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1.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(4): pkz084, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840133

RESUMO

Background: Ovarian cancer remains a leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. Race, socioeconomic status (SES), and access to health care are important predictors of quality treatment and survival. We provide a systematic review and meta-analysis on the role of these predictors on disparities in ovarian cancer treatment and mortality. Methods: Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus for relevant articles published between January 2000 and March 2017. We selected studies published in the United States that evaluated the role of race, SES, or health-care access on disparities in ovarian cancer treatment or survival. Pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each outcome using a random-effects model. Results: A total of 41 studies met the inclusion criteria for systematic review. In meta-analysis, there was a 25% decrease (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.84) in receipt of adherent ovarian cancer treatment and 18% increased risk (RR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.26) of mortality for blacks compared to whites. Receipt of adherent ovarian cancer treatment was 15% lower (RR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77 to 0.94) in the lowest vs highest SES group and 30% lower (RR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.85) among patients at lower vs higher hospital volumes. Conclusion: We found consistent and strong evidence for continued lack of quality ovarian cancer treatment and higher mortality among ovarian cancer patients who are black, are of low SES, and/or have poor access to care. Interventions focused on these groups targeting specific barriers to care are needed to reduce disparities in ovarian cancer treatment and mortality.

2.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sex is a determining factor in the differences with which men and women are treated in the emergency room. The objective was to analyze the profile in patients with chest paint attended in emergency department, and the gender inequalities in the diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Descriptive observational study of patients, who attended to the Miguel Servet University Hospital emergency department, with ischemic chest pain during 2017. Sociodemographic and clinical variables of treatment and evolution were analyzed. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed through the statistical program SPSS. RESULTS: 351 cases were registered (235 men and 116 women). The women were older (median age 75.5 years, against, 71.4 years in men, p=0.003), went to the hospital during summer time (p=0.021) and took most often of benzodiazepines (p=0.001), antidepressants (p<0.001) and diuretics drugs (p=0.039). The women had greater proportion of arterial hypertension (p=0.001). The men came more to the emergency department during autumn period (p=0.008), and had more history of ischemic heart disease (p=0.003) and percutaneous coronary intervention (p<0.001). The time of completion of the first electrocardiogram was greater in women (p<0.001), and were diagnosed with a higher frequency of atypical chest pain (p=0.003), unlike men, more diagnosed of acute coronary syndrome (p=0.028) and subjected to invasive treatment (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There are differences according to sex in the antecedents, delay in performing the first electrocardiogram and use of invasive treatment. Its consideration from the emergency department, without influence of value judgments and with the determination of values disaggregated by sex, can improve the attention and evolution of these patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Idoso , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6877-6880, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to analyze associated factors of 30-day hospital readmission after surgery for melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of postoperative 30-day unplanned readmission in patients with melanoma in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). RESULTS: Higher odds of unplanned readmission were found in non-white patients compared to white, uninsured patients compared to those with private insurance, tumors with invasive behavior compared to in situ, presence of ulceration, American Joint Committee on Cancer stages greater than II, and location in the extremities. Lower odds of unplanned readmission were found in women living in areas where the percentage of adults who did not graduate from high school was below 13.0% with an annual income of $38,000 or more, who were treated in Academic/Research Programs or Integrated Network Cancer Programs. CONCLUSION: Non-white patients and low-income zip-codes were associated with unplanned readmission.


Assuntos
Melanoma/cirurgia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Melanoma/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1614, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STI) are an urgent problem among Native American youth and young adults which are not fully explained by different sexual or related behaviors. These sexual health disparities are more likely attributed to social environments and structural determinants such as a shortage of sexual healthcare providers, lower socioeconomic status, and access barriers to STI screening and treatment, including geographic isolation and confidentiality concerns. Innovative, non-clinic based alternatives to promote STI screening and treatment are essential for alleviating these disparities. Self-care, or the care taken by individuals towards their own health and well-being may be such a strategy. This study will assess the efficacy of a self-care intervention, called Protecting Our Future Generation, for increasing uptake of STI screening and impacting sexual risk and protective behaviors among Native American youth and young adults living in a reservation-based community in the Southwestern United States. METHODS: The proposed study is a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a self-care intervention compared to a control condition. Participants will be Native Americans ages 14-26 years old who have had vaginal or anal sex at least once in their lifetime. Participants will be randomized to the intervention which includes: 1) a sexual health self-assessment with embedded clinical prediction tool predicting STI positivity, and 2) personalized messaging with key steps to lower risk for STIs, or the control condition which includes: 1) a self-assessment about water, soda and sugar sweetened beverage consumption, and 2) personalized messaging to meet recommended daily intake. All participants will be offered a self-administered STI test. Participants will complete assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-months follow-up. The primary outcome measure is completion of STI screening. DISCUSSION: Protecting Our Future Generation is among the first self-care interventions uniquely focused on sexual health among a Native American population, who endure significant sexual health disparities and are under-represented in research. If efficacious, the intervention will be a model of sexual health self-care for Native American youth and young adults adaptable for use in healthcare and community-based settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials: http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT03895320; Registered 03/28/2019.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Índios Norte-Americanos/psicologia , Autocuidado/métodos , Educação Sexual/métodos , Saúde Sexual/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Responsabilidade Social , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 188, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The decline in global and between-country health inequality is a major challenge to overcome. However, few studies have systematically investigated the relationship between inequality of health stock and national wealth. From an economic perspective, health can be viewed as a durable capital stock that produces an output of healthy time. Therefore, in this paper, we focused on health capital to investigate the relationship between inequalities of national health and national wealth. METHODS: Based on health stock data from 1990 to 2015 for 140 countries, we estimated Gini coefficients of health stock to investigate associations with a well-known economic flow indicator, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), stock-based national wealth indicator, Inclusive Wealth Index (IWI), and firm-level net income. RESULTS: The estimated Gini coefficient of global health stock shows that health stock has experienced a global decline. The Gini coefficient for low-income countries (LICs) showed the fastest decline in health stock, dropping from 0.69 to 0.66 in 25 years. Next, rapid population growth and the rise in the youth share of the working-age population in LICs were most likely contributing factors to the decline in inequality. Most countries that experienced positive health stock growth also indicated a strong positive relationship with GDP and IWI. However, some countries showed a negative relationship with natural capital, which is a part of IWI. In addition, firm-level net income showed no obvious associations with health stock, GDP and IWI. CONCLUSIONS: We argue that a negative relationship between health stock and natural capital is a sign of unstable development because sustainable development involves maintaining not only GDP but also IWI, as it is a collective set of assets or wealth comprising human, produced and natural capital. Moreover, in our analysis of firm-level income data, we also discuss that income will be influenced by other factors, such as innovations, human resources, organization culture and strategy. Therefore, the paper concludes that health stock is a vital component in measuring health inequality and health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Thus, IWI is more comprehensive in measuring national wealth and can complement GDP in measuring progress toward sustainable development.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD011207, 2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community pharmacies are an easily accessible and cost-effective platform for delivering health care worldwide, and the range of services provided has undergone rapid expansion in recent years. Thus, in addition to dispensing medication, pharmacy workers within community pharmacies now give advice on a range of health-promoting behaviours that aim to improve health and to optimise the management of long-term conditions. However, it remains uncertain whether these health-promotion interventions can change the professional practice of pharmacy workers, improve health behaviours and outcomes for pharmacy users and have the potential to address health inequalities. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of health-promotion interventions to change community pharmacy workers' professional practice and improve outcomes for users of community pharmacies. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, six other databases and two trials registers to 6 February 2018. We also conducted reference checking, citation searches and contacted study authors to identify any additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials of health-promotion interventions in community pharmacies targeted at, or delivered by, pharmacy workers that aimed to improve the health-related behaviour of people attending the pharmacy compared to no treatment, or usual treatment received in the community pharmacy. We excluded interventions where there was no interaction between pharmacy workers and pharmacy users, and those that focused on medication use only. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard procedures recommended by Cochrane and the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care review group for both data collection and analysis. We compared intervention to no intervention or to usual treatment using standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) (higher scores represent better outcomes for pharmacy user health-related behaviour and quality of life, and lower scores represent better outcomes for clinical outcomes, costs and adverse events). Interpretation of effect sizes (SMD) was in line with Cochrane recommendations. MAIN RESULTS: We included 57 randomised trials with 16,220 participants, described in 83 reports. Forty-nine studies were conducted in high-income countries, and eight in middle-income countries. We found no studies that had been conducted in low-income countries. Most interventions were educational, or incorporated skills training. Interventions were directed at pharmacy workers (n = 8), pharmacy users (n = 13), or both (n = 36). The clinical areas most frequently studied were diabetes, hypertension, asthma, and modification of cardiovascular risk. Duration of follow-up of interventions was often unclear. Only five studies gave details about the theoretical basis for the intervention, and studies did not provide sufficient data to comment on health inequalities. The most common sources of bias were lack of protection against contamination - mainly in individually randomised studies - and inadequate blinding of participants. The certainty of the evidence for all outcomes was moderate. We downgraded the certainty because of the heterogeneity across studies and evidence of potential publication bias. Professional practice outcomes We conducted a narrative analysis for pharmacy worker behaviour due to high heterogeneity in the results. Health-promotion interventions probably improve pharmacy workers' behaviour (2944 participants; 9 studies; moderate-certainty evidence) when compared to no intervention. These studies typically assessed behaviour using a simulated patient (mystery shopper) methodology. Pharmacy user outcomes Health-promotion interventions probably lead to a slight improvement in health-related behaviours of pharmacy users when compared to usual treatment (SMD 0.43, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.72; I2 = 89%; 10 trials; 2138 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). These interventions probably also lead to a slight improvement in intermediate clinical outcomes, such as levels of cholesterol or glycated haemoglobin, for pharmacy users (SMD -0.43, 95% CI -0.65 to -0.21; I2 = 90%; 20 trials; 3971 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We identified no studies that evaluated the impact of health-promotion interventions on event-based clinical outcomes, such as stroke or myocardial infarction, or the psychological well-being of pharmacy users. Health-promotion interventions probably lead to a slight improvement in quality of life for pharmacy users (SMD 0.29, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.50; I2= 82%; 10 trials, 2687 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Adverse events No studies reported adverse events for either pharmacy workers or pharmacy users. Costs We found that health-promotion interventions are likely to be cost-effective, based on moderate-certainty evidence from five of seven studies that reported an economic evaluation. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Health-promotion interventions in the community pharmacy context probably improve pharmacy workers' behaviour and probably have a slight beneficial effect on health-related behaviour, intermediate clinical outcomes, and quality of life for pharmacy users. Such interventions are likely to be cost-effective and the effects are seen across a range of clinical conditions and health-related behaviours. Nevertheless the magnitude of the effects varies between conditions, and more effective interventions might be developed if greater consideration were given to the theoretical basis of the intervention and mechanisms for effecting behaviour change.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica , Doença Crônica/terapia , Comunicação , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Gerenciamento Clínico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519889934, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789085

RESUMO

Human trafficking is associated with a profound burden of physical and psychological trauma. Survivors of trafficking interact with the health care system during and after their experiences of trafficking. Socioeconomic isolation, stigma, shame, guilt, fear of judgment, fear of retribution by traffickers, fear of law enforcement authorities, and other factors known to inhibit disclosure can exert a formative influence on survivors' health care experiences, health care access, and health services engagement. Using a mixed qualitative-quantitative social science research method, known as by-person factor analysis (or Q-methodology), the current analysis systematically examines the scope of trafficking survivors' health care experiences and perceptions of medical care, health care access behaviors, and degree of engagement with health services. Among 33 survivors of human trafficking surveyed, 21 met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Three distinct profiles of survivor health care experiences and health services engagement-Avoidant, Distrustful, and Constrained-are identified from the aggregate of survivors' perceptions of medical care. Although there are salient differences across the three survivor profiles, a feeling of disenfranchisement is a common thread and directly related to health care access behaviors and health services engagement. Understanding that the feeling of disenfranchisement functions as a filter through which trafficking survivors perceive and experience medical care can help health care professionals take appropriate countermeasures. Implications for improving health care access and engagement include the implementation of trauma-responsive, culturally sensitive, and survivor-centered care practices.

8.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 39(12): 317-322, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injuries are among the top 10 leading causes of death in Canada. However, the types and rates of injuries vary between rural versus urban settings. Injury rates increase with rurality, particularly those related to motor vehicle collisions. Factors such as type of work, hazardous environments and longer driving distances contribute to the difference in rural and urban injury rates. Further examination of injuries comparing rural and urban settings with increased granularity in the nature of injuries and severity is needed. METHODS: The study population consisted of records from the electronic Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (eCHIRPP) from between 2011 and July 2017. Rural and urban status was determined based on postal codes as defined by Canada Post. Proportionate injury ratios (PIRs) were calculated to compare rural and urban injury rates by nature and severity of injury and sex, among other factors. RESULTS: Rural injuries were more likely to involve multiple injuries (PIR = 1.66 for 3 injuries) and crush injuries (PIR = 1.72). More modestly elevated PIRs for rural settings were found for animal bites (1.14), burns (1.22), eye injuries (1.32), fractures (1.20) and muscle or soft tissue injuries (1.11). Injuries in rural areas were more severe, with a higher likelihood of cases being admitted to hospital (1.97), and they were more likely to be due to a motor vehicle collision (2.12). CONCLUSION: The nature of injuries in rural settings differ from those in urban settings. This suggests a need to evaluate current injury prevention efforts in rural settings with the aim to close the gap between rural and urban injury rates.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1673, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite policy intention to reach disadvantaged populations, inequalities in health care resource use and health outcomes persist in Nepal. The current study aimed to investigate the trend of full vaccination coverage among infants and its equity gaps between Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) 2001 and 2016. METHODS: Using data from NDHS conducted in 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016, we investigated the trend of coverage of six antigens: Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG), Diptheria, Pertussis, Tetanus (DPT), Polio, and Measles during their infancy among children aged 12-23 months. We presented trends and correlates of full vaccination coverage by different socio-demographic factors. We measured inequalities in full vaccination coverage by wealth quintile and maternal education using absolute measure (slope index of inequality) and relative measures (Relative index of inequality, concentration index) of inequalities. RESULTS: Full vaccination coverage among infants steadily increased from 65.6% in 2001 to 87.0% in 2011; however, it decreased to 77.8% in 2016. Province 2 had a significantly lower full vaccination coverage compared to Province1.Although decreasing over time, there were significant inequalities by household wealth quintiles and maternal educational status. The slope index of inequality (SII) for wealth quintiles decreased from - 32.3 [- 45.5,-19.1] in 2001 to an SII of-8.4 [- 18.6,-1.7] in 2016. Similarly, the SII for education decreased from - 61.8 [- 73.5,-50.1] in 2001 to an SII of - 30.5 [- 40.7,-20.2] in 2016. Similarly, the relative index of inequality (RII) also showed an improvement over time, indicating the narrowing equity gap. Additionally, concentration index on full vaccination coverage by wealth quintiles dropped from 0.21 (0.12-0.28) in 2001 to 0.054 (- 0.01-0.12) in 2016. Absolute and relative inequalities were persistently larger by maternal educational status compared to household wealth quintiles throughout the study period. CONCLUSION: Full vaccination coverage in Nepal increased from 2001 until 2011 but saw a significant decrement away from the national target after 2011. However, the equity gap by household wealth quintile and maternal education status has narrowed over time. National Immunization programs need to give higher emphasis to infants born to mothers with less education, those born in the poorer wealth quintile households, and those living in Province 2.


Assuntos
Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Demografia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nepal , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e032073, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857305

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: More than 70% of world mortality is due to chronic conditions. Furthermore, it has been proven that social determinants have an enormous impact on both health-related behaviour and on the received attention from healthcare services. These determinants cause health inequalities. The objective of this study is to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in five European regions, hereby focusing on vulnerable populations, and to increase the sustainability of health systems by implementing a chronic disease self-management programme (CDSMP). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 2000 people with chronic conditions or informal caregivers belonging to vulnerable populations, will be enrolled in the CDSMP in Spain, Italy, the UK, France and the Netherlands. Inclusion of patients will be based on geographical, socioeconomic and clinical stratification processes. The programme will be evaluated in terms of self-efficacy, quality of life and cost-effectiveness using a combination of validated questionnaires at baseline and 6 months from baseline. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will follow the directives of the Helsinki Declaration and will adhere to the European Union General Data Protection Regulation. The project's activities, progress and outcomes will be disseminated via promotional materials, the use of mass media, online activities, presentations at events and scientific publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN70517103; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Autogestão/métodos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Cuidadores , Doença Crônica/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Autogestão/educação
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1917995, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860105

RESUMO

Importance: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is rarely studied in populations who may face additional barriers to participate in cancer screening, such as African American individuals and individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES). Objective: To examine the associations of CRC screening and modalities with CRC incidence and mortality by race and SES. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the Southern Community Cohort Study, which enrolled more than 85 000 participants from community health centers or stratified random sampling of the general population in 12 states in the southeastern United States. The present study included data from cohort members who were eligible for CRC screening as recommended by expert organizations based on age and family history. Participants completed questionnaires from 2002 to 2009 and were contacted again from 2008 to 2012. Linkages to state cancer registries and the National Death Index as of December 31, 2016, identified incident CRC and vital status. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2018, to October 30, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident CRC (n = 632) and mortality (n = 10 003). Cox proportional hazards regression models evaluated associations between screening modalities and CRC risk and mortality. Information on fecal occult blood test use was only obtained on the follow-up questionnaire. Self-identified race was measured as African American/black, white, or other, and SES was defined by household income. Results: This study included 47 596 participants (median baseline age, 54 years [interquartile range, 10 years]; 32 185 [67.6%] African American; 28 884 [60.7%] female; and 26 075 [54.8%] with household income <$15 000). A total of 24 432 participants (63.9%) had never undergone CRC testing at baseline. The CRC testing assessed at baseline and follow-up interviews was associated with significant CRC risk reduction (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44-0.70 for ever colonoscopy at baseline). Results were similar in analyses stratified by race (African American: HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50-0.85; white: HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.27-0.70) and household income (<$15 000: HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46-0.86, ≥$15 000: HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.35-0.69). Ever sigmoidoscopy at baseline was associated with CRC risk reduction (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51-0.87), and undergoing fecal occult blood test in the interval between baseline and follow-up interview was associated with CRC risk reduction (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57-0.98). Inverse associations were also observed between CRC mortality and receipt of colonoscopy (HR for women, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.21-0.73; HR for men, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.40-1.18) and sigmoidoscopy (HR for women, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.85; HR for men, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.46-1.47); however, the association did not extend to fecal occult blood test (HR for women, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.62-1.70; HR for men, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.55-1.93). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, CRC test rates were low among African American individuals and those with low SES. The findings suggest that screening, particularly with colonoscopy, is significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC and mortality. The CRC disparities experienced by individuals with low SES and African American individuals may be lessened by improving access to and uptake of CRC screening.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Colonoscopia/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Classe Social , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
13.
Horiz. sanitario (en linea) ; 18(3): 281-293, sep.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056293

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Conocer las condiciones de equidad en el acceso a la salud durante el período de 2000 a 2010 que caracterizan los entornos en los que se desarrolla la población del país, a través de la construcción de un instrumento denominado Índice de Equidad en Salud para el Desarrollo Humano Sustentable (IESADHS), con la finalidad de determinar cuáles son los estados de la república mexicana más inequitativos. Materiales y métodos: El IESADHS tiene como base 16 indicadores relacionados con las condiciones básicas de la salud, los procesos socioeconómicos de la salud, y de la cobertura sanitaria, así como con el acceso a los servicios de salud y la garantía del derecho a la protección en salud. Su proceso de estimación se llevó a cabo a partir de cuatro etapas: estandarización de los indicadores, aplicación de la técnica de Análisis de Componentes Principales, aplicación de la técnica de Escalamiento Lineal (escala entre 0 y 1), y aplicación de la técnica de Estratificación Óptima de Dalenius y Hodges (5 grados de equidad en salud). Resultados: Los hallazgos indican que del año 2000 a 2010, se agudizaron las condiciones de inequidad en las regiones Sur y Este del país, y en una parte del Centro norte, registrando importantes disminuciones en sus grados de equidad en salud. Conclusiones: El acceso a la salud en el país, se desarrolla en entornos de falta de cobertura e inequidad y una gestión deficiente por parte de las instituciones púbicas, principalmente de las que prestan los servicios de salud.


Abstract Object: Know the conditions of equity in access to health during the period 2000 to 2010 that characterize the environments in which the country's population develops, through the construction of an instrument called the Health Equity Index for Sustainable Human Development (IESADHS in Spanish), in order to determine the most inequitable states of the Mexican Republic. Materials and methods: The IESADHS is based on 16 indicators related to the basic conditions of health, socioeconomic health processes, and health coverage, as well as access to health services and the guarantee of the right to health, health protection. The estimation process was carried out from four stages: standardization of the indicators, application of the principal component, analysis technique, application of the Linear Scaling technique (scale between 0 and 1), and application of the Optimal Stratification technique of Dalenius and Hodges (5 degrees of equity in health). Results: The findings indicate that from 2000 to 2010, the conditions of inequality in the South and East of the country were deteriorated, and in a part of the North Center, registering important decreases in their degrees of health equity. Conclusions: Access to health in the country takes place in environments of lack of coverage and inequity and poor management by public institutions, mainly those that provide health services.


Résumé Objectif: Connaître les conditions d'équité d'accès à la santé entre 2000 et 2010 qui caractérisent les environnements dans lesquels la population du pays se développe, par la construction d'un instrument appelé indice d'equité en santé pour le développement humain durable (IESADHS en Espagnol), afin de déterminer les états les plus inégaux du Mexique. Matériaux et méthodes: L'IESADHS est basé sur 16 indicateurs liés aux conditions de santé de base, les processus socio-économiques de la santé et de la couverture sanitaire, ainsi qu'avec l'accès aux services de santé et la garantie du droit à la protection de la santé. Le processus d'estimation a été réalisé à partir de quatre étapes: normalisation des indicateurs, application de la technique de l'analyse en composantes principales application de la technique de mise à l'échelle linéaire (échelle entre 0 et 1), et application de la technique de stratification optimale de Dalenius et Hodges (5 degrés d'équité en matière de santé). Résultats: Les résultats indiquent que, de 2000 à 2010, les conditions d'inégalité dans les régions du sud et de l'est du pays se sont aggravées, et dans une partie du Centre-Nord, leur degré d'équité en santé a fortement diminué. Conclusions: L'accès à la santé dans le pays se déroule dans des environnements de manque de couverture, d'iniquité et de mauvaise gestion par les institutions publiques, principalement celles qui fournissent des services de santé.


Resumo Objetivo: Conhecer as condições de equidade no acesso à saúde no período de 2000 a 2010 que caracterizam o ambiente em que a população do país se desenvolve, através da construção de um instrumento chamado Índice de Equidade em Saúde para o Desenvolvimento Humano Sustentável (IESADHS), a fim de determinar quais são os estados com maior desigualdade da República Mexicana. Materiais e métodos: O IESADHS baseia-se em 16 indicadores relacionados com as condições básicas de saúde, os processos socioeconómicos de saúde e a cobertura sanitária de saúde, bem como o acesso aos serviços de saúde e à garantia do direito à saúde. O processo de estimação foi realizado a partir de quatro etapas: padronização dos indicadores, aplicação da técnica de Análise de Componentes Principais, aplicação da técnica de Linear Scaling (escala entre 0 e 1) e aplicação da técnica de Estratificação de Dalenius e Hodges (5 graus de equidade em saúde). Resultados: Os achados indicam que, no período de 2000 a 2010, as condições de desigualdade se agravaram nas regiões Sul e Leste do país, e no Centro Norte, registou-se decréscimos significativos ao nível da equidade em saúde. Conclusões: O acesso à saúde no país ocorre em ambientes de desigualdade na cobertura o que implica uma má gestão por parte das instituições públicas, principalmente aquelas que prestam serviços de saúde.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0227007, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy(HL) has recently been proposed as a potential mediator in the pathway through which socio-economic status(SES) affects health. However, empirical research investigating the contribution of HL in this relationship remains scarce. This study investigated whether functional HL mediates the association between SES and self-reported health(SRH) in an adult population-based sample. METHODS: The study adopted a cross-sectional design. Education level and financial status were used as measures of SES, while functional HL was assessed with the Newest Vital Sign. Moderated mediation analyses were conducted using SES variables as independent variables, SRH as dependent variable and functional HL as mediator variable. Furthermore, age, sex and chronic diseases were tested as moderators of the effect mediated by functional HL. RESULTS: 452 subjects completed the study (58,8% female; mean age 53,25±11,7). Results showed that functional HL mediates on average 18.5% of the association between education and SRH (p = 0.02) and 12.9% (p = 0.01) of the association between financial status and SRH. Furthermore, the proportion of effect mediated by functional HL was found to be higher in lower socio-economic classes for both SES variables considered. No significant moderation effects of age, sex or chronic diseases were observed for both SES variables. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that functional HL may serve as a pathway by which SES affects health status, especially in lower SES groups. HL may be a valuable and actionable intermediate target for addressing health inequalities. However, further studies are needed to better define the mediating role of HL across socio-economic classes.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Classe Social , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Status Econômico , Escolaridade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza
15.
Inquiry ; 56: 46958019895897, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868092

RESUMO

Chronic diseases have become serious threats to public health in China; the risk is particularly high for internal migrants. Chronic disease education is a key to the prevention and control of chronic diseases for such population. The national population-based Migrants Population Dynamic Monitoring Survey (MPSMA) was used to examine the current status and delivery methods of chronic disease education among internal migrants, from both provincial level and individual's level. The study population included 402 587 internal migrants. Multilevel logistic regression was used to investigate factors that were related to chronic diseases education. In total, only 33.9% of the participants received chronic disease education. In the final model, parameter estimates on key variables from both individual and provincial level were significant (P < .001). Participants from provinces with higher level of health care resources and lower density of internal migrants were more likely to receive chronic disease education. The percentage and methods of receiving education varied across different age groups. This study suggests that future chronic disease education in China need to be more focused on areas with high density of internal migrants and younger internal migrants with low level of education and income. Attention should be paid to use tailored education methods to different populations.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Educação em Saúde , Dinâmica Populacional , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , China , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Global Health ; 15(1): 67, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Countries must be able to describe and monitor their populations health and well-being needs in an attempt to understand and address them. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have re-emphasized the need to invest in comprehensive health information systems to monitor progress towards health equity; however, knowledge on the capacity of health information systems to be able do this, particularly in low-income countries, remains very limited. As a case study, we aimed to evaluate the current capacity of the national health information systems in Mozambique, and the available indicators to monitor health inequalities, in line with SDG 3 (Good Health and Well Being for All at All Ages). METHODS: A data source mapping of the health information system in Mozambique was conducted. We followed the World Health Organization's methodology of assessing data sources to evaluate the information available for every equity stratifier using a three-point scale: 1 - information is available, 2 - need for more information, and 3 - an information gap. Also, for each indicator we estimated the national average inequality score. RESULTS: Eight data sources contain health information to measure and monitor progress towards health equity in line with the 27 SDG3 indicators. Seven indicators bear information with nationally funded data sources, ten with data sources externally funded, and ten indicators either lack information or it does not applicable for the matter of the study. None of the 27 indicators associated with SDG3 can be fully disaggregated by equity stratifiers; they either lack some information (15 indicators) or do not have information at all (nine indicators). The indicators that contain more information are related to maternal and child health. CONCLUSIONS: There are important information gaps in Mozambique's current national health information system which prevents it from being able to comprehensively measure and monitor health equity. Comprehensive national health information systems are an essential public health need. Significant policy and political challenges must also be addressed to ensure effective interventions and action towards health equity in the country.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde/organização & administração , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Moçambique , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 249(4): 291-294, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875580

RESUMO

Resolution of regional disparities in cancer mortality is global challenge. Establishing an equal system of cancer treatment throughout the country is required under the Cancer Control Act in Japan. The types of treated cancer may reflect practical experience at the institutions and cooperation to other institutions. This study investigated the types treated at the institutions in rural communities of Japan. A questionnaire survey was conducted for 811 public rural institutions (clinics and small-to-middle-sized hospitals [< 200 beds]) in 2013. The survey's items included the types of treated cancer (14 categories: stomach, colon, breast, liver, biliary tract, pancreatic, prostate, esophageal, lung, renal, urinary tract, testicular, hematopoietic, and others) and the first five types were defined as major cancers. The data were analyzed between hospitals and clinics. The response rate was about 60%, and of 177 hospitals and 281 clinics, 54 hospitals (30%) and 10 clinics (3%) reported the types of cancer. The median number of cancer types in hospitals was significantly greater than that of clinics (4 [interquartile range 3.0-7.8]) vs. 1 [1.0-1.8], P < 0.01). The prevalence of hospitals treating at least one of five major cancers was significantly greater than that of clinics (96% vs. 30%, P < 0.01). The prevalence of clinics treating prostate cancer was significantly greater than that of hospitals (31% vs. 70%, P = 0.03). In conclusion, most types of cancer are treated at small-to-middle-sized hospitals, except for prostate cancer, providing basic information about cancer treatment in rural communities of Japan.


Assuntos
Tamanho das Instituições de Saúde , Neoplasias/terapia , População Rural , Pessoal de Saúde , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitais , Japão
18.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(2): 33-45, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885434

RESUMO

Abortion in Morocco is illegal except to safeguard a woman's life or health. Morocco has put some sexual and reproductive health policies into motion that are in line with the standards defined by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Population Fund, especially after the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, but Morocco's Penal Code continues to criminalize the practice. This paper explores how proposed reforms to the abortion law that on the surface seem to legalize abortion in cases of severe health disorders or rape in reality moralize abortion, since vulnerable women should prove these conditions through lengthy bureaucratic procedures. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork on unplanned pregnancies, I examine the social and health inequalities surrounding illegal abortion. My results show that socioeconomic status, education, geography, and marital status all play a role in delineating which women are willing or able to obtain an abortion and under which conditions the abortion takes place. I use the concept of "reproductive governance" to examine the relevance of rights-based approaches in Morocco, ultimately arguing that the intersection of socioeconomic and political processes in the country normalizes the risk and occurrence of illegal abortion, particularly for unmarried women living in precarious socioeconomic conditions, who are not addressed by sexual and reproductive health policies.1.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Pessoa Solteira , Direitos da Mulher , Antropologia Cultural , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Civil , Marrocos , Política , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1732, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Finding effective intervention strategies to combat rising obesity levels could significantly reduce the burden that obesity and associated non-communicable diseases places on both individuals and the National Health Service. METHODS: In this parallel randomised-controlled trial, 76 participants who are overweight or obese (50 female) were given free access to a fitness centre for the duration of the 12-week intervention and randomised to one of three interventions. The commercial intervention, the Healthy Weight Programme, (HWP, n = 25, 10/15 men/women) consisted of twelve 1-h nutrition coaching sessions with a nutritionist delivered as a mixture of group and 1 to 1 sessions. In addition, twice-weekly exercise sessions (24 in total) were delivered by personal trainers for 12 weeks. The NHS intervention (n = 25, 8/17 men/women) consisted of following an entirely self-managed 12-week online NHS resource. The GYM intervention (n = 26, 8/18 men/women) received no guidance or formal intervention. All participants were provided with a gym induction for safety and both the NHS and GYM participants were familiarised with ACSM physical activity guidelines by way of a hand-out. RESULTS: The overall follow-up rate was 83%. Body mass was significantly reduced at post-intervention in all groups (HWP: N = 18, - 5.17 ± 4.22 kg, NHS: N = 21-4.19 ± 5.49 kg; GYM: N = 24-1.17 ± 3.00 kg; p < 0.001) with greater reductions observed in HWP and NHS groups compared to GYM (p < 0.05). Out with body mass and BMI, there were no additional statistically significant time x intervention interaction effects. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate the efficacy of both a free online NHS self-help weight-loss tool and a commercial weight loss programme that provides face-to-face nutritional support and supervised exercise. The findings suggest that both interventions are superior to an active control condition with regard to eliciting short-term weight-loss. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry - ISRCTN31489026. Prospectively registered: 27/07/16.


Assuntos
Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido , Programas de Redução de Peso/economia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878112

RESUMO

The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) is associated with the clinical outcomes of different types of cancer as well as the ranking of health care systems. However, the association between MIRs for testicular cancer and health care disparities, including differences in expenditures and health system rankings, has not yet been reported. We used the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (CC) to analyze the correlation between testicular cancer MIRs and both total expenditures on health/gross domestic product (e/GDP) and the World Health Organization's (WHO) health system rankings. After screening the data for quality and missing information, 57 countries were chosen for analysis. Generally, developed countries and regions had relatively high rates of incidence/mortality, but with a favorable MIR. Among the continents, Europe had the highest incidence rates, whereas the highest MIRs were in Africa. Globally, favorable testicular cancer MIRs were observed in countries with both a high e/GDP and a good WHO ranking (R2 = 0.325, p < 0.001 and CC = -0.568, p < 0.001; R2 = 0.367, p < 0.001 and CC = 0.655, p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the MIR for testicular cancer varies in countries and regions based on both their total health expenditure and their health care system ranking.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Neoplasias Testiculares/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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