partes contenidos claramente sintonizados con principios eugenésicos y racistas. Entre las mujeres negras entrevistadas, prevaleció el sentimiento de indignación frente a la interdicción de su derecho reproductivo. Hay necesidad de suspender practicas institucionales que se forjan bajo el tamiz del racismo institucional y producen violencias sobre los cuerpos negros.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Participación de la Comunidad , Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos , Racismo , Salud de las Minorías Étnicas , Anemia de Células Falciformes , Prejuicio , Feminismo , Investigación Cualitativa , Equidad de Género
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200038, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491050

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Sexual violence has emerged in the health field with changes in the epidemiological profiles of populations. METHODOLOGY: An ecological study with 5,565 Brazilian municipalities between 2010 and 2014. A descriptive analysis of the variables (Population rate of sexual violence reporting, household income per capita and HDI) and their stratification by quintile was performed. In order to explore the factors associated with changes in social inequalities regarding the rate of reporting of sexual violence, the Slope Index of Inequality and Relative Index of Inequality were adopted. An Equiplot was constructed for the outcome on each independent variable. RESULTS: The mean rate of reports of sexual violence in Brazil was 4.38 reports/100,000 inhabitants for the period. There was an increase in the rate of sexual violence and improvement in socioeconomic conditions. There was a higher rate of reporting in the quintile with better living conditions. An increase in the inequality of the rate of sexual violence as a function of household income and the HDI was observed. Several factors seem to influence the increase of reports of sexual violence in the country, among them the improvement in the living conditions of the population and greater moral sensitivity to violence. However, there is still a disparity in reporting among municipalities according to their socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: The lack of public policies on social equity in health has interfered with reports of sexual violence in the country and has widened health inequities.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Delitos Sexuales/tendencias , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/tendencias , Factores Socioeconómicos , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Notificación Obligatoria , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Condiciones Sociales/tendencias , Factores de Tiempo
4.
Sports Health ; 12(4): 352-354, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510278

RESUMEN

The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) convened a group of experts to develop a position statement addressing the problem of sexual violence in sport. The AMSSM Sexual Violence in Sport Task Force held a series of meetings over 7 months, beginning in July 2019. Following a literature review, the task force used an iterative process and expert consensus to finalize the position statement. The objective of this position statement is to raise awareness of this critical issue among sports medicine physicians and to declare a commitment to engage in collaborative, multidisciplinary solutions to reduce sexual violence in sport.


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Deportes , Humanos , Rol del Médico , Medicina Deportiva , Estados Unidos
6.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e133, 2020 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482189

RESUMEN

Abstract. AIMS: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important risk factor for perinatal depression (PND). But IPV's impact on the natural prognosis of PND symptoms is not well understood. We tested two hypotheses: (1) pregnant women with IPV experiences will exhibit more severe PND symptoms than women without IPV experience; (2) IPV experience will impede the recovery prognosis of PND. We also explored the contribution of IPV to PND comparing with other risk factors. METHOD: The sample is comprised of 813 pregnant women followed through perinatal period in Hunan, China. We assessed IPV experience using items from the Short Form of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2S), and PND symptoms via the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPSD). We conducted Linear Mixed-effects Model to compare the trajectories of PND symptoms between victims and non-victims and a multistage Generalised Estimating Equations Model to explore salient factors on the trajectory of PND symptoms. RESULTS: There were 90 participants (11.07%) who reported IPV experience in the past 12 months. With respect to physical, psychological and sexual violence, the prevalence was 4.55% (37/813), 9.23% (75/813) and 2.34% (19/813). Victims reported more severe PND symptoms (t = 5.30, p < 0.01) and slower decreasing slope of trajectories (t = 28.89, p < 0.01). The PND trajectory was associated with IPV experience (OR = 3.78; 95% CI 1.39-10.26), social support (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.97), positive coping strategies (OR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.80-0.91), negative coping strategies (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.14-1.37) and monthly income of $0.15-$298.36 (compared to no income, OR = 0.0075; 95% CI 0.00052-0.11). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest the reported prevalence of IPV is lower in Hunan than most of the previous studies during perinatal period in other provinces of China, and IPV victimisation is associated with increased severity and slowed prognosis of PND symptoms. Future studies that screen for victimisation and establish its explicit mechanism to the poorer prognosis of PND symptoms would benefit the prevention and treatment of PND.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Depresión Posparto/diagnóstico , Depresión/diagnóstico , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Madres/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Depresión Posparto/epidemiología , Depresión Posparto/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Perinatal , Pobreza/psicología , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Factores de Riesgo , Delitos Sexuales/etnología , Apoyo Social , Adulto Joven
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 622-626, June 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098297

RESUMEN

The studies have illustrated odontometric analysis can be used to determine the sexual dimorphism effect on size of the teeth in various populations. The main aim of the study was to identify the inter-cuspal-, bucco-lingual -dimensions and weight of human upper-arch pre-molars in males and females of different South Asian populations. These metrics can distinguish sex which can have application in mass disasters, archaeology of mingled human remains and the in unidentified or several ancestry. The sample size consisted of 60 orthodontically extracted maxillary pre-molars from Pakistani and Saudi Arabian populations respectively. For male and female groups of each population fifteen first and second maxillary premolars were collected respectively, stored in PBS solution. The weight of the individual teeth was recorded. Later, digitally pictures were captured parallel to the occlusal surface to measure maximal bucco-lingual and inter-cuspal dimensions using Image-J software. The dimensions and weights were compared using Students' t-test between males and females respective Pakistani and Saudi Arabian first (P1) and second (P2) maxillary pre-molars. The dimensions for male P1 and P2 were statistically significantly larger than that for females in both populations. Furthermore, wet-weight of pre-molars in males is significantly greater than females in both populations. The findings demonstrate maxillary pre-molars can discriminate between the sexes in various populations.


Las investigaciones han ilustrado que el análisis odontométrico se puede utilizar para determinar el efecto del dimorfismo sexual en el tamaño de los dientes en varias poblaciones. El objetivo principal del estudio fue identificar las dimensiones y el peso entre cúspides, buco-linguales y el peso de los premolares de la arcada superior humana en hombres y mujeres de diferentes poblaciones del sur de Asia. Estas medidas pueden distinguir el sexo y ser importante en desastres masivos, arqueología de restos humanos entremezclados y en ancestros no identificados. El tamaño de la muestra consistió en 60 premolares maxilares extraídos ortodóncicamente de las poblaciones de Pakistán y Arabia Saudita, respectivamente. Para los grupos de hombres y mujeres de cada población, se recogieron quince primeros y segundos premolares superiores respectivamente, almacenados en solución de PBS. Se registró el peso de los dientes individuales. Posteriormente se capturaron imágenes digitales paralelas a la superficie oclusal para medir las dimensiones máximas buco-linguales e intercúspides utilizando software Image-J. Las dimensiones y los pesos se compararon mediante la prueba t de Student entre lo premolares maxilares (P1) y segundos (P2) de hombres y mujeres paquistaníes y saudíes. Las dimensiones para P1 y P2 de los hombres fueron estadísticamente significativos mayores que para las mujeres en ambas poblaciones. Además, el peso húmedo de los premolares en los varones era significativamente mayor que el de las mujeres en ambas poblaciones. Los hallazgos demuestran que los premolares maxilares pueden discriminar entre los sexos en varias poblaciones.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Análisis para Determinación del Sexo/métodos , Diente Premolar/anatomía & histología , Caracteres Sexuales , Maxilares/anatomía & histología , Pakistán , Arabia Saudita , Medicina Legal
8.
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 66, 2020 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404178

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 outbreak has been declared a global pandemic and cases are being reported among displaced populations that are particularly vulnerable to infection. Humanitarian workers on the frontlines of the response are working in some of the most challenging contexts and also face elevated risk of contracting COVID-19 and potential stigmatization or violence in the community. Women humanitarians may be at even greater risk, but their protection is dependent on organization-specific policies and procedures. Without gender balance in leadership positions, the specific needs of women may not be prioritized and women may not be included in decision-making or design of responses. Ensuring gender equitable access to personal protective equipment and information is imperative, but additional measures must be put into place to ensure the protection of women on the frontlines while reducing COVID-19 deaths and adverse health effects among displaced populations.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Betacoronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Factores Sexuales , Sexismo
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): 181-189, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454455

RESUMEN

Objective: Long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) negatively influences bone. The short-term effects on bone and mineral homeostasis are less known. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the early effects of ADT on calcium/phosphate homeostasis and bone turnover. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Eugonadal adult, male sex offenders, who were referred for ADT to the endocrine outpatient clinic, received cyproterone acetate. Changes in blood markers of calcium/phosphate homeostasis and bone turnover between baseline and first follow-up visit were studied. Results: Of 26 screened patients, 17 were included. The median age was 44 (range 20-75) years. The median time interval between baseline and first follow-up was 13 (6-27) weeks. Compared to baseline, an 81% decrease was observed for median total testosterone (to 3.4 nmol/L (0.4-12.2); P < 0.0001) and free testosterone (to 0.06 nmol/L (0.01-0.18); P < 0.0001). Median total estradiol decreased by 71% (to 17.6 pmol/L (4.7-35.6); P < 0.0001). Increased serum calcium (P < 0.0001) and phosphate (P = 0.0016) was observed, paralleled by decreased PTH (P = 0.0156) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (P = 0.0134). The stable calcium isotope ratio (δ44/42Ca) decreased (P = 0.0458), indicating net calcium loss from bone. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin decreased (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0056, respectively), periostin tended to decrease (P = 0.0500), whereas sclerostin increased (P < 0.0001), indicating suppressed bone formation. Serum bone resorption markers (TRAP, CTX) were unaltered. Conclusions: In adult men, calcium release from the skeleton occurs early following sex steroid deprivation, reflecting early bone resorption. The increase of sclerostin and reduction of bone formation markers, without changes in resorption markers, suggests a dominant negative effect on bone formation in the acute phase.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Andrógenos/farmacología , Huesos/efectos de los fármacos , Huesos/fisiología , Calcificación Fisiológica/efectos de los fármacos , Acetato de Ciproterona/farmacología , Adulto , Anciano , Bélgica , Remodelación Ósea/efectos de los fármacos , Calcio/sangre , Estudios de Cohortes , Homeostasis/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fosfatos/sangre , Estudios Prospectivos , Delitos Sexuales , Testosterona/sangre
11.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mayo 30, 2020.
No convencional en Inglés, Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096876

RESUMEN

La pandemia de COVID-19 afecta de distintas maneras a los diferentes grupos de hombres y mujeres. Los riesgos y las consecuencias recaen de forma desproporcionada en ciertos grupos de la población, especialmente los que se encuentran en una situación de vulnerabilidad y los que sufren discriminación. Es fundamental que en su respuesta a la COVID-19 los países consideren la perspectiva de la equidad, el género, la etnicidad y los derechos humanos a fin de: - evitar un aumento de las desigualdades; - tener en cuenta la realidad cotidiana de cada uno de los diferentes grupos, pues esa realidad puede afectar el éxito de las medidas


The COVID­19 pandemic affects diverse groups of women and men differently. The risks and consequences are disproportionately felt by certain groups, especially those living in situations of vulnerability and those who experience discrimination. It is vital that country responses to COVID-19 consider equity, gender, ethnicity, and human rights perspectives to: • prevent the expansion of inequalities; • account for the everyday lived realities of different groups that may affect the success of measures. Objectives: • To function as a "first port of call" for national health policy makers to support their efforts to integrate and enhance equity, gender, ethnicity and human rights considerations and approaches into measures responding to COVID-19; • To provide links to sources of related information and guidelines, where available.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Equidad en Salud , Poblaciones Vulnerables/etnología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Inequidad de Género , Derechos Humanos
12.
Cir Esp ; 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423606

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Physicians, especially surgeons, are significatively affected by burnout. Duty-hour violation, as well as discrimination, abuse and sexual harassment may contribute to burnout. A study about this topic has been published in residents from United States, demonstrating a high incidence of burnout. Our objective is to know which is the situation in Spain and to compare it with United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study carried out in January-February 2020, based on the responses to a validated survey administered to General Surgery residents in Spain. RESULTS: There are 931 General Surgery Residents. 739 have entered in the survey and 452 (61.2%) eventually responded to it. In any occasion during the training period, 55.1% reported discrimination based on their gender, 8.8% reported racial discrimination, 73.9% reported verbal/psychological abuse, 7.1% reported physical abuse and 16.4% reported sexual harassment. Attending surgeons are the most frequent source of sexual harassment and physical and verbal abuse, whereas patients are the most frequent cause of gender discrimination. Burnout symptoms were reported by 47.6% of residents and 4.6% reported suicidal thoughts. 98% of residents reported duty-hour violations and 47% of them do not have the day off after to be on call. Both of these issues are burnout predictive factors. CONCLUSIONS: Mistreatment (discrimination, abuse and harassment) occurs among General Surgery residents during their training period in our country. Every kind of mistreatment is more frequent in Spain than in the United States, with the exception of racial discrimination. It is associated with exceeding weekly duty-hour. It is necessary to know these problems and to avoid them in order to improve work environment of General Surgery training period.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423095

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Combating viral disease outbreaks has doubtlessly been one of the major public health challenges for the 21st century. (2) Methods: The host entry machinery required for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was examined for the gene expression profiles and polymorphism. (3) Results: Lung, kidney, small intestine, and salivary glands were among the tissues which expressed the entry machinery coding genes Ace2, Tmprss2, CtsB, and CtsL. The genes had no significant expression changes between males and females. The four human population groups of Europeans, Africans, Asians, and Americans had specific and also a common pool of rare variants for the X-linked locus of ACE2 receptor. Several specific and common ACE2 variants including S19P, I21T/V, E23K, A25T, K26R, T27A, E35D/K, E37K, Y50F, N51D/S, M62V, N64K, K68E, F72V, E75G, M82I, T92I, Q102P, G220S, H239Q, G326E, E329G, G352V, D355N, H378R, Q388L, P389H, E467K, H505R, R514G/*, and Y515C were of the utmost importance to the viral entry and infection. The variants of S19P, I21T, K26R, T27A, E37K, N51D, N64K, K68E, F72V, M82I, G326E, H378R, Q388L, and P389H also had significant differences in frequencies among the population groups. Most interestingly, the analyses revealed that more than half of the variants can exist in males, i.e., as hemizygous. (4) Conclusions: The rare variants of human ACE2 seem to be one of the determinant factors associated with fitness in the battle against SARS viruses. The hemizygous viral-entry booster variants of ACE2 describe the higher SARS-CoV-2 mortality rate in males. This is also supported by the lack of gender bias for the gene expression profiles of entry machinery. A personalized medicine strategy is conceived for isolating high-risk individuals in epidemic circumstances.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Polimorfismo Genético , Grupos de Población , Receptores Virales , Sexismo , Internalización del Virus , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Pulmón/enzimología , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/metabolismo , Masculino , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/genética , Serina Endopeptidasas , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/genética , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología , Factores Sexuales
14.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(2): 59-66, mayo 2020. graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190386

RESUMEN

This study focuses on the effectiveness of an app-based, monitored intervention using the Liad@s app in a residential youth-care SETTING: The aim of this intervention is to reduce maladaptive beliefs and attitudes linked to dating violence: distortions or myths about romantic love and hostile and benevolent dimensions of sexism. A quasi-experimental pre-post study with a control group was carried out. Participants were 71 adolescents from 9 group homes in Valencia (Spain). The outcomes measures were hostile and benevolent sexism (Ambivalent Sexism Inventory - ASI), ambivalence and prejudice towards men (Ambivalence toward Men Inventory - AMI), and myths about romantic love. The results of the intervention were assessed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). A post-intervention, statistically significant reduction with a medium-large effect size was observed in all dimensions for the treatment group, with eta-square of .25 for the sexism dimensions, .38 for myths, and .21 for ambivalence and prejudices. The experimental group demonstrated significantly more change than the control group on all measures. The benefits of the intervention did not vary by participants' sex. These results may be helpful to professionals involved in child and youth care, who can profit from adolescents' proclivity toward online communication


Este estudio se centra en la de eficacia de una intervención monitorizada, basada en el uso de la app Liad@s en centros de acogida para jóvenes. El objetivo de esta intervención es reducir creencias desadaptativas y actitudes asociadas a violencia en las relaciones de pareja: mitos del amor romántico y sexismo tanto en su dimensión hostil como benévola. Se realizó un estudio pre-post cuasi experimental con grupo control. Participaron 71 adolescentes de 9 centros de acogida de Valencia (España). Se tomaron medidas del cambio en sexismo hostil y benévolo (Inventario de Sexismo Ambivalente - ASI), de ambivalencia y prejuicio hacia los hombres (Inventario Ambivalencia hacia Hombres - AMI) y medida de mitos del amor romántico. Los resultados de la intervención fueron evaluados usando MANOVA (análisis multivariado de varianza). Se obtuvo una reducción significativa con tamaño del efecto entre medio y grande en todas las dimensiones esperadas en el grupo que usó la app. Las etas cuadrado fueron de .25 para las dimensiones de sexismo, .38 para mitos y .21 para ambivalencia y prejuicios. El grupo experimental mostró significativamente más cambio que el control en todas las medidas. Las ventajas de la intervención no varían en función del sexo de los participantes. Estos resultados pueden ser útiles para profesionales implicados en atención y cuidado a jóvenes, quienes pueden beneficiarse a su vez de su facilidad para comunicarse online


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Cuidados en el Hogar de Adopción , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Actitud , Resultado del Tratamiento , Teléfono Celular , Sexismo , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis de Varianza , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial
15.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(2): 67-81, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190387

RESUMEN

Young people have incorporated information and communication technology (ICT) and its influence on socialization as a new instrument to exercise controlling behaviors in their relationships. The present research aims to analyse the influence of some variables that affect social perception of those controlling behaviors, such as the adopted role on the scene (i. e. , protagonist vs. observer) and means of control that is used (i. e. , face-to-face vs. WhatsApp) while considering the effect of attitudinal variables: acceptability of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW), ambivalent sexism, and myths about romantic love. Two studies were implemented: Study 1 included women (n = 224) and Study 2 included men (n = 120), all of them college students. The main results revealed that both women and men perceive controlling behaviors amongst other peer couples; however, few of them recognize suffering or the exercise of these behaviors within their relationships. In addition, data pointed out the adopted role on the scene and the ideological variables (ambivalent sexism, acceptability of IPVAW, and myths about romantic love) that influenced social perception of dating violence; however, there was no influence of means of control. This research contributes to the previous literature, evidencing that controlling behaviors through technological means are accepted and normalized among young people. Additionally, it shows novel data about young people's social perception of controlling behaviors in their relationships, depending on whether they adopt the role of observer or the role of protagonist in a violent situation


Con las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) y su influencia en la socialización, los jóvenes han incorporado un instrumento más para ejercer comportamientos controladores en sus relaciones de pareja. Esta investigación pretende analizar la influencia de algunas variables que afectan a la percepción social de estos comportamientos controladores, como el rol del participante en el escenario (protagonista vs. observador u observadora) y el medio de control utilizado (cara a cara vs. WhatsApp), considerando el efecto de las variables ideológicas: aceptabilidad de la violencia, sexismo y mitos del amor romántico. Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios: un primer estudio con mujeres (n = 224) y uno segundo con hombres (n = 120), todos ellos estudiantes universitarios. Los principales resultados indicaron que tanto mujeres como hombres observan comportamientos controladores en otras parejas de su edad, aunque pocos reconocen sufrir o ejercer estos comportamientos en sus relaciones. Asimismo, se encuentra que el rol que se ocupa en el escenario y las variables ideológicas (sexismo ambivalente, aceptabilidad de la violencia y mitos sobre el amor romántico) influyen en la percepción social de la violencia en la pareja, si bien no se encontró influencia del medio de control. Estos hallazgos constituyen una aportación a la literatura existente, poniendo en evidencia que los comportamientos controladores ejercidos a través de los medios tecnológicos son aceptados y normalizados entre los jóvenes y las jóvenes. Asimismo, proporciona datos novedosos sobre la percepción social que esta población tiene de los comportamientos controladores en las relaciones en función de si se adopta el rol de observador o de protagonista de la situación violenta


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Control de la Conducta , Violencia de Género/psicología , Sexismo/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Internet , Terapia Conductista , Percepción Social , Estudiantes/psicología
16.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(2): 91-101, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190389

RESUMEN

Discrimination and prejudice against LGBTI people in Spain are much lower than they used to be; however, negative attitudes towards them may still persist. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether LGBTI individuals perceive the existence of prejudice or discrimination due to their sexual orientation in the workplace. To assess these perceptions in relative terms, we compared them with those of heterosexual individuals. We also analyzed whether perceived discrimination was associated with work stress, the presence of common mental disorders, and depression. Results revealed that LGBTI employees reported experiencing greater discrimination in the workplace because of their sexualorientation, which in turn led to a greater incidence of work stress, mental disorders, and depression. Our findings confirm that job discrimination against LGBTI people is still present, along with some of its harmful consequences, and highlight the need for interventions to reduce prejudice against LGBTI persons in the workplace


A pesar de que la discriminación y el prejuicio hacia el colectivo LGTBI en España hayan disminuido, es posible que aún pervivan actitudes negativas hacia estas personas. En la presente investigación analizamos si las personas LGTBI perciben la existencia de prejuicio o discriminación hacia ellas en el ámbito laboral debido a su orientación sexual. Para analizar en términos relativos dichas percepciones, las comparamos con las que tienen las personas de orientación heterosexual. Después se examinó si la percepción de discriminación está relacionada con el estrés laboral, la presencia de trastornos mentales y la depresión. Los resultados mostraron que las personas LGTBI experimentaban mayor discriminación en su trabajo en virtud de su orientación sexual, produciéndoles mayor estrés laboral, trastornos mentales y depresión. Estos resultados confirman la pervivencia de discriminación hacia las personas LGTBI en el ámbito laboral y algunas de sus perniciosas consecuencias y muestran la necesidad de intervenciones para la reducción del prejuicio hacia los trabajadores LGTBI


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Discriminación en Psicología , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Condiciones de Trabajo , Psicometría/métodos , España , Homofobia/psicología , Homofobia/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología
17.
Artículo en Portugués | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1095987

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever o tipo de agressão sofrida pela mulher no período da gestação, bem como as conseqüências para o binômio mãe-filho. Método: estudo bibliográfico, descritivo e exploratório, realizou-se uma busca no banco de dados da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Sistema Latino-Americano e do Caribe de Informações em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Scientific Eletrônic Library Online (SCIELO) e Bancos de dados em enfermagem (BDENF). Resultado: A violência doméstica é caracterizada como qualquer forma de violência praticada dentro do contexto familiar, seja ela física, sexual, psicológica, moral ou patrimonial. Entre os tipos de violência sofrida pela mulher, os mais citados e de maiores danos são a verbal, física e emocional. A violência doméstica contribui para o aumento da mortalidade materna, bem como para o aumento dos números de óbitos perinatais, baixo peso ao nascer, abortos e nascimentos prematuros. Conclusão: Percebeu-se que a violência contra gestantes não tem momento para acontecer e independem de raça, cor, escolaridade e classe social. Observou-se que o profissional deve ampliar seu olhar para os pequenos sinais implícitos nas palavras das mulheres violentadas, pois ele tem um papel de extrema importância no enfrentamento desse problema, afinal ele é o primeiro contato com a gestante vulnerável. (AU)


This study aimed to describe the type of aggression suffered by women during gestation as well as the consequences for the mother-child binomial. Method: a descriptive and exploratory bibliographic study, a search was made in the database of the Virtual Health Library (BVS), Latin American and Caribbean Information System in Health Sciences (LILACS), Scientific Eletrônic Library Online (SCIELO) Nursing Databases (BDENF). Results: Domestic violence is characterized by any form of violence practiced within the family context, be it physical, sexual, psychological, moral or patrimonial. Among the types of violence suffered by women, more cited and larger damage is the verbal, physical and emotional. Domestic violence contributes to increased maternal mortality as well as for the increase of numbers of perinatal deaths, low birth weight, abortions and premature births. Conclusions: It was noticed that violence against pregnant women has no time to happen and is independent of race, color, schooling and social class. It was observed that the professional should widen his eyes to the small signs implied in the words of the violated women, since he plays an extremely important role in facing this problem, after all he is the first contact with the vulnerable pregnant woman. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Salud Pública , Violencia Doméstica , Mujeres Embarazadas , Violencia contra la Mujer , Delitos Sexuales , Mujeres Maltratadas , Notificación Obligatoria/ética
18.
Am J Nurs ; 120(5): 11, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332342

RESUMEN

What our profession needs to look like in the upcoming decade.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Objetivos , Liderazgo , Rol de la Enfermera , Alcance de la Práctica , Humanos , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Sexismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231260, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275695

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Specialist sexual assault services, which collect forensic evidence and offer holistic healthcare to people following sexual assault, have been established internationally. In England, these services are called sexual assault referral centres (SARCs). Mental health and substance misuse problems are common among SARC attendees, but little is known about how SARCs should address these needs. This review aims to seek and synthesise evidence regarding approaches to identification and support for mental health and substance misuse problems in SARCs and corresponding services internationally; empirical evidence regarding effective service models; and stakeholders' views and policy recommendations about optimal SARC practice. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken. PsycINFO, MEDLINE, IBSS and CINAHL were searched from 1975 to August 2018. A web-based search up to December 2018 was also conducted to identify government and expert guidelines on SARCs. Quality assessment and narrative synthesis were conducted. RESULTS: We included 107 papers. We found that identification based on clinical judgement, supportive counselling and referral to other services without active follow-up were the most common approaches. Evaluations of interventions for post-rape psychopathology in attendees of sexual assault services provided mixed evidence of moderate quality. Very little evidence was found regarding interventions or support for substance misuse. Stakeholders emphasised the importance of accessibility, flexibility, continuity of care, in-house psychological support, staff trained in mental health as well as specialist support for LGBT groups and people with learning difficulties. Guidelines suggested that SARCs should assess for mental health and substance misuse and provide in-house emotional support, but the extent and nature of support were not clarified. Both stakeholders and guidelines recommended close partnership between sexual assault services and local counselling services. CONCLUSIONS: This review suggests that there is big variation in the mental health and substance misuse provision both across and within different sexual assault service models. We found no robust evidence about how sexual assault services can achieve good mental health and substance misuse outcomes for service users. Clearer guidance for service planners and commissioners, informed by robust evidence about optimal service organisations and pathways, is required. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018119706.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Femenino , Gobierno , Guías como Asunto , Directrices para la Planificación en Salud , Recursos en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido
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