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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e431-e445, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing access to hepatitis C virus (HCV) care and treatment will require simplified service delivery models. We aimed to evaluate the effects of decentralisation and integration of testing, care, and treatment with harm-reduction and other services, and task-shifting to non-specialists on outcomes across the HCV care continuum. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, WHO Global Index Medicus, and conference abstracts for studies published between Jan 1, 2008, and Feb 20, 2018, that evaluated uptake of HCV testing, linkage to care, treatment, cure assessment, and sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR12) in people who inject drugs, people in prisons, people living with HIV, and the general population. Randomised controlled trials, non-randomised studies, and observational studies were eligible for inclusion. Studies with a sample size of ten or less for the largest denominator were excluded. Studies were categorised according to the level of decentralisation: full (testing and treatment at same site), partial (testing at decentralised site and referral elsewhere for treatment), or none. Task-shifting was categorised as treatment by specialists or non-specialists. Data on outcomes across the HCV care continuum (linkage to care, treatment uptake, and SVR12) were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: Our search identified 8050 reports, of which 132 met the eligibility criteria, and an additional ten reports were identified from reference citations and grey literature. Therefore, the final synthesis included 142 studies from 34 countries (20 [14%] studies from low-income and middle-income countries) and a total of 489 996 patients (239 446 [49%] from low-income and middle-income countries). Rates of linkage to care were higher with full decentralisation compared with partial or no decentralisation among people who inject drugs (full 72% [95% CI 57-85] vs partial 53% [38-67] vs none 47% [11-84]) and among people in prisons (full 94% [79-100] vs partial 50% [29-71]), although the CIs overlap for people who inject drugs. Similarly, treatment uptake was higher with full decentralisation compared with partial or no decentralisation (people who inject drugs: full 73% [65-80] vs partial 66% [55-77] vs none 35% [23-48]; people in prisons: full 72% [48-91] vs partial 39% [17-63]), although CIs overlap for full versus partial decentralisation. The results in the general population studies were more heterogeneous. SVR12 rates were high (≥90%) across different levels of decentralisation in all populations. Task-shifting of care and treatment to a non-specialist was associated with similar SVR12 rates to treatment delivered by specialists. There was a severe or critical risk of bias for 46% of studies, and heterogeneity across studies tended to be very high (I2>90%). INTERPRETATION: Decentralisation and integration of HCV care to harm-reduction sites or primary care showed some evidence of improved access to testing, linkage to care, and treatment, and task-shifting of care and treatment to non-specialists was associated with similarly high cure rates to care delivered by specialists, across a range of populations and settings. These findings provide support for the adoption of decentralisation and task-shifting to non-specialists in national HCV programmes. FUNDING: Unitaid.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Organizacionais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resposta Viral Sustentada
2.
Liver Int ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590608

RESUMO

Despite universal health coverage in France, migrants face specific socioeconomic barriers that increase the likelihood of a suboptimal cascade of care for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and impaired treatment effectiveness in this sub-population. We selected data collected from 2012 to 2018 from the ANRS CO22 HEPATHER prospective cohort study for chronic HCV participants with available data on treatment failure (defined as the presence of a detectable HCV-RNA load 12 weeks after their first DAA treatment ended). We performed multivariable Poisson regression models to test whether treatment failure rates differed significantly between HCV-infected migrants and non-migrants receiving DAA in France (cross-sectional analysis), while taking into account the former's world region of birth and other potential social vulnerability factors. Among the study population's 7,879 patients, 5,829 (74%) were non-migrants and 2,050 (26%) migrants. Median [interquartile range] age was 57 [51-65] years, 4433 (56%) were men and 369 (5%) of the entire study population had treatment failure. After multivariable adjustment, only migrants from Central Asia were at higher risk of treatment failure than non-migrants (aIRR = 2.83; 95% CI [1.72, 4.65]). Results from this large-scale study performed in France suggest a higher risk of DAA treatment failure in migrants from Central Asia than in non-migrants and confirm the overall low treatment failure rate in chronic HCV patients treated with DAA (whether migrants or not). Simplified models of care taking into account language and cultural barriers are needed to improve DAA effectiveness in migrants from Central Asia.

3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48035

RESUMO

Muitos países de baixa e renda reduziram o sofrimento causado pela hepatite C graças a um maior acesso a testes e tratamento


Assuntos
Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle
4.
Health (London) ; : 1363459320988887, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506718

RESUMO

Until recently, the only medical treatment available for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was interferon-based therapy, a notoriously long and arduous treatment with limited success. However, in December 2015, the Australian Government announced a scheme of 'universal access' to new, highly effective direct-acting antiviral therapies (DAAs). This article draws on in-depth interviews with community actors engaged in national and state-based drug user and viral hepatitis advocacy to trace how universal access to curative medicines affords revised notions of citizenship and social inclusion among people who inject drugs and others affected by HCV. To inform our analysis, we draw on and combine critical perspectives from the biological citizenship literature, particularly pharmaceutical citizenship, along with work on the concepts of 'publics and counterpublics'. We ask: what kinds of emergent HCV communities or publics are being enacted through our participant accounts in response to the new DAA-era of universal access, and what forms of citizenship and inclusion (or non-citizenship and exclusion) do they postulate? Some accounts indeed enacted treatment as an individual, sometimes collective, 'good': a citizenship potential. However, a number of accounts enacted situated limits to a straightforward actualisation of this potential, performing a model of public health governance that prioritised viral cure whilst rendering injecting drug use and its attendant social disadvantages an absent presence. Reconceptualising HCV treatment within a counterpublic health sensibility would, by engaging with the everyday health needs and aspirations of people living with HCV in conditions of social disadvantage, create space for new social inclusions and citizenships.

5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402334

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has resulted in a myriad of interventions with the urgent aim of reducing the public health impact of this virus. However, a wealth of evidence both from high-income and low-income countries is accruing on the broader consequences of such interventions on economic and public health inequalities, as well as on pre-existing programmes targeting endemic pathogens. We provide an overview of the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on hepatitis B virus (HBV) programmes globally, focusing on the possible consequences for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Ongoing disruptions to infrastructure, supply chains, services and interventions for HBV are likely to contribute disproportionately to the short-term incidence of chronic hepatitis B, providing a long-term source of onward transmission to future generations that threatens progress towards the 2030 elimination goals.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite B , Pandemias , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/terapia , Hepatite B/transmissão , Humanos
6.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 55(1): 77-83, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250999

RESUMO

GOALS: To determine the proportion and characteristics of adults with hepatitis C at health care organizations in 4 US states who initiated direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). BACKGROUND: There are almost no data to assess the penetrance of treatment of the hepatitis C population in general US health care settings. STUDY: We conducted a prospective observational study using electronic clinical, pharmacy, and mortality data to determine the fraction of patients who initiated DAAs between January 2014 and December 2017, by start date and regimen. We used stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with receipt of DAAs. RESULTS: Of 8823 patients, 2887 (32.7%) received DAAs. Quarterly (Q) uptake ranged from 1.1% in Q3 2014 to a high of 5.6% in Q2 2015. Characteristics associated with receipt of DAAs included age 51 to 70 years, higher income, pre-2014 treatment failure, and higher noninvasive fibrosis score (FIB4); however, over one half of patients with FIB4 scores >3.25, consistent with severe liver disease, were not treated. A lower likelihood of initiation was associated with Medicaid coverage. Of 5936 patients who did not initiate treatment, 911 (15.3%) had died and 2774 (46.7%) had not had a clinical encounter in ≥12 months by the end of the study. Fewer than 1% of DAA prescriptions originated from nonspecialty providers. CONCLUSIONS: During 4 calendar years of follow-up, one third of patients initiated DAAs. Large fractions of untreated patients had advanced liver disease, died, or were lost to follow-up. Even among patients in integrated health care systems, receipt of DAAs was limited.

8.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247820

RESUMO

Background Modern antiviral treatments have high cure rates against the hepatitis C virus however, the high cost associated with branded medicines and diagnostic tests, have resulted in poor access for many low-income patients residing in low-and-middle-income countries. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the role of a patient assistance programme and generic medicines in improving access to treatment of low-income hepatitis C patients in a low-and-middle-income country. Setting A major teaching public hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods Hepatitis C patients who presented and enrolled for the patient assistance programme during 12 months (1st July 2015 and 30th June 2016) were included. Demography, prescription characteristics, the total costs of Hepatitis C treatment, medicine cost supported by the programme, out-of-pocket cost borne by the patient and average cost effectiveness ratio per sustained virologic response were calculated and compared for different generic and branded regimens. Main outcome measure cost contribution of patient assistance programme. Results A total of 349 patients initiated the treatment through the programme and of those 334 (95.7%) completed the prescribed treatment. There were 294 (88.02%) patients who achieved sustained virologic response. Patient assistance programme contributed medicines cost averaging 60.28-86.26% of the total cost of treatment ($1634.6) per patient. The mean (SE) cost per patient for generic option (Sofosbuvir/Ribavirin) was the lowest [$658.36 (22.3) per patient, average cost effectiveness ratio = $720.1/SVR] than branded option (Sovaldi/Ribavirin) [$2218.66 (37.6) per patient, average cost effectiveness ratio = $2361.8/SVR] of the three available treatment regimens. From patients' perspectives, the mean (SE) out-of-pocket cost was $296.9 (6.7) which primarily included diagnostic cost (69.9%) of the total cost. Conclusions Patient assistance programme, combined with generic brands of newer hepatitis C treatment offered a significant reduction in cost and widens access to hepatitis C treatment in low-and middle-income countries. However, substantial out-of-pocket costs of the treatment presents an important barrier for service access. There is a scope to widen such financial assistance programme to offer other costs attributed to patients, specifically for diagnosis, to widen service use in low-and-middle-income countries.

9.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 8(5): 362-366, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163191

RESUMO

Background: Universal vaccination for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and migratory movements have changed the demographic characteristics of this disease in Spain and in Europe. Therefore, we evaluated the characteristics of the disease and the possible differences according to origin (immigrants vs non-immigrants) and access to treatment. Methods: This is a multicenter cross-sectional study (June 2014 to May 2015) in which outpatients with a positive HBsAg were seen and followed in four Hepatology units. Demographic and clinical data and indication and access to treatment were collected in two different regions of Catalonia (Spain) where there are no barriers to treatment due to a comprehensive coverage under the National Health System. Results: A total of 951 patients were evaluated (48.1% men). Of these, 46.6% were immigrants (58.7% of them were born in Africa) and were significantly younger compared to non-immigrants. The proportions of patients with alcohol consumption, being overweight, and other indicators of metabolic co-morbidities were significantly higher in non-immigrants. Among the 937 patients receiving HBeAg examination, 91.7% were HBeAg-negative. Chronic HBeAg-positive infection was significantly higher in immigrants (3.9% vs 0.6%, P = 0.001) and chronic HBeAg-negative hepatitis was higher non-immigrants (31.7% vs 21.4%, P < 0.001). Not only was the proportion of patients who met treatment criteria significantly higher among non-immigrants (38.4% vs 29.2%, P = 0.003), but also the proportion of those with indication of effectively receiving therapy at the time of data collection (83.2% vs 57.8 %, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The immigrant population with HBV is younger and has a lower prevalence of metabolic co-morbidities and a higher frequency of chronic HBeAg infection. Despite having access to care and an indication for treatment, some do not get adequately treated due to several factors including local adaptation that precludes access to treatment.

10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(10): 1197-1203, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175717

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Currently, several molecular assays are available to detect and quantify HBV DNA in clinical samples. We aimed to characterize and compare the clinical performance of newly designed NeuMoDx PCR to the existing artus PCR. METHODOLOGY: The plasma HBV DNA levels of 96 clinical and 5 external quality control samples were measured by NeuMoDx and artus assays simultaneously in Kocaeli University, Turkey. The linearity, agreement and the correlation between two assays were determined by Deming regression analysis, Bland-Altman plotting, the chi-square and the relative absolute error statistical analyzes. For all statistical analyzes, the XLSTAT statistical program was used. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation; SD) age was 45.07 ± 12.29. HBsAg S/Co median (range) was 4,273.4 ± 1,138.1 and ALT U/L median (range) was 27 ± 16. The mean (SD) of HBV DNA was 1.46+E6 ± 1.0+E4 for NeuMoDx and 1.54+E5 ± 4.7 + E4 for artus assays. The Deming regression indicates a linear correlation (95% confidence). The chi-square test indicates strong correlation (p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis confirms that the measurement difference is acceptable. The relative absolute error analysis for artus showed relatively less and more consistent error rate. With 5 external quality check samples, the statistical significance was low (p = 0.566). CONCLUSIONS: The NeuMoDx HBV assay showed an excellent analytical performance by providing a rapid, high throughput technology in a random-access testing system in clinical samples and may be a new solution for viral load quantification in the management of HBV infections.

14.
Int J Drug Policy ; 83: 102837, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645585

RESUMO

Background Monitoring the hepatitis C virus (HCV) cascade of care (CoC) among people who inject drugs (PWID) is an essential component of the response to World Health Organisation's (WHO) hepatitis elimination goals. This study aimed to estimate the Consensus hepatitis C CoC among PWID using data collected in Australia prior to and after the introduction of unrestricted direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in March 2016. Methods The Australian Needle Syringe Program Survey is a cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveillance system that recruits >2000 PWID annually. Using data from 2015 and 2019, HCV antibody and ribonucleic acid (RNA) test results from dried blood spots were combined with self-reported data on HCV diagnostic testing and treatment to project HCV Consensus CoC indicators at a population-level among Australian PWID. Results Among an estimated 75,000 people who inject drugs on a regular basis in Australia, the number with active HCV infection declined from 32,619 (44%) in October 2015 to 12,679 (17%) in October 2019. The majority (78% in 2015 and 2019) of PWID reported HCV diagnosis, while the proportion of those diagnosed who were treated increased from 3% in 2015 to 47% in 2019. Among those treated, the proportion who were HCV RNA negative and assumed to have been successfully treated (cured), increased from 27% in 2015 to 88% in 2019. Conclusion This study demonstrates remarkable HCV CoC progress among PWID in Australia following availability of DAA therapy. There was a substantial increase in the proportion of HCV diagnosed PWID who initiated treatment and were cured, while the number of PWID with active HCV infection more than halved over a 3.5 year period. Estimates of the Consensus hepatitis C CoC among PWID is required to monitor progress toward WHO HCV elimination goals.

15.
Singapore Med J ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729280

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Linkage to care among people with substance misuse remains a barrier to the elimination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We aimed to determine if point-of-care (PoC) education, screening and staging for liver disease with direct access to hospitals would improve linkage to care among this group. METHODS: All participants were offered PoC education and HCV screening. HCV-positive participants were randomised to standard care (controls) or direct access, which provided a direct pathway to hospitals. Linkage to care was determined by reviewing electronic medical records. Linkage of care cascade was defined as attendance at the specialist clinic, confirmation of viraemia by HCV RNA testing, discussion about HCV treatment and initiation of treatment. RESULTS: 351 halfway house residents were screened. The overall HCV prevalence was 30.5% (n = 107), with 69 residents in the control group and 38 in the direct access group. The direct access group had a significantly higher percentage of cases linked to specialist review for confirmatory RNA testing (63.2% vs. 40.6%, p = 0.025), HCV treatment discussion (p = 0.009) and treatment initiation (p = 0.01) compared to the controls. Overall, only 12.6% (n = 13) had treatment initiation during follow-up. PoC HCV screening with direct access referral had significantly higher linkage to HCV treatment initiation (adjusted odds ratio 9.13, p = 0.005) in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: PoC HCV screening with direct access improves linkage to care and simplifies the HCV care cascade, leading to improved treatment uptake. PoC education, screening, diagnosis and treatment may be an effective strategy to achieving HCV micro-elimination in this population.

16.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization estimates that 257 million people suffer from chronic infection by the hepatitis B (HB) virus. It is common for diagnosis to be delayed or never given at all. In Spain, immigrants that come from endemic areas present a prevalence of infection of around 8%. In the year 2015, this study was begun with the aiml of improving accessibility to hepatitis B diagnoses in immigrant communities. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study was carried out, based on participatory action research (IAP). It was divided into two cycles: in the first cycle, after forming a motor group (GIAP), a participatory community assessment (DCP) was performed with the population, through a descriptive-interpretative qualitative study (ECDI) with 3 focal groups (n=17). A narrative analysis was then performed of thematic content. In the second cycle, two collaborative workshops (coworking) were held to create an educational tool (HEPARJOC) and to co-create an action plan (PDA). As a pilot test, the PDA was put into practice through eight workshops (n=56). A knowledge questionnaire was used to compare the median number of correct responses before and after the workshop, using the t of Student for paired data. RESULTS: A GIAP was formed with 8 members of different sectors and community spaces. In the DCP it was observed that there was a lack of knowledge about different aspects of hepatitis B. Visual, interactive materials were proposed as educational tools, and "HEPARJOC" was created as the final product. In the pilot test of the PDA, the median of correct responses to the knowledge questionnaire about HB was 7.7 (DE=3) before the workshop, and 10.6 (DE=0.2) afterward. The improvement of the median was 2.9 points (IC 95% 2.2-3.6), which is statistically significant (p<0.001). 30 people sought screening (53.6% of participants), and 23 of those people were screened (41% of participants). CONCLUSIONS: "HEPARJOC-ACTUA" is a strategy that could contribute to transforming knowledge and improving accessibility to hepatitis B diagnosis in immigrant communities. Key words: Infectious diseases, hepatitis B, community health, community health agents, health education, participatory action research, immigration. Key words: Infectious.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C elimination will require widespread access to treatment and responses at the health-service level to increase testing among populations at risk. We explored changes in hepatitis C testing and the cascade of care before and after the introduction of direct-acting antiviral treatments in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: De-identified clinical data were retrospectively extracted from eighteen primary care clinics providing services targeted towards people who inject drugs. We explored hepatitis C testing within three-year periods immediately prior to (pre-DAA period) and following (post-DAA period) universal access to DAA treatments on 1st March 2016. Among ever RNA-positive individuals, we constructed two care cascades at the end of the pre-DAA and post-DAA periods. RESULTS: The number of individuals HCV-tested was 13,784 (12.2% of those with a consultation) in the pre-DAA period and 14,507 (10.4% of those with a consultation) in the post-DAA period. The pre-DAA care cascade included 2,515 RNA-positive individuals; 1,977 (78.6%) were HCV viral load/genotype tested; 19 (0.8%) were prescribed treatment; and 12 had evidence of cure (0.5% of those RNA-positive and 63.6% of those eligible for cure). The post-DAA care cascade included 3,713 RNA-positive individuals; 3,276 (88.2%) were HCV viral load/genotype tested; 1,674 (45.1%) were prescribed treatment; and 863 had evidence of cure (23.2% of those RNA-positive and 94.9% of those eligible for cure). CONCLUSION: Marked improvements in the cascade of hepatitis C care among patients attending primary care clinics were observed following the universal access of DAA treatments in Australia, although improvements in testing were less pronounced.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(6): 904-915, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490325

RESUMO

Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, but drug resistance could undermine proposed global elimination targets. Real-world studies are needed to inform the impact of widespread DAA treatment on antiviral resistance in the community. The prevalence and range of posttreatment resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) was determined in Australian patients with open access to DAAs through a wide range of prescribers. NS3, NS5A, and NS5B regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by population sequencing. Clinically relevant RASs were identified using online databases (ReCALL and Geno2Pheno[hcv]). Of 572 samples, 60% were from genotype 3 and 27% from genotype 1a. Ninety-two percent of people failed a DAA regimen containing an NS5A inhibitor, including 10% with a pangenotype regimen. NS5A RASs were detected in 72% of people with genotype 1 and 80% with genotype 3. For genotype 1, there was a range of RASs across the NS5A region, while for genotype 3, the Y93H RAS predominated (72%). The prevalence of NS3 RASs was higher in people exposed to an NS3 inhibitor (35% vs. 3.9%; P < 0.0001). NS5B resistance was rare, with a single case of sofosbuvir resistance. Multiclass drug resistance was found in 33% of people exposed to both NS3 and NS5A inhibitors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of NS5A RASs among people failing DAA therapy reinforces the importance of specific retreatment regimens, ideally guided by resistance testing. The impact of multiclass drug resistance on retreatment in people exposed to both NS3 and NS5A inhibitors needs to be assessed in real-world studies. Surveillance for increasing antiviral resistance during treatment scale-up is essential to maintain the efficacy of current DAA regimens.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 946, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are increasingly accessible to patients with hepatitis C (HCV) worldwide and are being introduced through national health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. DAAs are highly efficacious when tested in controlled trials, yet patients treated outside of study settings often encounter challenges in completing the full treatment and follow-up sequence. Little information is available on the influences of successful DAA implementation in sub-Saharan Africa. This qualitative study explored the individual- and system-level barriers and enablers of DAA treatment in Rwanda between March 2015 and November 2017. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 39 patients who initiated care at one of four referral hospitals initially offering DAAs. Ten healthcare providers who managed HCV treatment participated in face-to-face interviews to examine system-level barriers and facilitators. Interview data were analyzed using a general inductive approach in alignment with the a priori objective of identifying barriers and facilitators of HCV care. RESULTS: Barriers to successful treatment included patients' lack of knowledge surrounding HCV and its treatment; financial burdens associated with paying for medication, laboratory testing, and transportation; the cumbersome nature of the care pathway; the relative inaccessibility of diagnostics technology; and heavy workloads of healthcare providers accompanied by a need for additional HCV-specific training. Patients and healthcare providers were highly aligned on individual- and system-level barriers to care. The positive patient-provider relationship, strong support from community and family members, lack of stigma, and mild side effect profile of DAAs all positively influenced patients' engagement in treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Several interrelated factors acted as barriers and facilitators to DAA treatment in Rwanda. Patients' and healthcare providers' perceptions were in agreement, suggesting that the impeding and enabling factors were well understood by both groups. These results can be used to enact evidence-informed interventions to help maximize the impact of DAAs as Rwanda moves towards HCV elimination.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Idoso , Atitude , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/virologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ruanda , Estigma Social , Carga de Trabalho
20.
Int J Drug Policy ; 81: 102766, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments have led to the introduction of policy changes that include, in some settings, universal coverage of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for people living with HCV. However, people who inject drugs (PWID), a population with disproportionately high rates of HCV, often experience significant social and structural barriers to care, including when seeking treatment and care for blood-borne viruses. The objective of this study is to identify implementation challenges and opportunities for improving HCV-related care and scaling up DAA treatment for PWID living with HCV in a setting with universal DAA coverage since 2018. METHODS: Informed by a critical interpretive framework, this study thematically analyzes data from in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted between October 2018 and February 2019 with a purposive sample of 15 expert stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, community-based organization representatives, policy makers) related to HCV care or research in British Columbia, Canada. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed two key thematics: First, participants described existing challenges for scaling up DAA treatment, including how contextual factors (e.g., housing, stigma) restrict opportunities for PWID to engage in care. Participants also described how strained and compartmentalized health services are onerous to navigate for patients. Second, participants described opportunities for improving HCV-related care through various structural interventions (e.g., improved housing, decriminalization of substance use), and enhanced and more accessible models of care (e.g., decentralized, integrated, outreach-focused, and peer- and nurse-led services). CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize that several key service delivery and system-level adaptations are required in order to equitably scale up access of DAAs to PWID living with HCV, including policies and programs that are responsive to socio-structural determinants of health.

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