Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.468
Filtrar
1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 1-7, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-201543

RESUMEN

Sexual double standard (SDS) involves evaluating the same sexual behaviors in men and women using different criteria. The support for man-favorable SDS is related to sexual aggression and sexual victimization. Yet to date, studies have not examined the prevalence of SDS adherence. This study aims to identify the prevalence per gender and age of the Spanish population who adheres to the SDS typologies (man-favorable, woman-favorable, egalitarian, ambivalent) by considering sexual freedom and sexual shyness areas. A sample of 2,002 Spanish heterosexual adults (50% men, 50% women), distributed into four age groups (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 and over 55 years old), answered the Sexual Double Standard Scale. The results showed differences in the prevalence of SDS typologies by gender and age. By gender, a higher prevalence of the man-favorable typology was observed in men and a higher prevalence of the egalitarian typology and the woman-favorable typology was observed in women. By age groups, significant differences in man-favorable and woman-favorable typologies were found in both men and women. Based on the evidence of four adherence to SDS typologies, it is recommended studying the relation of these typologies with sexual aggression/victimization to design more efficient programs for prevention and intervention of sexual violence


El doble estándar sexual (DES) consiste en evaluar los mismos comportamientos sexuales en hombres y mujeres usando diferentes criterios. El apoyo al DES favorable al hombre está relacionado con la agresión y la victimización sexual. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha, los estudios no han examinado la prevalencia de la adhesión al DES. Este estudio pretende identificar la prevalencia por género y edad de la población española que se adhiere a las tipologías de DES (favorable al hombre, favorable a la mujer, igualitaria, ambivalente) considerando los ámbitos de la libertad sexual y del recato sexual. Una muestra de 2.002 adultos heterosexuales españoles (50% hombres, 50% mujeres), distribuidos en cuatro grupos de edad (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 y más de 55 años), respondió a la Sexual Double Standard Scale. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en la prevalencia de las tipologías de DES por género y edad. Por género se observó una mayor prevalencia de la tipología favorable al hombre en los hombres y una mayor prevalencia de la tipología igualitaria y la tipología favorable a la mujer en las mujeres. Por grupos de edad se encontraron diferencias significativas en las tipologías favorable al hombre y favorable a la mujer, tanto en hombres como en mujeres. De acuerdo con la evidencia de las cuatro tipologías de adhesión al DES, se recomienda estudiar la relación de estas tipologías con la agresión/victimización sexual para diseñar programas más eficientes de prevención de la violencia sexual e intervención en la misma


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Sexualidad/psicología , Estereotipo de Género , 57445 , Identidad de Género , Biotipología , Sexismo/psicología , Feminismo , Androcentrismo , Poder Psicológico , Empoderamiento para la Salud/psicología
2.
3.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 113, 2021 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092236

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescent Syrian refugee girls in Lebanon are thought to experience a disproportionate risk of poor sexual and reproductive health, related in part to conflict and displacement. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore healthcare provider and educator perceptions of the sexual and reproductive health determinants and care-seeking behaviors of this vulnerable population. The findings of the study will inform a health intervention that aims to reduce early marriage and improve access to sexual and reproductive health information and services. METHODS: In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with stakeholders who work with adolescent Syrian refugee girls in an under-resourced area of eastern Lebanon bordering Syria. Data analysis followed principles of Clarke and Braun's thematic analysis. RESULTS: Study participants perceived adolescent pregnancy, reproductive tract infections, and sexual- and gender-based violence as major population health needs. The study also identified a number of influencing structural and sociocultural determinants of health, including early marriage, adolescent disempowerment, and men's disengagement from care. A conceptual framework based upon the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations was developed to relate these determinants and guide pathways for potential interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent sexual and reproductive health interventions among Syrian refugees in Lebanon should adopt a multi-pronged, community-based approach to address underlying health determinants and engage with men and parents of adolescents. Special attention should be given to provider biases in healthcare settings accessible to adolescents, as these may reflect underlying tensions between host and refugee populations and discourage adolescents from seeking care.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género/etnología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Refugiados , Delitos Sexuales/etnología , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Salud Reproductiva , Siria/etnología
4.
Cancer Control ; 28: 10732748211024214, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126789

RESUMEN

The unprecedented threat of COVID-19 has taken its toll on the field of cancer research, with trial accrual rates seeing a sharp decline since the beginning of the pandemic. Recent evidence has suggested that decreased participation appears to be more pronounced in women than men, which raises concerns about an exacerbation of gender bias in research. The following manuscript is a commentary article to the recent study by Fox et al, who aimed at investigating the concerns of patients with regard to participating to cancer research, as well as examining potential gender disparities within their sample population. We provide a brief critique of their work, especially focusing on important limitations concerning sample size and under-representation of ethnic minority groups, before discussing their findings in light of current literature on gender differences in anxiety and risk perception, how this might be interpreted in the context of the current pandemic, and its impact on participation in cancer research. We present multiple lines of evidence which support the idea that women might experience greater anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic which could have a significant impact on cancer research participation and consequently the external validity of studies in the field. The first attempts to tackle these challenges have shown promise, but further research is required to perfect this process and target those groups who are at greatest need of intervention.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritarios , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexismo
5.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117966

RESUMEN

Discrimination and internalized stigma are barriers to engagement in HIV self-care among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. However, differences in perceptions of discrimination and internalized stigmas by age, year of HIV-diagnosis, and race are poorly understood. We assessed differences in reported discrimination related to HIV, race, sexual orientation, and substance use and internalized stigmas among 202 MSM living with HIV who use substances. Younger participants reported higher levels of all types of discrimination and internalized stigmas (p-values < 0.001-0.030). Those diagnosed after the advent of antiretrovirals reported higher levels of discrimination related to HIV, sexual orientation, and substance use, as well as internalized stigma related to HIV and substance use (p-values 0.001-0.049). We explored perceived community HIV stigma, which accounted for associations involving age and year of diagnosis. Age, year of diagnosis, and race should be considered when assessing and intervening with stigma.

6.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 22-38, ene.-jun. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas | ID: biblio-1155512

RESUMEN

Objetivou-se compreender os procedimentos de recebimento e encaminhamento de notificações de casos de violência sexual realizados por conselheiros tutelares. Para isso, foram realizadas 10 entrevistas semiestruturadas com conselheiros/as tutelares de duas cidades do norte do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados indicaram pouca clareza na definição de violência sexual e de notificação. Foram consideradas notificações exitosas aquelas em que há informações de identificação de prováveis vítimas e agressores/as, enquanto as notificações não exitosas possuem poucas informações desses. Referente aos encaminhamentos, observou-se que há êxito quando os serviços da rede dialogam e se articulam e não êxito quando aspectos burocráticos predominam. Buscando uma melhoria no recebimento e nos encaminhamentos das notificações sobre violência sexual faz-se necessária a formação continuada por meio de capacitações, bem como a construção de fluxogramas para o efetivo trabalho.


We aim to understand the procedures of receiving and forwarding notifications of cases involving sexual violence against children performed by Child Protective Services (CPS). We carried out 10 semi-structured interviews with counselors from two cities of Rio Grande do Sul (a southernmost state in Brazil). The main results indicated little accuracy in defining sexual violence and notification. Successful notifications were those in which there is information that could identify victims and perpetrators. Unsuccessful notifications usually contain little information. Counselors observed successful outcomes in forwarding notifications when the services of the system dialogue and articulate, and unsuccessful ones when bureaucratic aspects predominate. We conclude it is necessary to invest in continuing education through capacitation, as well as constructing flowcharts for effective work in CPS.


El objetivo fue comprender los procedimientos para recibir y reenviar notificaciones de casos de violencia sexual realizados por Consejos Tutelares (CT). Fueron hechas 10 entrevistas semiestructuradas con 10 consejeros tutelares de dos ciudades de Rio Grande do Sul. Los resultados indicaron poca claridad en la definición de violencia sexual y notificación. Las notificaciones exitosas son las que incluyen informaciones que permiten identificar posibles víctimas y agresores. Las notificaciones no exitosas contienen pocas informaciones. Se observó que hay éxito en las derivaciones cuando los servicios de la red dialogan y se articulan y no éxito cuando prevalecen los aspectos burocráticos. La formación continua a través de capacitaciones es necesaria, así como la construcción de diagramas de flujo para el trabajo efectivo del CT.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Derivación y Consulta , Delitos Sexuales , Consejo , Notificación , Educación Continua , Servicios de Protección Infantil , Consejeros , Defensa del Niño
7.
Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires; Argentina. Ministerio de Salud de la Nación; Mayo 2021. 117 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1247799

RESUMEN

El presente protocolo contiene lineamientos para la aplicación de la interrupción legal del embarazo, en diferentes contextos, tanto en instituciones públicas como privadas de todo el territorio argentino. La ampliación del acceso al aborto seguro que el nuevo marco normativo establece es una ventana de oportunidad para mejorar los indicadores de morbimortalidad materna, así como para reducir las inequidades en el acceso a prestaciones de salud sexual y reproductiva dado que todas las jurisdicciones del país deben acomodar sus políticas sanitarias y la organización de los servicios para cumplir con lo establecido por la Ley 27.610 de Acceso a la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo y atención postaborto.


Asunto(s)
Argentina , Política Pública , Aborto Legal , Salud Sexual y Reproductiva
8.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 217, 2021 05 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022858

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual assault is a prevalent crime against women globally with known negative effects on health. Recent media reports in Canada indicate that many sexual assault reports are not believed by police. Negative reporting experiences of sexual assault have been associated with secondary victimization and trauma among survivors. However, little is known about the impact that being sexually assaulted and not believed by police has on a survivor's health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to explore women's experiences of not being believed by police after sexual assault and their perceived impact on health. METHODS: We conducted open-ended and semi-structured interviews with 23 sexual assault survivors who were sexually assaulted and not believed by police. The interviews explored the self-reported health impacts of not being believed by police and were conducted from April to July, 2019. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and entered into NVIVO for analysis. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's analytic method. RESULTS: Analysis revealed three salient themes regarding the health and social impact of not being believed by police on survivors of sexual assault: (1) Broken Expectations which resulted in loss of trust and secondary victimization, (2) Loss of Self, and (3) Cumulative Health and Social Effects. The findings showed that not being believed by police resulted in additional mental and social burdens beyond that of the sexual assault. Many survivors felt further victimized by police at a time when they needed support, leading to the use taking of alcohol and/or drugs as a coping strategy. CONCLUSION: Reporting a sexual assault and not being believed by police has negative health outcomes for survivors. Improving the disclosure experience is needed to mitigate the negative health and social impacts and promote healing. This is important for police, health, and social service providers who receive sexual assault disclosures and may be able to positively influence the reporting experience and overall health effects.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Delitos Sexuales , Canadá , Femenino , Humanos , Policia , Sobrevivientes , Salud de la Mujer
9.
Int Heart J ; 62(3): 465-469, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053997

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the lives of healthcare professionals, especially vulnerable physicians such as young or female cardiologists. In Japan, they are facing the fear of not only infection but also weak and unstable employment, difficulties in medical practice and training anxiety, implications for research and studying abroad, as well as worsened mental health issues due to social isolation. Conversely, some positive aspects are seen through the holding of remote meetings and conferences. Here, we suggest a new working style for cardiologists, as well as offer solutions to the medical employment problems that have been taken place in Japan.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Cardiólogos/psicología , Salud Laboral , Médicos Mujeres/psicología , Factores de Edad , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/terapia , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Cardiólogos/educación , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/métodos , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Salud Mental , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/terapia , Distanciamiento Físico , Sexismo/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Apoyo Social , Poblaciones Vulnerables
10.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 188, 2021 05 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952220

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is one of the most investigated types of violence by national and international decision makers. The purpose of this study was to detect the factors that affect sexual violence against women in Turkey. METHODS: In this study, a cross-sectional data set was employed from the survey titled the National Research on Domestic Violence against Women in Turkey, which was conducted by the Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies. Binary logistic and probit regression analyses were used to determine the factors influential in women's exposure to sexual violence. RESULTS: The findings obtained from the analyses indicated that women's exposure to sexual violence was influenced by a variety of factors including region, age, level of education, employment status, health condition, marital status, number of children as well as exposure to physical, economic, and verbal abuse. In addition, it was determined that the level of education, employment status, drug use, infidelity and other variables related to the husband/partner of the women who participated in the survey affected the women's exposure to sexual violence. CONCLUSION: There remains a higher probability of exposure to sexual violence among women residing in rural and less developed regions. A decrease in the women's level of education increased their probability of exposure to sexual violence. An increase in the women's age and an increase in the level of education of the women's husbands/partners lowered the probability of their exposure to sexual violence. There was a higher probability of exposure to sexual violence among women who had experienced physical, economic, and verbal abuse.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Delitos Sexuales , Maltrato Conyugal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Parejas Sexuales , Turquia/epidemiología
11.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54(suppl 1): e2020600, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008721

RESUMEN

This article addresses sexual violence, as part of the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Guidance is provided in programmatic and operational management, focusing on the service network for people in situation of sexual violence, recommendations to health staff about pregnancy and viral and non-viral sexually transmitted infections prophylactic measures, in addition to surveillance action strategies. Sexual violence is an encompassing issue that includes wider areas than the health field. It involves conceptual and programmatic challenges for health staff, at the forefront of care for affected people and also to the implementation of prevention strategies addressed to the whole society. Sexual violence is one of the principal forms of human rights violation, affecting the right to life, health, and bodily integrity.


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 253, 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933035

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: More and more female residents enter postgraduate medical training (PGMT). Meanwhile, women are still underrepresented in academic medicine, in leadership positions and in most surgical specialties. This suggests that female residents' career development may still be negatively impacted by subtle, often unconscious stereotype associations regarding gender and career-ambition, called implicit gender-career bias. This study explored the existence and strength of implicit gender-career bias in doctors who currently work in PGMT, i.e. in attending physicians who act as clinical trainers and in their residents. METHODS: We tested implicit gender-career bias in doctors working in PGMT by means of an online questionnaire and an online Implicit Association Test (IAT). We used standard IAT analysis to calculate participants' IAT D scores, which indicate the direction and strength of bias. Linear regression analyses were used to test whether the strength of bias was related to gender, position (resident or clinical trainer) or specialty (non-surgical or surgical specialty). RESULTS: The mean IAT D score among 403 participants significantly differed from zero (D-score = 0.36 (SD = 0.39), indicating bias associating male with career and female with family. Stronger gender-career bias was found in women (ßfemale =0 .11; CI 0.02; 0.19; p = 0.01) and in residents (ßresident 0.12; CI 0.01; 0.23; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: This study may provide a solid basis for explicitly addressing implicit gender-career bias in PGMT. The general understanding in the medical field is that gender bias is strongest among male doctors' in male-dominated surgical specialties. Contrary to this view, this study demonstrated that the strongest bias is held by females themselves and by residents, independently of their specialty. Apparently, the influx of female doctors in the medical field has not yet reduced implicit gender-career bias in the next generation of doctors, i.e. in today's residents, and in females.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia , Medicina , Médicos , Mujeres , Selección de Profesión , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 248, 2021 05 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001033

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association between sexual and physical abuse and subsequent depression is well-established, but the associations with specific depressive symptoms and sex differences remain relatively understudied. We investigated the associations of sexual and physical abuse with depressive symptoms in men and women in a large population cohort. METHODS: Observational study based on 151,396 UK Biobank participants. Exposures included self-reported experiences of childhood physical abuse and sexual abuse. Mid-life outcomes included current depressive symptoms score, individual depressive symptoms, and lifetime depression. We used logistic regression to test associations of childhood sexual/physical abuse with depressive outcomes. RESULTS: Recalled childhood sexual and physical abuse were both associated with current depressive symptoms score in adults. Results for individual symptoms-based analyses suggest that sexual and physical abuse are associated with all depressive symptoms, particularly suicidal behaviours. The associations between lifetime depression and sexual/physical abuse were not fully explained by current depressive symptoms score, indicating that these findings may not be fully attributable to recall bias. There was no indication of differential risk for specific depressive symptoms among men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual and physical abuse are robust risk factors for depression/depressive symptoms regardless of sex. Higher risk of suicidal behaviours associated with childhood sexual/physical abuse are of particular concern. Longitudinal research into sex-specific associations for individual depressive symptoms is required.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Delitos Sexuales , Adulto , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Niño , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso Físico , Reino Unido/epidemiología
18.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(3): 249-264, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014109

RESUMEN

This cross-sectional survey explored the quality of life in 505 people living with HIV in Belgium. Several domains of quality of life were impaired: 26% had been diagnosed with depression and 43% had weak social support. HIV-related stigma is still widespread, with 49% believing most people with HIV are rejected and 65% having experienced discrimination due to HIV. The impact of HIV was limited on professional life, but 40% experienced a negative impact on life satisfaction and 41% a negative impact on sexual life. For several domains, people with a recent diagnosis of HIV and long-term survivors had significantly worse scores. This survey also uncovered strengths of people living with HIV, such as positive coping and HIV self-image. Expanding the scope of quality of life in people living with HIV may provide a more complete picture of relevant life domains that may be impacted by living with HIV, but this needs further validation.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Bélgica/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Discriminación en Psicología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoimagen , Conducta Sexual , Apoyo Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Harefuah ; 160(4): 266, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Hebreo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899379
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...