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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 370, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226495

RESUMO

Is engaging with music good for your mental health? This question has long been the topic of empirical clinical and nonclinical investigations, with studies indicating positive associations between music engagement and quality of life, reduced depression or anxiety symptoms, and less frequent substance use. However, many earlier investigations were limited by small populations and methodological limitations, and it has also been suggested that aspects of music engagement may even be associated with worse mental health outcomes. The purpose of this scoping review is first to summarize the existing state of music engagement and mental health studies, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. We focus on broad domains of mental health diagnoses including internalizing psychopathology (e.g., depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses), externalizing psychopathology (e.g., substance use), and thought disorders (e.g., schizophrenia). Second, we propose a theoretical model to inform future work that describes the importance of simultaneously considering music-mental health associations at the levels of (1) correlated genetic and/or environmental influences vs. (bi)directional associations, (2) interactions with genetic risk factors, (3) treatment efficacy, and (4) mediation through brain structure and function. Finally, we describe how recent advances in large-scale data collection, including genetic, neuroimaging, and electronic health record studies, allow for a more rigorous examination of these associations that can also elucidate their neurobiological substrates.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Musicoterapia , Música , Ansiedade , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 672, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of routine immunization data by health care professionals in low- and middle-income countries remains an underutilized resource in decision-making. Despite the significant resources invested in developing national health information systems, systematic reviews of the effectiveness of data use interventions are lacking. Applying a realist review methodology, this study synthesized evidence of effective interventions for improving data use in decision-making. METHODS: We searched PubMed, POPLINE, Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International Global Health, and African Journals Online for published literature. Grey literature was obtained from conference, implementer, and technical agency websites and requested from implementing organizations. Articles were included if they reported on an intervention designed to improve routine data use or reported outcomes related to data use, and targeted health care professionals as the principal data users. We developed a theory of change a priori for how we expect data use interventions to influence data use. Evidence was then synthesized according to data use intervention type and level of the health system targeted by the intervention. RESULTS: The searches yielded 549 articles, of which 102 met our inclusion criteria, including 49 from peer-reviewed journals and 53 from grey literature. A total of 66 articles reported on immunization data use interventions and 36 articles reported on data use interventions for other health sectors. We categorized 68 articles as research evidence and 34 articles as promising strategies. We identified ten primary intervention categories, including electronic immunization registries, which were the most reported intervention type (n = 14). Among the research evidence from the immunization sector, 32 articles reported intermediate outcomes related to data quality and availability, data analysis, synthesis, interpretation, and review. Seventeen articles reported data-informed decision-making as an intervention outcome, which could be explained by the lack of consensus around how to define and measure data use. CONCLUSIONS: Few immunization data use interventions have been rigorously studied or evaluated. The review highlights gaps in the evidence base, which future research and better measures for assessing data use should attempt to address.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunização , Renda
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260685

RESUMO

DISCLAIMER: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. PURPOSE: Integrating smart pumps with an electronic health record (EHR) reduces medication errors by automating pump programming and EHR documentation. This study describes the patient safety and financial impact of pump-EHR interoperability at a community hospital. METHODS: A 316-bed community hospital in Sugar Land, TX, went live with pump-EHR interoperability in October 2019. Data were collected from April 1, 2019, to June 30, 2019 (before implementation) and from April 1, 2020, to June 30, 2020 (after implementation). Rates of drug library compliance, alert firing, alert override, override within 2 seconds, high-risk alert override, and alert resulting in pump reprogramming were measured. Financial impact was measured by Current Procedural Terminology code capture per kept appointment in the infusion center. RESULTS: Drug library compliance increased from 73.8% to 82.9% with pump-EHR interoperability (P < 0.001). Infusions generating alerts among all infusions programmed with the drug library decreased from 3.5% to 2.6% (P < 0.001), overridden alerts increased from 64.8% to 68.9% (P < 0.001), alerts overridden within 2 seconds decreased from 17.3% to 13.8% (P < 0.001), and reprogrammed alerts decreased from 20.7% to 18.3% (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Pump-EHR interoperability leads to safer administration of intravenous medications based on improved drug library compliance and more accurate smart pump programming.

4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(6): 2131-2140, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231725

RESUMO

As part of the evaluability study of the implementation of the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) evaluation, the aim of this Systematic Review (SR) was to identify the evaluation domains to be addressed. This SR, aligned with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) encompassed articles published from 2006 to 2019. The search was carried out in the electronic databases SciELO, Oasis IBICT, BVS Regional and Scopus. The search resulted in 1,178 articles, 42 of which met the inclusion criteria. Most studies used qualitative methods for the analyses. The publications took place between 2006 and 2019, with a concentration in 2017 with 9 (21%) articles published in that year. No studies were published in 2008 and 2009. Only 10 studies included the description, analysis or results related to the domains of implementation. The main domains in which the EPR was problematized were: underutilization; professionals' resistance to its use; emphasis on usability; and EPR as an information source. Despite the inclusion of all studies that covered the principles and guidelines of the National Humanization Policy (NHP), they are still incipient.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Políticas , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e044800, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215600

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Falling on level ground is now the most common cause of traumatic intracranial bleeding worldwide. Older adults frequently present to the emergency department (ED) after falling. It can be challenging for clinicians to determine who requires brain imaging to rule out traumatic intracranial bleeding, and often head injury decision rules do not apply to older adults who fall. The goal of our study is to derive a clinical decision rule, which will identify older adults who present to the ED after a fall who do not have clinically important intracranial bleeding. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective cohort study enrolling patients aged 65 years or older, who present to the ED of 11 hospitals in Canada and the USA within 48 hours of having a fall. Patients are included if they fall on level ground, off a chair, toilet seat or out of bed. The primary outcome is the diagnosis of clinically important intracranial bleeding within 42 days of the index ED visit. An independent adjudication committee will determine the primary outcome, blinded to all other data. We are collecting data on 17 potential predictor variables. The treating physician completes a study data form at the time of initial assessment, prior to brain imaging. Data extraction is supplemented by an independent, structured electronic medical record review. We will perform binary recursive partitioning using Classification and Regression Trees to derive a clinical decision rule. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was initially approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Committee and subsequently approved by the research ethics boards governing all participating sites. We will disseminate our results by journal publication, presentation at international meetings and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03745755.

6.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272311

RESUMO

Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) has been increasingly used to identify novel genetic associations across a wide spectrum of phenotypes. This systematic review aims to summarise the PheWAS methodology, discuss the advantages and challenges of PheWAS, and provide potential implications for future PheWAS studies. Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) databases were searched to identify all published PheWAS studies up until 24 April 2021. The PheWAS methodology incorporating how to perform PheWAS analysis and which software/tool could be used, were summarised based on the extracted information. A total of 1035 studies were identified and 195 eligible articles were finally included. Among them, 137 (77.0%) contained 10 000 or more study participants, 164 (92.1%) defined the phenome based on electronic medical records data, 140 (78.7%) used genetic variants as predictors, and 73 (41.0%) conducted replication analysis to validate PheWAS findings and almost all of them (94.5%) received consistent results. The methodology applied in these PheWAS studies was dissected into several critical steps, including quality control of the phenome, selecting predictors, phenotyping, statistical analysis, interpretation and visualisation of PheWAS results, and the workflow for performing a PheWAS was established with detailed instructions on each step. This study provides a comprehensive overview of PheWAS methodology to help practitioners achieve a better understanding of the PheWAS design, to detect understudied or overstudied outcomes, and to direct their research by applying the most appropriate software and online tools for their study data structure.

7.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 106499, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217889

RESUMO

High-dose, long-term opioid therapy (LtOT) is associated with risk for serious harms. Rapid opioid discontinuation may lead to increased pain, psychological distress, and illicit opioid use, but gradual, supported opioid taper may reduce these risks. We previously demonstrated that an opioid taper support and pain coping skills training intervention reduced opioid dose more than usual care (43% vs 19% dose reduction from baseline), with no increase in pain intensity and a significant reduction in activity interference. We aim to adapt and test this intervention in the Kaiser Permanente Washington healthcare system with STRategies to Improve Pain and Enjoy life (STRIPE), a pragmatic, randomized trial. Our goal was to randomize 215 participants on moderate-high dose (≥40 morphine milligram equivalent/day) LtOT to either cognitive-behavioral therapy-based pain coping skills training involving 18 telephone sessions over 52 weeks with optional opioid taper support or usual care. Data are collected from electronic health records, claims, and self-report. The primary outcomes are mean daily opioid dose and the pain intensity, interference with enjoyment of life, and interference with general activity (PEG) score at 12 months (primary time point) and 6 months (secondary time point). Secondary outcomes include having ≥30% opioid dose reduction from baseline, and patient-reported problem opioid use, opioid-related difficulties, pain self-efficacy, opioid craving, global impression of change, and anxiety and depressive symptoms at 6 and 12 months. If effective, this treatment could reduce opioid exposure and associated risks to patients, families, and communities while offering patients an alternative for managing pain. Trial registration: The study was first registered at Clinicaltrials.gov on November 16, 2018 (identifier: NCT03743402).

8.
Bioinformatics ; 37(Suppl_1): i151-i160, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252969

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: The rapid growth in of electronic medical records provide immense potential to researchers, but are often silo-ed at separate hospitals. As a result, federated networks have arisen, which allow simultaneously querying medical databases at a group of connected institutions. The most basic such query is the aggregate count-e.g. How many patients have diabetes? However, depending on the protocol used to estimate that total, there is always a tradeoff in the accuracy of the estimate against the risk of leaking confidential data. Prior work has shown that it is possible to empirically control that tradeoff by using the HyperLogLog (HLL) probabilistic sketch. RESULTS: In this article, we prove complementary theoretical bounds on the k-anonymity privacy risk of using HLL sketches, as well as exhibit code to efficiently compute those bounds. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: https://github.com/tzyRachel/K-anonymity-Expectation.


Assuntos
Privacidade , Pesquisadores , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
9.
Implement Sci ; 16(1): 72, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine evidence-based tobacco use treatment minimizes cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, reduces treatment-related toxicity, and improves quality of life among patients receiving cancer care. Few cancer centers employ mechanisms to systematically refer patients to evidence-based tobacco cessation services. Implementation strategies informed by behavioral economics can increase tobacco use treatment engagement within oncology care. METHODS: A four-arm cluster-randomized pragmatic trial will be conducted across nine clinical sites within the Implementation Science Center in Cancer Control Implementation Lab to compare the effect of behavioral economic implementation strategies delivered through embedded messages (or "nudges") promoting patient engagement with the Tobacco Use Treatment Service (TUTS). Nudges are electronic medical record (EMR)-based messages delivered to patients, clinicians, or both, designed to counteract known patient and clinician biases that reduce treatment engagement. We used rapid cycle approaches (RCA) informed by relevant stakeholder experiences to refine and optimize our implementation strategies and methods prior to trial initiation. Data will be obtained via the EMR, clinician survey, and semi-structured interviews with a subset of clinicians and patients. The primary measure of implementation is penetration, defined as the TUTS referral rate. Secondary outcome measures of implementation include patient treatment engagement (defined as the number of patients who receive FDA-approved medication or behavioral counseling), quit attempts, and abstinence rates. The semi-structured interviews, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, will assess contextual factors and patient and clinician experiences with the nudges. DISCUSSION: This study will be the first in the oncology setting to compare the effectiveness of nudges to clinicians and patients, both head-to-head and in combination, as implementation strategies to improve TUTS referral and engagement. We expect the study to (1) yield insights into the effectiveness of nudges as an implementation strategy to improve uptake of evidence-based tobacco use treatment within cancer care, and (2) advance our understanding of the multilevel contextual factors that drive response to these strategies. These results will lay the foundation for how patients with cancer who smoke are best engaged in tobacco use treatment and may lead to future research focused on scaling this approach across diverse centers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04737031 . Registered 3 February 2021.

10.
J Pediatr ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two interventions in improving prescribing of guideline-concordant durations of therapy for acute otitis media (AOM). STUDY DESIGN: This was a quasi-experimental mixed methods analysis that compared a bundled quality improvement intervention consisting of individualized audit and feedback, education, and electronic health record (EHR) changes to an EHR-only intervention. The bundle was implemented in 3 pediatric clinics from January-August 2020 and an EHR-only intervention was implemented in 6 family medicine clinics. The primary outcome measure was prescription of an institutional guideline-concordant 5-day duration of therapy for children ≥ 2 years of age with uncomplicated AOM. Propensity score matching and differences-in-differences analysis weighted with inverse probability of treatment were completed. Implementation outcomes were assessed using RE-AIM. Balance measures included treatment failure and recurrence. RESULTS: In total, 1,017 encounters for AOM were included from February 2019-August 2020. Guideline-concordant prescribing increased from 14.4% to 63.8% (difference=49.4%) in clinics that received the EHR-only intervention and from 10.6% to 85.2% (difference=74.6%) in clinics that received the bundled intervention. In the adjusted analysis the bundled intervention improved guideline-concordant durations by an additional 26.4% (P < .01) compared with the EHR-only intervention. Providers identified EHR-prescription field changes as the most helpful components. There were no differences in treatment failure or recurrence rates between baseline and either intervention. CONCLUSION: Both interventions resulted in improved prescribing of guideline-concordant durations of antibiotics. The bundled intervention improved prescribing more than an EHR-only intervention and was acceptable to providers.

11.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 106508, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Cancer Society provide nutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors. Many women with breast cancer do not follow these guidelines and delay efforts toward following them until active treatment is complete. However, adoption of these recommended lifestyle behaviors soon after diagnosis may prevent adverse treatment-related side effects and may improve adherence to treatment, resulting in improved breast cancer prognosis. The Lifestyle, Exercise, and Nutrition Early after Diagnosis (LEANer) study is testing the effect of a nutrition and physical activity intervention on chemotherapy completion rates. METHODS: 172 women with stage I-III breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy will be randomized 1:1 to a yearlong, 16 session, nutrition and exercise intervention or usual care control group. The intervention is delivered by registered dietitians specializing in oncology nutrition and exercise training. The intervention includes goal setting to meet nutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors. After each chemotherapy session, date and dose of each drug administered, and reason for dose-adjustments and/or dose-delays are abstracted from the electronic medical record or obtained from the treating oncologist. Chemotherapy completion rate is assessed as the average relative dose-intensity (RDI) for the originally planned regimen based on standard formulas. Secondary endpoints of endocrine therapy adherence, treatment-related side effects, and changes in inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers, body composition, and patient reported outcomes are assessed at four timepoints. DISCUSSION: If successful, this study has the potential to make healthy lifestyle interventions a standard component of breast cancer treatment.

12.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236403

RESUMO

Importance: As cancer treatment has become more individualized, oncologic clinical trials have become more complex. Increasingly numerous and stringent eligibility criteria frequently include tumor molecular or genomic characteristics that may not be readily identified in medical records, rendering it difficult to best match clinical trials with clinical sites and to identify potentially eligible patients once a clinical trial has been selected and activated. Partly because of these factors, enrollment rates for cancer clinical trials remain low, creating delays and increased costs for drug development. Information technology (IT) platforms have been applied to the implementation and conduct of clinical trials to improve efficiencies in several medical fields, and these platforms have recently been introduced to oncologic studies. Observations: This review summarizes cancer and noncancer studies that used IT platforms for assistance with clinical trial site selection, patient recruitment, and patient screening. The review does not address the use of IT in other aspects of clinical research, such as wearable physical activity monitors or telehealth visits. A large number of IT platforms (which may be patient facing, site or investigator facing, or sponsor facing) are now commercially available. These applications use artificial intelligence and/or natural language processing to identify and summarize protocol eligibility criteria, institutional patient populations, and individual electronic health records. Although there is an expanding body of literature examining the role of this technology, relatively few studies to date have been performed in oncologic settings. Conclusions and Relevance: This review found that an increasing number and variety of IT platforms were available to assist in the planning and conduct of clinical trials. Because oncologic clinical care and clinical trial protocols are particularly complex, nuanced, and individualized, published experience with this technology in other fields may not be fully applicable to cancer settings. The extent to which these services will overcome ongoing and increasing challenges in cancer clinical research remains unclear.

13.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 13(1): e417, ene.-jun. 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251734

RESUMO

RESUMEN Los sistemas de información en los servicios de salud han contribuido en los procesos de automatización de historiales clínicos, desempeñando un papel importante en la atención médica. El objetivo de esta revisión ha sido identificar la importancia de los sistemas de información para la automatización de historiales clínicos y las herramientas usadas para su implementación. Se revisaron artículos de revistas indexadas en base de datos bibligráficas como: IEEE Digital Library, ScienceDirect, Scielo, Google Scholar con la finalidad de tener una mejor clasificación de información que aportara al desarrollo del contenido estudiado. Se identificó que los sistemas de información mejoran la comunicación médico-paciente, aceleran procesos de atención médica, reducen costos y tiempo. Los sistemas de información son importantes para la automatización de historiales clínicas, garantizado mejoras en el proceso de atención al paciente en los establecimientos de salud.


ABSTRACT Information systems in health services have contributed to the automation of medical records, playing an important role in medical care. The objective of this review was to identify the importance of information systems for the automation of medical records and the tools used for their implementation. Articles from journals indexed in bibliographic databases such as: IEEE Digital Library, ScienceDirect, Scielo, Google Scholar have been reviewed in order to have a better classification of information that contributes to the improvement of our interest topic. It has been identified that these information systems increase doctor-patient communication, speed up medical care processes, reduce costs and time. Information systems are important for the automation of medical records, guaranteeing advances in the patient care process in health establishments.


Assuntos
Humanos , Registros Médicos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/normas
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(6): 2131-2140, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278700

RESUMO

Resumo Como parte do estudo de avaliabilidade da avaliação da implementação do Prontuário Eletrônico do Paciente (PEP), o objetivo desta Revisão Sistemática (RS) foi identificar os domínios de avaliação a serem abordados. Esta RS, alinhada com o Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions e o Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) englobou artigos publicados de 2006 até 2019. Realizou-se a busca nas bases de dados eletrônicas SciELO, Oásis IBICT, BVS Regional e Scopus. A busca retornou 1.178 artigos, sendo 42 que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. A maioria dos estudos utilizaram métodos qualitativos para análises. As publicações ocorreram entre 2006 e 2019, tendo sua concentração em 2017 com 9 (21%) artigos publicados. Não foram identificados estudos publicados em 2008 e 2009. Somente 10 estudos incluíam descrição, análises ou resultados relacionados aos domínios de implementação. Os principais domínios em que o PEP foi problematizado foram: subutilização; resistência dos profissionais ao seu uso; ênfase na usabilidade; e o PEP como repositório de informações. Apesar da inclusão de todos os estudos que contemplaram os princípios e diretrizes da Política Nacional de Humanização (PNH), eles ainda são incipientes.


Abstract As part of the evaluability study of the implementation of the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) evaluation, the aim of this Systematic Review (SR) was to identify the evaluation domains to be addressed. This SR, aligned with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) encompassed articles published from 2006 to 2019. The search was carried out in the electronic databases SciELO, Oasis IBICT, BVS Regional and Scopus. The search resulted in 1,178 articles, 42 of which met the inclusion criteria. Most studies used qualitative methods for the analyses. The publications took place between 2006 and 2019, with a concentration in 2017 with 9 (21%) articles published in that year. No studies were published in 2008 and 2009. Only 10 studies included the description, analysis or results related to the domains of implementation. The main domains in which the EPR was problematized were: underutilization; professionals' resistance to its use; emphasis on usability; and EPR as an information source. Despite the inclusion of all studies that covered the principles and guidelines of the National Humanization Policy (NHP), they are still incipient.

15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(6): 2131-2140, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278739

RESUMO

Resumo Como parte do estudo de avaliabilidade da avaliação da implementação do Prontuário Eletrônico do Paciente (PEP), o objetivo desta Revisão Sistemática (RS) foi identificar os domínios de avaliação a serem abordados. Esta RS, alinhada com o Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions e o Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) englobou artigos publicados de 2006 até 2019. Realizou-se a busca nas bases de dados eletrônicas SciELO, Oásis IBICT, BVS Regional e Scopus. A busca retornou 1.178 artigos, sendo 42 que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. A maioria dos estudos utilizaram métodos qualitativos para análises. As publicações ocorreram entre 2006 e 2019, tendo sua concentração em 2017 com 9 (21%) artigos publicados. Não foram identificados estudos publicados em 2008 e 2009. Somente 10 estudos incluíam descrição, análises ou resultados relacionados aos domínios de implementação. Os principais domínios em que o PEP foi problematizado foram: subutilização; resistência dos profissionais ao seu uso; ênfase na usabilidade; e o PEP como repositório de informações. Apesar da inclusão de todos os estudos que contemplaram os princípios e diretrizes da Política Nacional de Humanização (PNH), eles ainda são incipientes.


Abstract As part of the evaluability study of the implementation of the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) evaluation, the aim of this Systematic Review (SR) was to identify the evaluation domains to be addressed. This SR, aligned with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) encompassed articles published from 2006 to 2019. The search was carried out in the electronic databases SciELO, Oasis IBICT, BVS Regional and Scopus. The search resulted in 1,178 articles, 42 of which met the inclusion criteria. Most studies used qualitative methods for the analyses. The publications took place between 2006 and 2019, with a concentration in 2017 with 9 (21%) articles published in that year. No studies were published in 2008 and 2009. Only 10 studies included the description, analysis or results related to the domains of implementation. The main domains in which the EPR was problematized were: underutilization; professionals' resistance to its use; emphasis on usability; and EPR as an information source. Despite the inclusion of all studies that covered the principles and guidelines of the National Humanization Policy (NHP), they are still incipient.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099347

RESUMO

Care coordination programs continue to be developed for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). The goals for these programs are to improve access, increase communication, and decrease the overall length of stay for CSHCN. Care coordination optimizes resources to support children's health and well-being early in their hospitalization and facilitates a smooth discharge process and transition to home. Providing care coordination for CSHCN requires collaboration from many disciplines. To achieve high-quality care coordination, early identification of medically complex pediatric patients on admission is optimal. For more efficient and timelier enrollment into our care coordination program, we created a best practice alert within our electronic medical record to help overcome the challenges in timely identification of CSHCN. The best practice alert has helped us to provide care coordination benefits to our patients earlier in their hospital course. The purpose of this paper is to describe a quality improvement initiative to improve the early identification of CSHCN on hospital admission through the development of a best practice alert.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To facilitate the development of standards-based clinical decision support (CDS) systems, we review the current set of CDS standards that are based on Health Level Seven International Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR). Widespread adoption of these standards may help reduce healthcare variability, improve healthcare quality, and improve patient safety. TARGET AUDIENCE: This tutorial is designed for the broad informatics community, some of whom may be unfamiliar with the current, FHIR-based CDS standards. SCOPE: This tutorial covers the following standards: Arden Syntax (using FHIR as the data model), Clinical Quality Language, FHIR Clinical Reasoning, SMART on FHIR, and CDS Hooks. Detailed descriptions and selected examples are provided.

18.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(6): e24642, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic decision making, especially in emergency departments, is a highly complex cognitive process that involves uncertainty and susceptibility to errors. A combination of factors, including patient factors (eg, history, behaviors, complexity, and comorbidity), provider-care team factors (eg, cognitive load and information gathering and synthesis), and system factors (eg, health information technology, crowding, shift-based work, and interruptions) may contribute to diagnostic errors. Using electronic triggers to identify records of patients with certain patterns of care, such as escalation of care, has been useful to screen for diagnostic errors. Once errors are identified, sophisticated data analytics and machine learning techniques can be applied to existing electronic health record (EHR) data sets to shed light on potential risk factors influencing diagnostic decision making. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify variables associated with diagnostic errors in emergency departments using large-scale EHR data and machine learning techniques. METHODS: This study plans to use trigger algorithms within EHR data repositories to generate a large data set of records that are labeled trigger-positive or trigger-negative, depending on whether they meet certain criteria. Samples from both data sets will be validated using medical record reviews, upon which we expect to find a higher number of diagnostic safety events in the trigger-positive subset. Machine learning will be used to evaluate relationships between certain patient factors, provider-care team factors, and system-level risk factors and diagnostic safety signals in the statistically matched groups of trigger-positive and trigger-negative charts. RESULTS: This federally funded study was approved by the institutional review board of 2 academic medical centers with affiliated community hospitals. Trigger queries are being developed at both organizations, and sample cohorts will be labeled using the triggers. Machine learning techniques such as association rule mining, chi-square automated interaction detection, and classification and regression trees will be used to discover important variables that could be incorporated within future clinical decision support systems to help identify and reduce risks that contribute to diagnostic errors. CONCLUSIONS: The use of large EHR data sets and machine learning to investigate risk factors (related to the patient, provider-care team, and system-level) in the diagnostic process may help create future mechanisms for monitoring diagnostic safety. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24642.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1065, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based screening was essential for glaucoma management. Although various studies have investigated the cost-effectiveness of glaucoma screening, policymakers facing with uncontrollably growing total health expenses were deeply concerned about the potential financial consequences of glaucoma screening. This present study was aimed to explore the impact of glaucoma screening with artificial intelligence (AI) automated diagnosis from a budgetary standpoint in Changjiang county, China. METHODS: A Markov model based on health care system's perspective was adapted from previously published studies to predict disease progression and healthcare costs. A cohort of 19,395 individuals aged 65 and above were simulated over a 15-year timeframe. Fur illustrative purpose, we only considered primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in this study. Prevalence, disease progression risks between stages, compliance rates were obtained from publish studies. We did a meta-analysis to estimate diagnostic performance of AI automated diagnosis system from fundus image. Screening costs were provided by the Changjiang screening programme, whereas treatment costs were derived from electronic medical records from two county hospitals. Main outcomes included the number of PACG patients and health care costs. Cost-offset analysis was employed to compare projected health outcomes and medical care costs under the screening with what they would have been without screening. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to quantify uncertainties around model results. RESULTS: Among people aged 65 and above in Changjiang county, it was predicted that there were 1940 PACG patients under the AI-assisted screening scenario, compared with 2104 patients without screening in 15 years' time. Specifically, the screening would reduce patients with primary angle closure suspect by 7.7%, primary angle closure by 8.8%, PACG by 16.7%, and visual blindness by 33.3%. Due to early diagnosis and treatment under the screening, healthcare costs surged dramatically to $107,761.4 dollar in the first year and then were constantly declining over time, while without screening costs grew from $14,759.8 in the second year until peaking at $17,900.9 in the 9th year. However, cost-offset analysis revealed that additional healthcare costs resulted from the screening could not be offset by decreased disease progression. The 5-, 10-, and 15-year accumulated incremental costs of screening versus no screening were estimated to be $396,362.8, $424,907.9, and $434,903.2, respectively. As a result, the incremental cost per PACG of any stages prevented was $1464.3. CONCLUSIONS: This study represented the first attempt to address decision-maker's budgetary concerns when adopting glaucoma screening by developing a Markov prediction model to project health outcomes and costs. Population screening combined with AI automated diagnosis for PACG in China were able to reduce disease progression risks. However, the excess costs of screening could never be offset by reduction in disease progression. Further studies examining the cost-effectiveness or cost-utility of AI-assisted glaucoma screening were needed.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado , Glaucoma , Idoso , Inteligência Artificial , China/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos
20.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; : e13473, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Palliative Care Consult Service (PCCS) programme was established in Hungary to provide palliative care to hospitalised patients with complex needs and to coordinate integrated care across providers. The aim of this study was to measure the association of PCCS with healthcare costs from payer's perspective. METHODS: Study population consisted of patients with metastatic cancer, who were admitted to the Clinical Centre of the University of Pécs between 2014 and 2016. Patients who did not die within 180 days from enrolment were excluded. Patients receiving services from PCCS team (intervention patients) were compared to patients receiving usual care (controls). The two populations were matched using propensity scores. Data were obtained from electronic medical records linked to claims data. RESULTS: For patients who were involved in PCCS at least 60 days before their death, the costs of care outside the acute hospital were higher. However, this was offset by savings in hospital costs so that the total healthcare cost was significantly reduced (p = 0.034). The proportion of patients who died in the hospital was lower in the PCCS group compared to the usual care group (66% vs. 85%, p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: Timely initiation of palliative care for hospitalised patients is associated with cost savings for the healthcare system.

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