Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 777
Filtrar
1.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(5): 846-854, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746791

RESUMO

This study proposes a technology conceived based on an integrative approach that aims to promote phosphorus recovery and to recycle ferric water treatment sludge (FWTS), using it as a phosphorus adsorbent which may be applied as a soil ameliorant after reaching saturation. The assessed pilot plant operated with a daily influent flow of 360 litres and presented a removal efficiency of 94.4% ± 3.2% for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and of 91.2% ± 7.8% for suspended solids. It also presented promising results for phosphorus removal. The maximum efficiency of dissolved reactive phosphorus removal was 95% on the first day and it decreased until reaching adsorbent saturation. The estimated breakthrough time was one year in the condition in which the filling medium of a second constructed wetland was only FWTS. In this situation, the effluent phosphorus concentration was 0.2 mg·L-1. The authors concluded that the application of FWTS in a constructed wetland bed is an interesting alternative. Batch adsorption experiments were run using phosphorus stock solution. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were obtained for different initial pH values. The maximum adsorption capacity decreased as the initial pH was increased; values ranged from 4.76 mg P·g-1 (pH = 3.9) to 1.44 mg P·g-1 (pH = 9.0).


Assuntos
Esgotos , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Fósforo , Áreas Alagadas
2.
Health Phys ; 117(6): 680-687, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652209

RESUMO

Lutetium-177 dotatate, marketed under the name Lutathera®, is proving to be a valuable tool for physicians treating patients with neuroendocrine somatostatin-receptive tumors. Treatment consists of four cycles of 7.4 GBq of Lu dotatate infused intravenously over 30 to 40 minutes. This paper focuses on the radiation safety implications of patients undergoing Lu dotatate treatments at two large medical centers in the United States under the manufacturer's Expanded Access Protocol. Radiation safety precautions are described for the treatment of patients to control for radiation exposure and potential contamination. Ideally, the room used for administration should have a toilet, or one that is in close proximity, and covering should be provided to minimize contamination and clean up. The patient will meet the requirements in 10 CFR Part 35.75 for immediate release based on administered activity or measured exposure rate, but will need to be provided with written instruction on how to keep doses to other individuals ALARA. Disposal of the radioactive waste from Lu dotatate therapy can present some hazard control issues due to the long-lived Lu contaminant.Based on our experience, Lu dotatate therapy is an effective outpatient procedure that can safely occur in any hospital procedural room without the need for additional local shielding. Administration can be accomplished safely with attention paid to the administration set-up and proper administration procedures. Exposure to staff or to adjacent areas is minimal.

3.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 40(8): 651-653, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626073

RESUMO

CASE: Kevin is a 12-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability (nonverbal IQ scores in mid-40s), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who has been followed up by a developmental-behavioral pediatrician (DBP) and a child psychologist for medication and behavioral management since he was 4 years old. Kevin was placed in the care of his great-great-aunt shortly after he turned 2 years of age because of concerns of neglect. She is now his legal guardian.Kevin is predominately nonverbal but does use a few single words to make requests or label items. He attends a public school and receives full-time special education support. He has a personal care assistant (PCA) who provides in-home support 5 to 6 days/wk for 3 to 4 hours at a time. The PCA is working on toilet training, using a "clock-training" approach, and also takes Kevin outdoors to play or on short outings during her visits. In his free time, Kevin prefers to watch cooking shows on television.Over the past year, Kevin's behaviors have become more concerning. There have been several episodes of Kevin waking up during the early morning hours and going to the kitchen to "cook." After one of these episodes, his guardian was not aware that Kevin had woken up until the next morning when she found a concoction of corn starch, coffee grounds, cottage cheese, and powdered drink mix in the blender. Kevin had also woken up during the night and ventured out of the house into the back yard. His guardian had woken up immediately as the alarm system sounded when he opened the outer door from the house to the yard.A door alarm was added to Kevin's bedroom door so that his guardian would be alerted when he leaves his bedroom; however, the alarm is not used consistently because there are times when the alarm cannot be found at bedtime. Kevin's guardian was able to obtain a GPS device for him to wear on his shoe from the local police department. He wears this without resistance every day.Kevin's guardian is in her mid-70s, and she has had several health issues over the past 2 to 3 years. There are no other family members who are willing or able to care for Kevin if his guardian were no longer able to. The DBP and child psychologist have encouraged Kevin's guardian to explore long-term residential care options with the state agency that provides support for individuals with intellectual disabilities and with Kevin's insurance provider, but the guardian is very reluctant to do this. She fears that Kevin will be removed from her care or placed in a "home" where someone will "do bad things to him."What else would you recommend or actions would you take to support Kevin's guardian in ensuring Kevin's safety and planning for his future care?

4.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651620

RESUMO

CASE: Kevin is a 12-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability (nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in mid-40s), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who has been followed by a developmental-behavioral pediatrician (DBP) and a child psychologist for medication and behavioral management since he was 4 years old. Kevin was placed in the care of his great-great-aunt shortly after he turned 2 years of age because of concerns of neglect. She is now his legal guardian.Kevin is predominately nonverbal but does use a few single words to make requests or label items. He attends a public school and receives full-time special education support. He has a personal care assistant (PCA) who provides in-home support 5 to 6 days/wk for 3 to 4 hours at a time. The PCA is working on toilet training, using a "clock-training" approach, and also takes Kevin outdoors to play or on short outings during her visits. In his free time, Kevin prefers to watch cooking shows on television.Over the past year, Kevin's behaviors have become more concerning. There have been several episodes of Kevin waking up during the early morning hours and going to the kitchen to "cook." After one of these episodes, his guardian was not aware that Kevin had woken up until the next morning when she found a concoction of corn starch, coffee grounds, cottage cheese, and powdered drink mix in the blender. Kevin had also woken up during the night and ventured out of the house into the back yard. His guardian had woken up immediately as the alarm system sounded when he opened the outer door from the house to the yard.A door alarm was added to Kevin's bedroom door so that his guardian would be alerted when he leaves his bedroom; however, the alarm is not used consistently because there are times when the alarm cannot be found at bedtime. Kevin's guardian was able to obtain a Global Positioning System (GPS) device for him to wear on his shoe from the local police department. He wears this without resistance every day.Kevin's guardian is in her mid-70s, and she has had several health issues over the past 2 to 3 years. There are no other family members who are willing or able to care for Kevin if his guardian were no longer able to. The DBP and child psychologist have encouraged Kevin's guardian to explore long-term residential care options with the state agency that provides support for individuals with intellectual disabilities and with Kevin's insurance provider, but the guardian is very reluctant to do this. She fears that Kevin will be removed from her care or placed in a "home" where someone will "do bad things to him."What else would you recommend or actions would you take to support Kevin's guardian in ensuring Kevin's safety and planning for his future care?

5.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mirabegron, a ß3-adrenoreceptor agonist, is an alternative drug to antimuscarinics for overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To summarise safety and efficacy reporting of mirabegron treatment for OAB symptoms. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Pooled data analysed from 10 phase 2-4, double-blind, 12-wk mirabegron monotherapy studies in adults with OAB who had received one or more doses of study drug. INTERVENTION: Mirabegron: 25 and 50mg; antimuscarinics: solifenacin (2.5, 5, and 10mg) and tolterodine extended release (4mg). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Baseline OAB-related characteristics, intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and analyses by age (<65 vs ≥65yr and <75 vs ≥75yr) and sex were assessed. Solifenacin 2.5 and 10mg groups were not included in the efficacy analyses (small patient numbers). Safety was evaluated using the proportion of treatment-emergent adverse events. Efficacy variables were derived from bladder diaries (baseline and week 12). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Baseline hypertension and diabetes were more frequent across treatment groups in the older versus younger age groups and in men versus women. Within sexes, frequencies were similar between treatment groups. Some differences were observed in baseline characteristics, including type of incontinence and medical history between sexes. No previously unreported safety concerns were identified. Improvements in efficacy (mean number of incontinence episodes/24h, micturitions/24h, urgency episodes/24h, volume voided/micturition, and nocturia episodes) versus placebo were observed in all treatment groups. Significant treatment-by-subgroup interactions included change from baseline in the mean number of incontinence episodes/24h by age (<65 vs ≥65yr), nocturia by age (<65 vs ≥65yr and <75 vs ≥75yr), and urgency episodes by previous OAB medication. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this integrated database of 10 mirabegron studies reaffirm the safety and efficacy profiles of mirabegron, solifenacin, and tolterodine in adults of different age groups and sexes. PATIENT SUMMARY: Overactive bladder is a complex of symptoms including a compelling desire to pass urine that leads to increased frequency, which may lead to a degree of incontinence if you do not reach the toilet in time and may wake you from sleep. We pooled data from 10 different studies of mirabegron in patients with overactive bladder symptoms, and looked at the effect in the total number of patients who received the treatment, as well as in different age groups and between men and women. No new safety concerns were identified, and mirabegron improved the symptoms of overactive bladder.

6.
Waste Manag ; 99: 42-48, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472439

RESUMO

This paper presents a novel development of sludge cellulose plastic composite (SPC) in line with the circular economy concept by using recovered sludge cellulose from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Bearing the aim of replacing the wood in wood plastic composite (WPC) with sludge cellulose, WPC was developed in parallel for determining the substitution potentials. In order to maximise the integration of properties, maleic anhydride (MA) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) coupling agents were employed to refine the interfacial bonding of both SPC and WPC. In line with the main aim of circular economy - to decouple the economic value from the environmental impact, eco-efficiency analysis was performed for the developed process. The results showed that the tensile and flexural strength of the composites were substantially enhanced after both treatments, while MA appeared to be more efficient than VTMS in the refinery of interfacial bonding. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis confirmed the improvement of interface by identifying well embedded and firmly bonded wood flour or sludge cellulose in the matrix. WPC was marginally more thermally stable than SPC, while SPC suggested comparable flexural properties. Eco-efficiency assessment results showed that the SPC had better environmental and economic performance than the WPC. The latter turns sludge cellulose as a promising sustainable alternative to wood or natural fibres in the production of WPC.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Madeira , Celulose , Reciclagem , Esgotos
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(1): 153-163, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461432

RESUMO

In this study, an artificial wetland filler matrix capable of effectively fixing phosphorus was prepared using a non-combustion process to save energy. To evaluate the adsorption performance of this filler, adsorption experiments were performed and the phosphorus adsorption mechanism characterization was studied. An alkaline environment was found to be conducive to the increase of adsorption capacity, but excessive alkalinity was not conducive to adsorption. Static adsorption experiments showed that the phosphorus removal rate could reach 95% in the simulated phosphorus-containing wastewater after adsorption completion. The adsorption process is closely simulated by the pseudo-second-kinetic adsorption model. The isothermal adsorption experiment data were consistent with the Langmuir and the Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The characterization results showed a large number of micropores and adsorption binding sites inside and on the surface of the filler. Speciation analysis on the adsorbed phosphorus revealed that chemisorption by calcium in this filler was the dominant adsorption mechanism. The research results of this study provide the basis and reference for the development of high-efficiency phosphorus removal filler in constructed wetlands.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Adsorção , Alumínio , Sulfato de Cálcio , Esgotos , Dióxido de Silício
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121863, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376664

RESUMO

This study examined the influence of the application of brewery spent grain (BSG) on biogas production efficiency as well as its kinetics in the co-digestion of acid cheese whey (ACW) and sewage sludge (SS). The experiment was conducted in semi-flow anaerobic reactors under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) with different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 16.7 d, 18 d and 20 d. The results indicate that the addition of BSG significantly enhanced the biogas yields, ensuring good process stability. The highest value of 0.54 m3 kg-1 VSadded was obtained at HRT of 16.7 d, while for ACW and SS it was only 0.50 m3 kg-1 VSadded at HRT 18 d. However, the decrease in the rate constant k occurred (0.07 h-1) as compared to the two-component system (0.096 h-1). The highest energy profit of 160% was enhanced for the three-substrate co-digestion, indicating it as a cost-effective solution.


Assuntos
Queijo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Esgotos , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Especificidade por Substrato
9.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369595

RESUMO

There has been growing recognition of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) as a significant public health issue. However, research has predominately focused on the experiences of adolescent girls in school settings. The purpose of this research is to examine detailed accounts of menstruation for women in rural Odisha, India at various life stages with a view toward improving international monitoring of MHM. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted to understand women's experiences of menstruation across four life stages (unmarried women, recently married women, married women, and older women). Thematic analysis was used to identify menstruation-related challenges and needs. We found women voiced needs that aligned with those captured by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (JMP) definition for MHM: access to clean materials, privacy for changing materials, soap and water for bathing, and disposal facilities for materials. However, we also found women require materials that are not only clean but comfortable and reliable; soap and water for more than bathing; privacy for the full spectrum of menstruation-related practices, not just when changing; and disposal facilities that are private and safe, not just accessible. Additionally, we identified needs that extend beyond the existing definition: pain management, social support, and an enabling sociocultural environment. Overall, women representing all life stages discussed menstruation challenges, including bathing, pain, and washing, drying, and storing cloth materials. Cloth management challenges were most acute for unmarried and recently married women, who were concerned that practices could reveal their menstrual status and harm their reputations, thus informing their preference for disposable materials, if attainable. We propose a revised definition of adequate MHM for this population that more comprehensively captures their needs. This definition may also prove useful for other populations, future research, creating measures of assessment, and guiding interventions and program priorities.

10.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2019-08-14. (OPAS/CDE/19-008).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51461

RESUMO

O objetivo desta nota conceitual e a estrutura que essa descreve tratam da eliminação de um grupo de DT e abordam os efeitos negativos para a saúde que essas DT causam (as doenças constam da Tabela 1 abaixo), e que, juntos, criam uma carga tangível sobre os indivíduos afetados, suas famílias, as comunidades e os sistemas de atenção de saúde por toda a Região.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Doença de Chagas , Américas
11.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46656

RESUMO

Salud universal significa que todas las personas tengan acceso, sin discriminación alguna, a servicios de salud integrales de calidad, cuándo y dónde los necesitan, sin enfrentarlas a dificultades financieras. Requiere la definición e implementación de políticas y acciones con un enfoque multisectorial para abordar los determinantes sociales de la salud y fomentar el compromiso de toda la sociedad para promover la salud y bienestar. El Día Mundial de la Salud en la Región de las Américas, tiene las celebraciones enfocada en torno a la salud universal, bajo el lema “Salud universal: para todos y todas, en todas partes”. La campaña se centrará en la equidad y la solidaridad, abordando las barreras de acceso a la salud y a los servicios de salud, teniendo como meta, mejorar la comprensión de la salud universal e impulsar acciones que contribuyan a que ésta sea una realidad para todas las personas, en todas partes.


Assuntos
Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Acesso Universal aos Serviços de Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(10): 1833-1843, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294699

RESUMO

This paper analyzes the problem of septage management on Croatian islands in accordance with the circular economy framework. The systems approach methodology has been used to analyze management issues. A large number of individual housing facilities on Croatian islands are not connected to the public sewage system. As a solution to the requirements of the competent services, holding tanks are used which are largely permeable. Due to tourism activities the amount of wastewater seasonally varies considerably and in summer is up to 10 times higher than in winter. Such a situation creates major problems for property owners due to mostly uncontrolled disposing of septage, which endangers the environment and human health. Although the situation is improving by application of EU directives, due to poor population density septage management will remain a permanent problem. The EU legal framework requires that organic waste be disposed of in accordance with the principles of a circular economy. This also applies to septage. It has been found that simple and robust options are sustainable and the best choice for a small island environment. After appropriate treatment, septage becomes a resource that strengthens the viability of living on the islands.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias , Croácia , Humanos , Ilhas , Estações do Ano
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288493

RESUMO

Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG-6) addresses poor water quality, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene, all of which negatively impact health and disproportionately impact Indigenous Peoples' health. Understanding and responding to local contexts is critical to effectively improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH); however, in-depth understanding of local knowledge, practices, and perceptions are often overlooked. As such, this study described the knowledge, practices, and perceptions of WASH held by residents of two Indigenous Shawi communities in the Peruvian Amazon. Quantitative data were collected via a cross-sectional survey and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were collected via interviews, PhotoVoice, focus group discussions, and participatory transect walks, and analyzed using a constant comparative approach to thematic analysis. Emergent themes included characterizing water sources, collection methods, and consumption patterns; knowledge, perceptions, and practices related to WASH; and knowledge and perceptions of health issues related to WASH. This study provides insight into the ongoing challenges related to WASH in Indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon and highlights the need to prioritize interventions that will advance WASH-related SDGs.

14.
Waste Manag ; 95: 150-160, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351600

RESUMO

This study examined the impact of thermal hydrolysis process (THP) pre-treatment on anaerobic co-digestion of wastewater sludge and household waste and assessed whether THP was vital to achieve higher process capacity. Performance data were collected for both industrial- and laboratory-scale digesters and response in microbial community structure was evaluated by Illumina sequencing. Implementation of THP at the industrial-scale plant increased methane yield by 15% and enhanced substrate degradability. Possibility to extend the sludge retention time due to a higher solid content of the substrate, sanitisation of the digestate and improved fertiliser quality of the digestate were other industrial-scale benefits of THP installation. Continuously-fed laboratory-scale digesters were fed THP-treated or untreated substrate at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5 g volatile solid (VS)/L/day, a feeding rate necessary at the corresponding industrial-scale plant to meet the estimated population increase within the municipality. The results indicated that the plant could have increased the capacity with unimpaired stability independently of THP installation, even though the retention time was significantly shortened during operation with untreated substrate. Microbial community analyses revealed increased contribution of the Clostridia class after THP installation in industrial-scale digesters and positive correlation between Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes and methane yield in all digesters. Differentiated profiles in laboratory-scale digesters indicated that a temperature increase from 37 to 42 °C in association with THP installation and altered substrate composition were strong determining factors shaping the microbial community. Overall, these findings can assist industrial-scale plants in choosing management strategies aimed at improving the efficiency of anaerobic digestion processes.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Hidrólise , Metano , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 290: 121782, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326650

RESUMO

The effect of biochar on the thermophilic digestion of mono-cardboard was investigated. Compared with control group (T0), the maximum rate of biomethane production was significantly improved after the addition of biochar, especially, it has been improved by 40.6% in T1 (0.77 g/gTS sludge) with the methane production of 89.28 mL/gVS. Also, the addition of biochar improved the efficiency of acidogenesis and acetogenesis. However, adverse effects were observed with the biomethane production decreased by 33.98% and the lag phase extended by 35 h in T5 (3.86 g/gTS sludge). Especially, the results showed that the adsorption of biochar played important roles in digestion. In addition, acetoclastic Methanosaeta which considered to be involved in interspecific electron transfer (IET) was enriched after biochar added and the highest diversity of acetogens was obtained in T1. Oppositely, microbial networks analysis showed that the excessive biochar may destroy the diversity of microorganism drastically.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Anaerobiose , Carvão Vegetal , Esgotos
16.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1480085, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154993

RESUMO

Hospital cleaning has been shown to impact on rates of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) and good environmental hygiene is critical to quality care, yet those tasked with the role of ensuring a safe and clean environment often go unrecognised as members of the healthcare workforce. Sepsis is a leading cause of maternal and newborn death, a significant proportion of these cases are estimated to be due to HCAIs. Deliveries in health institutions have now reached 75% globally, and in low and middle income countries the corresponding increased pressure on facilities  has impacted both quality of care provided and quality of the birth environment in terms of infection prevention and control (IPC) and HCAIs. The paper discusses the neglected role of health facility cleaners, providing evidence from the literature and from needs assessments conducted by The Soapbox Collaborative and partners in Bangladesh, India, The Gambia and Zanzibar. While not the primary focus of the assessments, common themes emerged consistently pointing to institutional neglect of cleaning and cleaners. The paper argues that low status within facilities, wider societal marginalisation, lack of training, and poor pay and working conditions contribute to the lack of prioritisation placed on health facility environmental hygiene. With increased international attention focused towards health facility water, sanitation and hygiene and a growing focus on IPC, now is the time to address the neglect of this frontline healthcare workforce. We propose that provision of and improved training can enable the recognition of the valuable role cleaning staff play, as well as equipping these staff with the tools required to perform their job to the highest standard. In addition to training, wider systems changes are necessary to establish improvements in environmental hygiene and the role of cleaning staff, including addressing resource availability, supportive supervision, and an increased emphasis on preventative healthcare.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Maternidades/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza/normas , Higiene/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Saneamento/normas , Adulto , Bangladesh , Feminino , Gâmbia , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Tanzânia
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22756-22771, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172433

RESUMO

Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused numerous outbreaks of diarrhea as a result of the ingestion of water contaminated with sewage. In Brazil, the efficiency of Giardia and Cryptosporidium removal by combined fixed-film systems has rarely been studied. The aims of the present study were therefore to verify the removal efficiency of Giardia and Cryptosporidium by a combined system (anaerobic/anoxic filter and aerated submerged biofilter) and to perform the genetic characterization of these parasites. The (oo)cysts were detected by centrifuge concentration and membrane filtration from raw sewage, effluents, adhered biomass, and sludge samples. Immunofluorescence assay and differential interference contrast microscopy were used for the visualization of the (oo)cysts. Nested PCR was applied to confirm Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 27% and 5.5% of the 144 analyzed samples of raw sewage and effluents, respectively. A total of 33,000 cysts/L were recovered in the adhered biomass samples (n = 25) from different points of the aerated submerged biofilter, while 6000 oocysts/L were registered in a single point. An average of 11,800 cysts/L were found in the sludge samples (n = 5). The combined system exhibited a removal efficiency of Giardia cysts of 1.8 ± 1.0 log removal. The C and BIV assemblages of Giardia were identified in the raw sewage while AII was found in the treated effluent sample. It was not possible to calculate the removal efficiency of Cryptosporidium oocysts by the combined system. The combined system exhibited some potential as a suitable treatment for the removal of parasites from sewage.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium , Giardia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Oocistos , Esgotos/parasitologia
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(9): 1777-1789, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241483

RESUMO

The enhanced biological phosphorus removal process makes the phosphorus recovery feasible from the dewatering streams of biological sludge. The physicochemical properties of these sidestreams, as an input to a crystallizer, are different before and after anaerobic digestion. In this study, phosphorus recovery by calcium phosphate is proposed for pre-digestion sidestreams and by struvite precipitation for post-digestion sidestreams. The thermodynamic modeling followed by experimental tests was performed to evaluate the recovery efficiency and product properties of struvite and calcium phosphates. The variations in phosphorus recovery potential, reaction kinetics and particle size distribution emphasize the importance of the adjustment of initial supersaturation and pH of the reaction. The optimum pH, considering the economics and recovery efficiency, for both calcium phosphate and struvite precipitation was found to be pH = 8.5, whereas further increase of pH will not improve the overall efficiency of the process. In the case of calcium phosphate precipitation, it was shown that possible phase transformations should be considered and controlled as they affect both process efficiency and product properties. The economic evaluation indicated that the optimized operational condition should be determined for the phosphorus recovery process and that chemical costs for the production of calcium phosphates is lower than for struvite.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Precipitação Química , Compostos de Magnésio , Fosfatos , Esgotos , Estruvita
19.
Chemosphere ; 233: 828-842, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200141

RESUMO

The removal efficiencies (REs) of nineteen pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (six antibiotics-clarithromycin, ofloxacin, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim -, four ß-blockers -atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol and sotalol-, two antihypertensives/diuretics -furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide-, three lipid regulators -bezafibrate, fenofibrate and gemfibrozil-, and four psychiatric medications -carbamazepine, diazepam, lorazepam and paroxetine) were ascertained in a pilot-scale anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (A2O) system treating urban wastewater, long term operated during two experimental phases using different sets of environmental conditions and operating parameters. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to investigate the structure, diversity and population dynamics of bacteria, archaea and fungi communities in the activated sludge. The results showed that mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and food-to-microorganisms ratio (F/M) were operational parameters significantly influencing the REs of five of the analyzed PhACs in the A2O system. Biota-environment (BIO-ENV) analysis revealed strong correlations between population shifts of the activated sludge community and the REs of PhACs of the different pharmaceutical families. Increased REs of clarithromycin, furosemide, bezafibrate and gemfibrozil were concomitant to higher relative abundances of bacterial phylotypes classified within the Rhodobacteraceae and Sphingomonadaceae (Alphaproteobacteria), while those of Betaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi and Methanomethylovorans (Euryarchaea) correlated positively with the REs of up to seven PhACs belonging to different therapeutic groups.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Bactérias , Carbamazepina/análise , Genfibrozila , Ofloxacino , Dinâmica Populacional , Esgotos/química , Sulfametoxazol , Águas Residuárias/química
20.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2019-06-24. (OPS/CDE/19-008).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51107

RESUMO

El objetivo de esta nota conceptual y del marco que describe es la eliminación de un grupo de enfermedades transmisibles y los efectos negativos sobre la salud que generan que juntos crean una carga tangible en las personas afectadas, sus familias y comunidades, y en los sistemas de atención de salud en toda la Región. Aunque no hay consenso sobre las mejores medidas que se deben usar para la salud de las personas y de acuerdo con la situación epidemiológica de un país, es habitual medir la carga de enfermedad mediante las tasas de enfermedad (incidencia, prevalencia, etc.), las tasas de mortalidad por enfermedad específica, las tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad comparativas, la distribución geográfica y los años de vida ajustados en función de la discapacidad (AVAD)…. Se analiza la situación epidemiológica actual, incluidos los datos sobre tasas de enfermedad o distribución geográfica para las enfermedades del cuadro 1. Hotez et al. (2008) fueron los primeros en examinar y comparar la carga de los AVAD en América Latina y el Caribe para las ETD, la infección por el VIH/sida, la malaria y la tuberculosis como era hace unos diez años atrás. Aunque la carga regional de tuberculosis, malaria y enfermedades infecciosas desatendidas (EID) es algo menor a la de hace diez años, se sigue perdiendo la posibilidad de trabajar (y de asistir a la escuela) debido a la enfermedad y muerte prematura o discapacidad, y la necesidad de acelerar los esfuerzos para eliminar las enfermedades es evidente en todas las comunidades en situación de vulnerabilidad.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA