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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681431

RESUMO

The effects of sole inoculation of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) with Bradyrhizobium and co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and Azospirillum on nodulation, plant growth and yields were investigated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 cropping seasons under field conditions in Mozambique. The treatments included (1) Control (non-inoculated control, with symbiosis depending on indigenous rhizobia), (2) Urea (non-inoculated, receiving 200 kg ha-1 of N), (3) Sole inoculation with B. diazoefficiens strain USDA 110, and (4) Co-inoculation with B. diazoefficiens strain USDA 110 and A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6, evaluated in a randomized complete block design with five replications. Nodule number and dry weight, shoot dry weight, biological and grain yields, grain dry weight, and harvest index were evaluated. In general, both sole inoculation and co-inoculation enhanced nodulation in relation to control. Sole inoculation increased grain yield by 22% (356 kg ha-1), the same enhancement magnitude attained under mineral N treatment, suggesting that Bradyrhizobium inoculation provides ecological and economic sustainability to the soybean crop in Mozambique or other countries with similar agro-climatic conditions. Co-inoculation did not increase grain yields in relation to neither the control nor sole inoculation, indicating that further research with adapted and high yielding soybean varieties along with effective rhizobial strains is required in Mozambique to attune the beneficial Azospirillum-plant cultivar-rhizobia interactions that have been reported in other countries for several legumes, including soybean.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mozambique has one of the highest incidence rates of both TB and HIV in the world and an estimated tuberculosis (TB) treatment coverage of only 57% in 2018. Numerous approaches are being tested to reduce existing gaps in coverage and the estimated number of missing cases. METHODS: Thirty Community Healthcare Workers (CHWs) were tasked with increasing TB notifications by performing verbal facility-based TB screening of all people presenting for care and TB contact tracing in the community. Using routine National TB Program data, we analyzed trends in TB notifications in five intervention districts and seven control districts in Manica province the year before this project and during a one-year intervention period. RESULTS: In the four quarters before the study, the intervention districts notified 5,219 individuals with all forms of TB, and the control districts notified 2,248 TB cases. During the study 5,982 all forms of people with TB were notified in the intervention area, an increase of 763 (14.6%) over the baseline, whereas the control districts notified 1,877 persons with TB, a decrease of -371 (-16.5%). The CHW screening activities yielded 1,502 notified and treated individuals with TB. CONCLUSIONS: Employing CHWs to promote facility-based TB screening and household contact tracing may lead to an overall increase in TB notification.

3.
Hum Resour Health ; 18(1): 51, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) faces the highest burden of disease amenable to surgery while having the lowest surgeon to population ratio in the world. Some 25 SSA countries use surgical task-shifting from physicians to non-physician clinicians (NPCs) as a strategy to increase access to surgery. While many studies have investigated barriers to access to surgical services, there is a dearth of studies that examine the barriers to shifting of surgical tasks to, and the delivery of safe essential surgical care by NPCs, especially in rural areas of SSA. This study aims to identify those barriers and how they vary between surgical disciplines as well as between countries. METHODS: We performed a scoping review of articles published between 2000 and 2018, listed in PubMed or Embase. Full-text articles were read by two reviewers to identify barriers to surgical task-shifting. Cited barriers were counted and categorized, partly based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health systems building blocks. RESULTS: Sixty-two articles met the inclusion criteria, and 14 clusters of barriers were identified, which were assigned to four main categories: primary outcomes, NPC workforce, regulation, and environment and resources. Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Mozambique had the largest number of articles reporting barriers, with Uganda reporting the largest variety of barriers from empirical studies only. Obstetric and gynaecologic surgery had more articles and cited barriers than other specialties. CONCLUSION: A multitude of factors hampers the provision of surgery by NPCs across SSA. The two main issues are surgical pre-requisites and the need for regulatory and professional frameworks to legitimate and control the surgical practice of NPCs.

4.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(7): e25546, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a CD4 cell count before starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) to detect advanced HIV disease, and routine viral load (VL) testing following ART initiation to detect treatment failure. Donor support for CD4 testing has declined to prioritize access to VL monitoring. We examined trends in CD4 and VL testing among adults (≥15 years of age) starting ART in Southern Africa. METHODS: We analysed data from 14 HIV treatment programmes in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe in 2005 to 2018. We examined the frequency of CD4 and VL testing, the percentage of adults with CD4 or VL tests, and among those having a test, the percentage starting ART with advanced HIV disease (CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 ) or failing to suppress viral replication (>1000 HIV-RNA copies/mL) after ART initiation. We used mixed effect logistic regression to assess time trends adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Among 502,456 adults, the percentage with CD4 testing at ART initiation decreased from a high of 78.1% in 2008 to a low of 38.0% in 2017; the probability declined by 14% each year (odds ratio (OR) 0.86; 95% CI 0.86 to 0.86). Frequency of CD4 testing also declined. The percentage starting ART with advanced HIV disease declined from 83.3% in 2005 to 23.5% in 2018; each year the probability declined by 20% (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.81). VL testing after starting ART varied; 61.0% of adults in South Africa and 10.7% in Malawi were tested, but fewer than 2% were tested in the other four countries. The probability of VL testing after ART start increased only modestly each year (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.06). The percentage with unsuppressed VL was 8.6%. There was no evidence of a decrease in unsuppressed VL over time (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.01). CONCLUSIONS: CD4 cell counting declined over time, including testing at the start of ART, despite the fact that many patients still initiated ART with advanced HIV disease. Without CD4 testing and expanded VL testing many patients with advanced HIV disease and treatment failure may go undetected, threatening the effectiveness of ART in sub-Saharan Africa.

5.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 78, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based decision-making is crucial to leadership in the health sector to identify country-level priorities and generate solutions supported by rigorous research. Barriers and enablers have been explored, but limited evidence about what works to strengthening capacity at individual and institutional levels within countries has been reported, and inconsistent use of evidence to inform policy-making is a persistent challenge and concern. METHODS: We conducted a framework analysis comparing experiences of nine purposively selected countries (Chile, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa and Sri Lanka). We utilised qualitative case studies developed by in-country teams to explore enablers and barriers described across components of a predefined theory of change and then identified six cross-cutting themes and recommendations for relevant stakeholders associated with each theme. RESULTS: The cross-cutting themes included (1) leadership and political will, (2) incentives and resources, (3) infrastructure and access to health data, (4) designated structures and processes, (5) interaction and relationships, and (6) capacity strengthening and engagement. While each case country's context and experience was different, common enablers and barriers surfaced across each of these themes, with Ministries of Health and other government agencies having strong roles to play, but also recognising the need for other stakeholders, including researchers, donors and civil society, to serve as essential collaborators in order to strengthen evidence uptake. Substantial and sustained investment in research capacities, able leaders and stronger engagement of civil servants are needed to further this progress and strengthen processes of health decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: All countries represented in this study have made commendable progress in increasing evidence uptake and strengthening supportive systems. Establishing and strengthening necessary structures and the relationships that underpin them takes time as well as resources. Going forward, the findings from this study can help guide and support advocacy to increase domestic funding for health research, especially health policy and systems research, and ensure that civil servants as well as researchers have the capacity and support to collaborate and continue to bolster evidence uptake.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1084, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Legal empowerment and social accountability are two strategies that are increasingly used to address gaps in healthcare in low- and middle-income countries, including failure to provide services that should be available and poor clinical and interpersonal quality of care. This paper is an explanatory case study of a legal empowerment effort that employs community paralegals and trains Village Health Committees (VHCs) in Mozambique. The research objective was to explore how community paralegals solved cases, the impact paralegals had on health services, and how their work affected the relationship between the community and the health sector at the local level. METHODS: The case study had two components: (1) a retrospective review of 24 cases of patient/community grievances about the health system, and (2) qualitative investigation of the program and program context. The case reviews were accomplished by conducting structured in-depth interviews (IDIs) with those directly involved in the case. The qualitative investigation entailed semi-structured Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with district, provincial, and national health managers and Namati staff. In addition, focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with Health Advocates and VHC members. RESULTS: Case resolution conferred a sense of empowerment to clients, brought immediate, concrete improvements in health service quality at the health facilities concerned, and seemingly instigated a virtuous circle of rights-claiming. The program also engendered incipient improvements in relations between clients and the health system. We identified three key mechanisms underlying case resolution, including: bolstered administrative capacity within the health sector, reduced transaction and political costs for health providers, and provider fear of administrative sanction. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the limited literature regarding the mechanisms of legal empowerment case resolution in health systems and the impact of hybrid legal empowerment and social accountability approaches. Future research might assess the sustainability of case resolution; how governance at central, provincial, and district level is affected by similar programs; and to what extent the mix of different cases addressed by legal empowerment influences the success of the program.

7.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 225, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases involving arboviruses represent expanding threats to sub-Saharan Africa imposing as considerable burden to human and veterinary public health. In Mozambique over one hundred species of potential arbovirus mosquito vectors have been identified, although their precise role in maintaining such viruses in circulation in the country remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to screen for the presence of flaviviruses, alphaviruses and bunyaviruses in mosquitoes from different regions of Mozambique. RESULTS: Our survey analyzed 14,519 mosquitoes, and the results obtained revealed genetically distinct insect-specific flaviviruses, detected in multiple species of mosquitoes from different genera. In addition, smaller flavivirus-like NS5 sequences, frequently detected in Mansonia seemed to correspond to defective viral sequences, present as viral DNA forms. Furthermore, three lineages of putative members of the Phenuiviridae family were also detected, two of which apparently corresponding to novel viral genetic lineages. CONCLUSION: This study reports for the first-time novel insect-specific flaviviruses and novel phenuiviruses, as well as frequent flavivirus-like viral DNA forms in several widely known vector species. This unique work represents recent investigation of virus screening conducted in mosquitoes from Mozambique and an important contribution to inform the establishment of a vector control program for arbovirus in the country and in the region.

8.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-12, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Even though sub-Saharan African women spend millions of person-hours per day fetching water and pounding grain, to date, few studies have rigorously assessed the energy expenditure costs of such domestic activities. As a result, most analyses that consider head-hauling water or hand pounding of grain with a mortar and pestle (pilão use) employ energy expenditure values derived from limited research. The current paper compares estimated energy expenditure values from heart rate monitors v. indirect calorimetry in order to understand some of the limitations with using such monitors to measure domestic activities. DESIGN: This confirmation study estimates the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) value for head-hauling water and hand-pounding grain using both indirect calorimetry and heart rate monitors under laboratory conditions. SETTING: The study was conducted in Nampula, Mozambique. PARTICIPANTS: Forty university students in Nampula city who recurrently engaged in water-fetching activities. RESULTS: Including all participants, the mean MET value for head hauling 20 litres (20·5 kg, including container) of water (2·7 km/h, 0 % slope) was 4·3 (sd 0·9) and 3·7 (sd 1·2) for pilão use. Estimated energy expenditure predictions from a mixed model were found to correlate with observed energy expenditure (r2 0·68, r 0·82). Re-estimating the model with pilão use data excluded improved the fit substantially (r2 0·83, r 0·91). CONCLUSIONS: The current study finds that heart rate monitors are suitable instruments for providing accurate quantification of energy expenditure for some domestic activities, such as head-hauling water, but are not appropriate for quantifying expenditures of other activities, such as hand-pounding grain.

9.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620355

RESUMO

Despite recent successful efforts to reduce the global malaria burden, this disease remains a significant global health problem. Only in 2018, malaria caused 228 million clinical episodes, 2-4 million of which were severe malaria cases, and 405,000 were fatal. Most of the malaria attributable mortality occurred among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Nowadays, rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin derivatives are two of the main pillars for the management of malaria. However, considering the current situation, these strategies are not sufficient to maintain a reducing trend in malaria incidence and mortality. New insights into the pathophysiology of malaria have highlighted the importance of the host response to infection. Understanding this response would help to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Vector and parasite drug resistance are two major challenges for malaria control that require special attention. The most advanced malaria vaccine (RTS,S) is currently being piloted in 3 African countries.

10.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1769900, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619145

RESUMO

Mozambique has for many years suffered from a high burden of HIV with an estimated prevalence of 11.1% among adults age 15-49 years. In response, Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention (or Positive Prevention as it is known in Mozambique), was developed as a method of integrating HIV care and prevention via capacity building. Through comprehensive holistic care, HIV transmission is prevented while simultaneously promoting the health of people living with HIV/AIDS. Our initiative used a three-tiered approach, and included activities at national, provincial, and community levels. In order to change patient behavior and successfully train health-care workers in Positive Prevention, it was therefore considered necessary to work at multiple levels of influence. This ensured that the individual-level behavior change of PLHIV and health-care providers was maximized through supportive environments and policies. Related national-level achievements included the establishment of a Positive Prevention technical working group; the development of a Positive Prevention policy document; training national policy-makers on Positive Prevention; the development and distribution of a nationally approved Positive Prevention training package; the integration of Positive Prevention into existing Ministry of Health curricula; the development and approval of national data collection forms; and the drafting of a related national strategy. The framework and key activities of the Mozambique Positive Prevention Program may help to inform and assist others involved in similar work, as well as advancing country or local ownership of HIV/AIDS treatment, care and prevention efforts. By using a three-tiered approach, a supportive system was created. This was critical to both optimizing Positive Prevention provision and building long-term capacity. In order for related efforts to be successful in other settings, we encourage implementing partners to also work at multiple levels, with local ownership principles in mind, in order that Positive Prevention programs may have the greatest possible effect.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628691

RESUMO

Many important areas identified for conservation priorities focus on areas of high species richness, however, it is unclear whether these areas change depending on what aspect of richness is considered (e.g. evolutionary distinctiveness, endemicity, or threatened species). Furthermore, little is known of the extent of spatial congruency between biodiversity measures in the marine realm. Here, we used the distribution maps of all known marine sharks, rays, and chimaeras (class Chondrichthyes) to examine the extent of spatial congruency across the hotspots of three measures of species richness: total number of species, evolutionarily distinct species, and endemic species. We assessed the spatial congruency between hotspots considering all species, as well as on the subset of the threatened species only. We consider three definitions of hotspot (2.5%, 5%, and 10% of cells with the highest numbers of species) and three levels of spatial resolution (1°, 4°, and 8° grid cells). Overall, we found low congruency among all three measures of species richness, with the threatened species comprising a smaller subset of the overall species patterns irrespective of hotspot definition. Areas of congruency at 1° and 5% richest cells contain over half (64%) of all sharks and rays and occurred off the coasts of: (1) Northern Mexico Gulf of California, (2) USA Gulf of Mexico, (3) Ecuador, (4) Uruguay and southern Brazil, (5) South Africa, southern Mozambique, and southern Namibia, (6) Japan, Taiwan, and parts of southern China, and (7) eastern and western Australia. Coarsening resolution increases congruency two-fold for all species but remains relatively low for threatened measures, and geographic locations of congruent areas also change. Finally, for pairwise comparisons of biodiversity measures, evolutionarily distinct species richness had the highest overlap with total species richness regardless of resolution or definition of hotspot. We suggest that focusing conservation attention solely on areas of high total species richness will not necessarily contribute efforts towards species that are most at risk, nor will it protect other important dimensions of species richness.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235631, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As new combinations of interventions aiming at interrupting malaria transmission are under evaluation, understanding the associated economic costs and benefits is critical for decision-making. This study assessed the economic cost and cost-effectiveness of the Magude project, a malaria elimination initiative implemented in a district in southern Mozambique (i.e. Magude) between August 2015-June 2018. This project piloted a combination of two mass drug administration (MDA) rounds per year for two consecutive years, annual rounds of universal indoor residual spraying (IRS) and a strengthened surveillance and response system on the back of universal long-lasting insecticide treated net (LLIN) coverage and routine case management implemented by the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP). Although local transmission was not interrupted, the project achieved large reductions in the burden of malaria in the target district. METHODS: We collected weekly economic data, estimated costs from the project implementer perspective and assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) associated with the Magude project as compared to routine malaria control activities, the counterfactual. We estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for malaria cases and deaths and assessed the variation of the ICER over time to capture the marginal costs and effectiveness associated with subsequent phases of project implementation. We used deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to account for uncertainty and built an alternative scenario by assuming the implementation of the interventions from a governmental perspective. Economic costs are provided in constant US$2015. RESULTS: After three years, the Magude project averted a total of 3,171 DALYs at an incremental cost of $2.89 million and an average yearly cost of $20.7 per targeted person. At an average cost of $19.4 per person treated per MDA round, the social mobilization and distribution of door-to-door MDA contributed to 53% of overall resources employed, with personnel and logistics being the main cost drivers. The ICER improved over time as a result of decreasing costs and improved effectiveness. The overall ICER was $987 (CI95% 968-1,006) per DALY averted, which is below the standard cost-effectiveness (CE) threshold of $1,404/DALY averted, three times the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of Mozambique, but above the threshold of interventions considered highly cost-effective (one time the GDP per capita or $468/DALY averted) and above the recently suggested thresholds based on the health opportunity cost ($537 purchasing power parity/ DALY averted). A significantly lower ICER was obtained in the implementation scenario from a governmental perspective ($441/DALY averted). CONCLUSION: Despite the initial high costs and volume of resources associated with its implementation, MDA in combination with other existing malaria control interventions, can be a cost-effective strategy to drastically reduce transmission in areas of low to moderate transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. However, further studies are needed to understand the capacity of the health system and financial affordability to scale up such strategies at regional or national level.

13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(6): 614-622, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683352

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rickettsia are Gram-negative and obligate intracellular bacteria, which cause typhus and spotted fever-like diseases in humans. In Africa, Rickettsia africae of the Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia (SFGR) is the etiologic agent of the African Tick-Bite Fever. The disease is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma, which serve as vectors and reservoirs of Rickettsia. In this study, we aimed to detect Rickettsia species in ticks collected from cattle in south and central Mozambique. METHODOLOGY: DNA from 412 adult ticks and 22 pools of larvae were extracted and tested for the presence of Rickettsia genes gltA, ompA and ompB by PCR, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that in adult ticks, 79.5% (n = 330), 66% (n = 274) and 67% (n = 275) samples were positive for gltA, ompA and ompB genes, respectively. Among the 22 pools of larvae analysed, 77.2% (n = 17) were positive for the three genes tested. The infection rates ranged from 43% to 100% for Rickettsia by gltA in all locations studied, with maximum values of 100% observed in the districts of Maputo province namely Changalane, Boane and Matutuine district. The phylogenetic analysis of amplified sequences revealed that samples under study grouped with R. africae for the 3 genes. CONCLUSION: The study showed that Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia represented by R. africae widely circulate in Amblyomma ticks collected in south and central regions of Mozambique.

14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1183, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic misuse and other types of unnecessary use of antibiotics can contribute to accelerate the process of antibiotic resistance, which is considered a global concern, mostly affecting low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). In Mozambique there is limited evidence on community knowledge and practices regarding antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. As part of the ABACUS project, this paper describes knowledge and practices of antibiotic use among the general population in the semi-rural district of Manhiça to inform evidence-based communication intervention strategies for safer antibiotic use. METHODS: The study was conducted in Manhiça, a semi-rural district of Southern Mozambique. Sixteen in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with community members to explore lay knowledge and practices regarding antibiotics and awareness of antibiotic resistance. The qualitative data was analysed using a combination of content and thematic analysis. The SRQR guidelines for reporting qualitative studies was performed. RESULTS: Although participants did not hold any consistent knowledge of antibiotics, their visual recognition of amoxicillin (distinct red yellow capsule) was acceptable, but less so for different types and brands of antibiotics. The majority of participants were aware of the term 'antibiotic', yet the definition they gave was rarely backed by biomedical knowledge. Participants associated antibiotics with certain colours, shapes and health conditions. Participants reported common habits that may contribute to resistance: not buying the full course, self-medication, sharing medicines and interruption of treatment. Most had never heard of the term 'antibiotic resistance' but were familiar with the phenomenon. They often understood the term 'resistance' as treatment failure and likened 'resistance' to non-compliance, ineffective medication, disease resistance or to an inability of the physical body to respond to it. CONCLUSION: There is a broad understanding of the importance of medication compliance but not specifically of antibiotic resistance. In addition, there is a recognized gap between knowledge of responsible drug compliance and actual behaviour. Future qualitative research is required to further explore what determines this behaviour. The existing ability to visually identify amoxicillin by its distinct red and yellow appearance is informative for future awareness and behavioural change campaigns that may incorporate visual aids of antibiotics.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706805

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite interventions by low and middle-income countries toward the achievement of the global Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) on promoting mental health and well-being of their populace by the year 2030, suicidal behaviours continue to be major causes of premature mortality, especially among young people. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of suicidal behaviours among in-school adolescents in Mozambique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 1918 in-school adolescents using data from the 2015 Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) of Mozambique. The outcome variables (suicidal ideation, suicidal plan, and suicidal attempt) were measured with single items in the survey. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using chi-square test of independence and binary logistic regression respectively. Results are presented as Adjusted Odds Ratios for the binary logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicidal behaviours 12 months prior to the survey were 17.7%, 19.6% and 18.5% for suicidal ideation, suicidal plan, and suicidal attempt respectively. Adolescents who experienced anxiety had higher odds of suicidal ideation [AOR = 1.616, 95%CI = 1.148-2.275], suicidal plan [AOR = 1.507, 95%CI = 1.077-2.108], and suicidal attempt [AOR = 1.740, 95%CI = 1.228-2.467]. Adolescents who were physically attacked in school were also more likely to ideate [AOR = 1.463, 95%CI = 1.115-1.921], plan [AOR = 1.328, 95%CI = 1.020-1.728], and attempt [AOR = 1.701, 95%CI = 1.306-2.215] suicide. Having close friends was, however, an important protective factor against suicidal ideation [AOR = 0.694, 95%CI = 0.496-0.971], plan [AOR = 0.625, 95%CI = 0.455-0.860], and attempt [AOR = 0.529, 95%CI = 0.384-0.729]. Peer support also reduced the risk of suicidal ideation [AOR = 0.704, 95%CI = 0.538,0.920] and plan [AOR = 0.743, 95%CI = 0.572,0.966] among the in-school adolescents. CONCLUSION: Suicidal behaviours constitute major public health challenges among in-school adolescents in Mozambique. The behaviours are predominant among adolescents who are physically attacked and those who experience anxiety. Conversely, having close friends serves as a protective factor against suicidal behaviours. To ensure that Mozambique meets the SDG target of promoting the mental health of all by the year 2030, the Government of Mozambique and educational authorities should urgently design and implement innovative interventions and strengthen existing ones that seek to address physical attacks and anxiety among in-school adolescents. School administrations should also incorporate programmes that seek to congregate students and offer platforms for social interaction and cohesion.

16.
J Aging Phys Act ; : 1-5, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723929

RESUMO

Time spent in different Physical Activity (PA) Intensities of 72 Mozambican older adult women (67 ± 7 years old) was assessed by means of triaxial accelerometers for 7 consecutive days, and participants were stratified based on their body mass index, as being normal weight (NW, n = 23); overweight (n = 16); or obese (OB, n = 33). Overall, most daily time was spent in sedentary activities (614 ± 111 min or 69.1%) and light PA (181 ± 56 min or 20.2%). On average, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was performed during 10.6% of the day (93 ± 44 min). Time spent in MVPA was significantly higher in the NW compared to OB category (112.8 ± 51.5 vs. 81.0 ± 36.3; p = .021). The overweight group did not differ in time spent in MVPA when compared to NW and OB group. Overall, 75% of the participants spent more than 60 min a day in MVPA (NW: 83%; overweight: 81%; OB: 67%). Pearson's correlation between body mass index and total MVPA controlling for age was -.39 (p < .001). It was concluded that Mozambican older adult women living in urban and rural areas of Maputo province engaged in relatively high Physical Activity Intensities compared with individuals of similar ages in high-income countries, regardless of their nutritional status.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687514

RESUMO

Banana is an important food crop and source of income in Africa. Sustainable production of banana, however, is at risk because of pests and diseases such as Fusarium wilt, caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Foc can be disseminated from infested to disease-free fields in plant material, water and soil. Early detection of Foc using DNA technologies is thus required to accurately identify the fungus and prevent its further dissemination with plants, soil and water. In this study, quantitative (q)PCR assays were developed for the detection of Foc Lineage VI strains found in central and eastern Africa (Foc races 1 and 2), Foc TR4 (vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) 01213/16) that is present in Mozambique, and Foc STR4 (VCG 0120/15) that occurs in South Africa. A collection of 127 fungal isolates were selected for specificity testing, including endophytic Fusarium isolates from banana pseudostems, non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strains and Foc isolates representing the 24 VCGs in Foc. Primer sets that proved to be specific to Foc Lineage VI, Foc TR4 and Foc STR4 were used to produce standard curves for absolute quantification, and the qPCR assays were evaluated based on the quality of standard curves, repeatability and reproducibility, and limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD). The qPCR assays for Foc Lineage VI, TR4 and STR4 were repeatable and reproducible, with LOQ values of 10-3-10-4 ng/µL and a LOD of 10-4-10-5 ng/µL. The quantitative detection of Foc strains in Africa could reduce the time and improve the accuracy for identifying the Fusarium wilt pathogen from plants, water and soil on the continent.

18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008419, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603325

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a human pathogen with a broad range of animal hosts. Initially, E. bieneusi was considered an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised, mainly HIV-infected patients, but it has been increasingly reported in apparently healthy individuals globally. As in other African countries, the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in Mozambique remains completely unknown. Therefore, we undertook a study to investigate the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi infections in children with gastrointestinal symptoms as well as in asymptomatic children in Mozambique. Individual stool specimens were collected from 1,247 children aged between 0 and 14 years-old living in urban and rural settings in Zambézia (n = 1,097) and Maputo (n = 150) provinces between 2016 and 2019. Samples were analysed for E. bieneusi by nested-PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. All positive amplicons were confirmed and genotyped. Penalised logistic regression (Firth) was used to evaluate risk associations. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in this children population was 0.7% (9/1,247). A 10-fold higher prevalence was found in Maputo (4.0%; 6/150) than in Zambézia (0.3%; 3/1,097). All E. bieneusi-positive samples were from children older than 1-year of age, and most (8/9) from asymptomatic children. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the ITS region revealed the presence of four genotypes, three previously reported (Peru11, n = 1; Type IV, n = 2, and S2, n = 2) and a novel genotype (named HhMzEb1, n = 4). Novel genotype HhMzEb1 was identified in both asymptomatic (75%, 3/4) and symptomatic (25%, 1/4) children from a rural area in Maputo province in southern Mozambique. Genotypes HhMzEb1, Peru11, S2, and Type IV belonged to the Group 1 that includes genotypes with low host specificity and the potential for zoonotic and cross-species transmission. Being infected by enteric protozoan parasites and no handwashing were identified as risk associations for E. bieneusi infection. This study reports the first investigation of E. bieneusi genotypes in Mozambique with the identification of three previously reported genotypes in humans as well as a novel genotype (HhMzEb1). Findings highlight the need to conduct additional research to elucidate the epidemiology of E. bieneusi in the country, especially in rural areas where poor hygiene conditions still prevail. Special attention should be paid to the identification of suitable animal and environmental reservoirs of this parasite and to the characterization of transmission pathways.

19.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 326, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) have been proposed as potentially tool for detecting invasive bacterial diseases. METHODS: We evaluated the use of DBS for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae detection among children in Mozambique. Blood for DBS and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected from children with pneumonia and healthy aged < 5 years. Bacterial detection and serotyping were performed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) (NP and DBS; lytA gene for pneumococcus and hpd for H. influenzae) and culture (NP). Combined detection rates were compared between children with pneumonia and healthy. RESULTS: Of 325 children enrolled, 205 had pneumonia and 120 were healthy. Pneumococci were detected in DBS from 20.5 and 64.2% of children with pneumonia and healthy, respectively; NP specimens were positive for pneumococcus in 80.0 and 80.8%, respectively. H. influenzae was detected in DBS from 22.9% of children with pneumonia and 59.2% of healthy; 81.4 and 81.5% of NP specimens were positive for H. influenzae, respectively. CONCLUSION: DBS detected pneumococcal and H. influenzae DNA in children with pneumonia and healthy. Healthy children were often DBS positive for both bacteria, suggesting that qPCR of DBS specimens does not differentiate disease from colonization and is therefore not a useful diagnostic tool for children.

20.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 31: 1-5, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634198

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With improved access to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) the focus of HIV treatment is changing to reducing chronic co-morbidities and their effects, but guidelines for HIV care in many African countries do not include screening for cardiac disease. Our study aimed to determine the pattern of cardiac abnormalities in HIV-positive patients on ART. METHODS: We implemented a prospective, observational study for 24 months on a random sample of adult patients seen at a dedicated HIV clinic in Mozambique. Demographic, clinical and full cardiovascular evaluations were performed on all participants. RESULTS: We enrolled 264 HIVvpositive patients (mean age 39.3 years; 186 female, 70.5%). The mean time on ART was 46 (SD 36) months and most had low viral load (174, 65%). Obesity (45, 17%), overweight (65, 24.6%), hypertension (54, 20.5%) and severe anaemia (21, 8.3%) were frequent. Diabetes was present in four patients (1.5%). The most important conditions in 252 patients submitted to echocardiography (88, 34.9% had cardiac abnormalities) were: severe rheumatic heart valve disease (six), severe dilated cardiomyopathy (five), aortic degenerative disease and congenital heart disease (in three patients each). At 24-month follow up, six of the 252 patients had died; of the 196 reviewed on echocardiography 29 had progressed and two had improved ventricular systolic function. CONCLUSION: This young cohort of HIV-positive patients on ART showed lower occurrence of tuberculous pericarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy but high cardiovascular risk, as assessed by the presence of obesity, hypertension and anaemia. Cardiac abnormalities needing multidisciplinary care were also found. There is a need for tailored cardiovascular risk stratification and screening for cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients on ART in Africa.

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