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1.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-16, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the relevant research on religious organizations' participation in disasters risk management and to understand the ways in which these organizations impact on disaster management. Today, community-based disaster risk management is emphasized as a very effective approach. Religious organizations are one of the most important components of community. They have access to resources that can be critical to help government agencies to manage disasters successfully. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted since August 2018 to investigate the role of religious institutions in disasters management and was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed, Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, Proquest, Embase, and Google scholar were the primary databases used for search of literature. Keywords used in this review were "religious institution," "disaster management," and their equivalents were obtained from Mesh, Emtree, or extracted from related articles. The papers from a broad range of disciplines related to keywords were included, and those articles that focus on response to disaster based on religious beliefs' and religion rather than participation of religious institutions in disaster risk management were excluded. From the 18,071 records identified through database searching in the early stage, 22 articles were selected for this review followed by analysis of the characteristics and content analysis of the included studies to answer the study questions. RESULTS: The findings of this systematic review that emerged from content analysis are summarized in 11 themes: religious institutions' potential for disaster management, preparedness of religious institutions for disasters, response, recovery, the social capital, partnership with all stakeholders, collaboration and communication between mental health professionals and faith-based organization leaders, unity of information and message, religious institution shelters, dealing with disaster in old and new approaches, and barriers and challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Religious institutions have a vital role and great potential in disasters management. They often contribute in response and recovery phases of disasters, although these services are valuable but the great potential of these groups should also be recruited to participate in preparedness and mitigation efforts as part of disasters cycle. Coordination and collaboration of all stakeholders is essential in this way.

2.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959272

RESUMO

Disaster-induced displacement is associated with an increased risk of physical and mental health disorders. We aim to understand (1) the magnitude and pattern of natural disasters, affected-population, and deaths by analyzing the surveillance data by the Emergency Events Database and (2) health outcomes by a systematic review of previous studies (1975-2017), which reported physical or mental health outcomes and epidemiological measure of association among population displaced by natural disasters in Southeast Asia. A total of 674 disasters, mainly floods, storms, and earthquakes, occurred between 2004 and 2017. From the systematic review, among 6 studies met inclusion criteria, which focused on mental health (n = 5) and physical health (n = 1). All studies describing mental health resulted from the 2004 tsunami in Ache, Indonesia. We found over 7 times more publications for the disasters in Far East Asia. Selected studies revealed significantly worse mental health outcomes and poor physical health among displaced population compared with nondisplaced population. Despite the alarmingly large population displaced by natural disasters in Southeast Asia, very few studies investigate physical and mental health outcomes of such crisis. Following the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, researcher and policy-makers have to present more resources toward preventing and mitigating health outcomes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940859

RESUMO

In the immediate aftermath of disaster, governments usually act quickly to reduce risk and to recover their communities' socio-economic functioning. Policy makers in these situations need-but may not have the capacity or time for-substantial analysis and public debate about how to balance short- and long-term societal needs. Inadequate attention to this challenge may result in a deepening of the inequities that increase vulnerability to disaster impacts. We review case examples to illustrate how post-disaster policies may influence the nature, pace, and inclusiveness of community recovery. We then apply a vulnerability/inequity framework to conceptualize how to enhance disaster recovery and avoid perpetuating inequities when weighing the diverse needs of communities across long time horizons.

4.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 23(1): 52-67, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991077

RESUMO

AIM: To analyze catharsis techniques used with professionals assisting victims of emergencies and disasters. METHODS: Systematic review carried out in seven bibliographic databases: MEDLINE-Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, and other secondary sources, for articles published between 2008 and 2017, with the terms "catharsis", "emergencies", "debriefing" y "post-traumatic stress". Publication and selection biases were taken into account. RESULTS: Five reviews met the study inclusion criteria. Distress and traumatic experiences following an emergency or disaster are very common among health professionals, with adverse repercussions at the physical, psychological and cognitive levels. Some authors find that debriefing offers an opportunity for emotional release and toreduce the impact of stress on the lives of emergency responders, acting as a support network where they can reconstruct their experiences, express their thoughts and feelings, and reduce the impact on their lives. For other authors, however, this technique is not always effective for all professionals and may lead to negative consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Debriefing is a common intervention that promotes catharsis. However, there is considerable controversy over its implementation and effectiveness. This study identified a diversity of catharsis techniques applied to staff responding to emergencies and disasters.

5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928571

RESUMO

Simulation is an effective teaching tool in disaster medicine education, and the use of simulated patients (SPs) is a frequently adopted technique. Throughout this article, we critically analyzed the use and the preparation of SPs in the context of simulation in disaster medicine. A systematic review of English, French, and Italian language articles was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar. Studies were included if reporting the use of SPs in disaster medicine training. Exclusion criteria included abstracts, citations, theses, articles not dealing with disaster medicine, and articles not using human actors in simulation. Eighteen papers were examined. All the studies were conducted in Western countries. Case reports represent 50% of references. Only in 44.4% of articles, the beneficiaries of simulations were students, while in most of cases were professionals. In 61.1% of studies SPs were moulaged, and in 72.2%, a method to simulate victim symptoms was adopted. Ten papers included a previous training for SPs and their involvement in the participants' assessment at the end of the simulation. Finally, this systematic review revealed that there is still a lack of uniformity about the use of SPs in the disaster medicine simulations.

6.
Global Health ; 16(1): 9, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging and re-emerging diseases with pandemic potential continue to challenge fragile health systems in Africa, creating enormous human and economic toll. To provide evidence for the investment case for public health emergency preparedness, we analysed the spatial and temporal distribution of epidemics, disasters and other potential public health emergencies in the WHO African region between 2016 and 2018. METHODS: We abstracted data from several sources, including: the WHO African Region's weekly bulletins on epidemics and emergencies, the WHO-Disease Outbreak News (DON) and the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) of the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED). Other sources were: the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases (ProMED) and the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON). We included information on the time and location of the event, the number of cases and deaths and counter-checked the different data sources. DATA ANALYSIS: We used bubble plots for temporal analysis and generated graphs and maps showing the frequency and distribution of each event. Based on the frequency of events, we categorised countries into three: Tier 1, 10 or more events, Tier 2, 5-9 events, and Tier 3, less than 5 or no event. Finally, we compared the event frequencies to a summary International Health Regulations (IHR) index generated from the IHR technical area scores of the 2018 annual reports. RESULTS: Over 260 events were identified between 2016 and 2018. Forty-one countries (87%) had at least one epidemic between 2016 and 2018, and 21 of them (45%) had at least one epidemic annually. Twenty-two countries (47%) had disasters/humanitarian crises. Seven countries (the epicentres) experienced over 10 events and all of them had limited or developing IHR capacities. The top five causes of epidemics were: Cholera, Measles, Viral Haemorrhagic Diseases, Malaria and Meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: The frequent and widespread occurrence of epidemics and disasters in Africa is a clarion call for investing in preparedness. While strengthening preparedness should be guided by global frameworks, it is the responsibility of each government to finance country specific needs. We call upon all African countries to establish governance and predictable financing mechanisms for IHR implementation and to build resilient health systems everywhere.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 709: 135888, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927426

RESUMO

As global climate warms, the occurrence frequency and loss of natural disaster are both increasing, posing a great threat to the sustainable development of human society. One of the most important approaches of disaster management is to prevent disaster and reduce disaster loss through fiscal expenditure of government; however, the optimal proportion of expenditure for disaster prevention and mitigation has always been a difficult issue that people concern about. First, this paper, after considering the impact of disaster on human capital, established a resident-manufacturer-government decision making model which contains the probability of disaster, and then solved the optimal proportion of government expenditure for disaster prevention and reduction as well as the expected economic growth rates under different conditions. Second, through numerical simulation method, this paper studied the impacts of such factors as coefficient of risk aversion and elasticity coefficient of substitution on the optimal proportion of disaster prevention and reduction expenditure. Third, through constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function and ridge regression method, this paper verified the applicability of the proposed model with the data of the expenditures for disaster prevention and mitigation of Hunan Province in 2014. Finally, this paper summarized the research results and put forward corresponding suggestions on policy. The theoretical model proposed in this paper enriches the related researches of disaster economics, and the conclusions of empirical analysis can provide government departments with useful reference for the practice of disaster prevention and mitigation.

8.
Risk Anal ; 40(1): 43-67, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239024

RESUMO

The concept of resilience and its relevance to disaster risk management has increasingly gained attention in recent years. It is common for risk and resilience studies to model system recovery by analyzing a single or aggregated measure of performance, such as economic output or system functionality. However, the history of past disasters and recent risk literature suggest that a single-dimension view of relevant systems is not only insufficient, but can compromise the ability to manage risk for these systems. In this article, we explore how multiple dimensions influence the ability for complex systems to function and effectively recover after a disaster. In particular, we compile evidence from the many competing resilience perspectives to identify the most critical resilience dimensions across several academic disciplines, applications, and disaster events. The findings demonstrate the need for a conceptual framework that decomposes resilience into six primary dimensions: workforce/population, economy, infrastructure, geography, hierarchy, and time (WEIGHT). These dimensions are not typically addressed holistically in the literature; often they are either modeled independently or in piecemeal combinations. The current research is the first to provide a comprehensive discussion of each resilience dimension and discuss how these dimensions can be integrated into a cohesive framework, suggesting that no single dimension is sufficient for a holistic analysis of a disaster risk management. Through this article, we also aim to spark discussions among researchers and policymakers to develop a multicriteria decision framework for evaluating the efficacy of resilience strategies. Furthermore, the WEIGHT dimensions may also be used to motivate the generation of new approaches for data analytics of resilience-related knowledge bases.

9.
Risk Anal ; 40(1): 97-116, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601643

RESUMO

This article introduces a new integrated scenario-based evacuation (ISE) framework to support hurricane evacuation decision making. It explicitly captures the dynamics, uncertainty, and human-natural system interactions that are fundamental to the challenge of hurricane evacuation, but have not been fully captured in previous formal evacuation models. The hazard is represented with an ensemble of probabilistic scenarios, population behavior with a dynamic decision model, and traffic with a dynamic user equilibrium model. The components are integrated in a multistage stochastic programming model that minimizes risk and travel times to provide a tree of evacuation order recommendations and an evaluation of the risk and travel time performance for that solution. The ISE framework recommendations offer an advance in the state of the art because they: (1) are based on an integrated hazard assessment (designed to ultimately include inland flooding), (2) explicitly balance the sometimes competing objectives of minimizing risk and minimizing travel time, (3) offer a well-hedged solution that is robust under the range of ways the hurricane might evolve, and (4) leverage the substantial value of increasing information (or decreasing degree of uncertainty) over the course of a hurricane event. A case study for Hurricane Isabel (2003) in eastern North Carolina is presented to demonstrate how the framework is applied, the type of results it can provide, and how it compares to available methods of a single scenario deterministic analysis and a two-stage stochastic program.

10.
Jamba ; 11(1): 759, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824604

RESUMO

This study investigates the correlation between disaster budget, index of disaster risks and the population of 23 districts in the Aceh province, northern Indonesia. It also explores how the budget for disasters is proposed and prepared by Indonesian local governments. A descriptive quantitative approach is used to examine this relationship. Data were collected from the budgets of local governments (Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah [BPBD] or local disaster management agency) and the disaster risk index. In addition, surveys were undertaken in which the respondents were the key officers in the BPBDs who are responsible for the budget and programmes to obtain detailed information about how the local government prepares their budget for disaster. By employing the Pearson's chi-square test and the Pearson correlation test, this study revealed no significant statistical relationship between the disaster budget and the level of disaster risks among districts or cities in the Aceh province, northern Indonesia. However, results show that the total budget of the local governments has a significant positive correlation with the disaster budget. The surveys also confirm the correlation between the total budget of the local government and disasters as the same budgeting procedure is applied. The result generalisability might be limited as this study only focused on one of Indonesia's provinces, Aceh. Keywords: disaster risk; disaster relief planning; disaster budget; local government; tsunami; Indonesia.

11.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; : 1-8, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826788

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Societies invest substantial amounts of resources on disaster preparedness of hospitals. However, the concept is not clearly defined nor operationalized in the international literature. AIM: This review aims to systematically assess definitions and operationalizations of disaster preparedness in hospitals, and to develop an all-encompassing model, incorporating different perspectives on the subject. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in five databases: Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Disaster Information Management Research Centre, and SafetyLit. Peer-reviewed articles containing definitions and operationalizations of disaster preparedness in hospitals were included. Articles published in languages other than English, or without available full-text, were excluded, as were articles on prehospital care. The findings from literature were used to build a model for hospital disaster preparedness. RESULTS: In the included publications, 13 unique definitions of disaster preparedness in hospitals and 22 different operationalizations of the concept were found. Although the definitions differed in emphasis and width, they also reflected similar elements. Based on an analysis of the operationalizations, nine different components could be identified that generally were not studied in relation to each other. Moreover, publications primarily focused on structure and process aspects of disaster preparedness. The aim of preparedness was described in seven articles. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: This review points at an absence of consensus on the definition and operationalization of disaster preparedness in hospitals. By combining elements of definitions and components operationalized, disaster preparedness could be conceptualized in a more comprehensive and complete way than before. The model presented can guide future disaster preparedness activities and research.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861677

RESUMO

The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is one of the most developed regions in China. This is also a flood-prone area where flood disasters are frequently experienced; the situations between the people-land nexus and the people-water nexus are very complicated. Therefore, the accurate assessment of flood risk is of great significance to regional development. The paper took the YRD urban agglomeration as the research case. The driving force, pressure, state, impact and response (DPSIR) conceptual framework was established to analyze the indexes of flood disasters. The random forest (RF) algorithm was used to screen important indexes of floods risk, and a risk assessment model based on the radial basis function (RBF) neural network was constructed to evaluate the flood risk level in this region from 2009 to 2018. The risk map showed the I-V level of flood risk in the YRD urban agglomeration from 2016 to 2018 by using the geographic information system (GIS). Further analysis indicated that the indexes such as flood season rainfall, urban impervious area ratio, gross domestic product (GDP) per square kilometer of land, water area ratio, population density and emergency rescue capacity of public administration departments have important influence on flood risk. The flood risk has been increasing in the YRD urban agglomeration during the past ten years under the urbanization background, and economic development status showed a significant positive correlation with flood risks. In addition, there were serious differences in the rising rate of flood risks and the status quo among provinces. There are still a few cities that have stabilized at a better flood-risk level through urban flood control measures from 2016 to 2018. These results were basically in line with the actual situation, which validated the effectiveness of the model. Finally, countermeasures and suggestions for reducing the urban flood risk in the YRD region were proposed, in order to provide decision support for flood control, disaster reduction and emergency management in the YRD region.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e17989, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764810

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Managing the health of vulnerable groups is an important component of health care. Given the long-term burden of radiation-release incidents among those exposed, managing the health of vulnerable groups following a nuclear disaster is very important. However, there is limited information available concerning the long-term management of the health effects of radiation exposure in vulnerable groups following nuclear disasters. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, Minamisoma City launched internal radiation exposure monitoring program for local residents, using whole body counter (WBC) units. In 2017, a man of low socio-economic status (SES), was found to have the highest level of internal contamination detected in a person living in the Soma District in recent years. This report describes the case so that the lessons learned can be applied in future nuclear disaster settings. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 77-year-old Japanese man, who had been homeless for 2 months and had been staying in the exclusion zone of Minamisoma City, was brought to our hospital. He had become homeless because a lack of communication between social support services had led to his eviction from leased housing after free housing support for evacuees was terminated. DIAGNOSES: He was admitted with a diagnosis of dehydration and malnutrition. A WBC unit was used to assess his body burden of radioactive cesium. This revealed levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 of 538 Bq/body and 4,993 Bq/body, respectively. INTERVENTION: He received intravenous fluid therapy and health monitoring. The paperwork required for him to receive public income support was processed during hospitalization. OUTCOME: He was discharged to public housing after 9 days, and municipal workers started visiting him regularly after his discharge. LESSONS: A high level of internal radiation contamination may occur after a nuclear disaster. This may be associated with a decline in social support, poverty, and social isolation, and may have more impact on people in poor health than on the general population. It would be useful to strengthen linkages between local government and welfare service providers to increase social support for vulnerable groups requiring health care, not only following disasters, but also under normal circumstances.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Exposição à Radiação , Classe Social , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Contagem Corporal Total
14.
World J Psychiatry ; 9(6): 83-98, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dissociation, which is defined as the failure to associate consciousness, memory, identity, emotion, perception, body representation, motor control, and behavior into an integrated whole, has long been assumed to be generated by trauma. If dissociation is a product of trauma exposure, then dissociation would be a major mental health outcome observed in studies of disaster survivors. Although some studies have examined dissociation in disasters, no systematic literature reviews have been conducted to date on the topic. AIM: To systematically evaluate the literature on the association between disaster and dissociation to determine the prevalence and incidence of dissociation after exposure to disaster and further examine their relationship. METHODS: EMBASE, Medline, and PsychINFO were searched from inception to January 1, 2019 to identify studies examining dissociative disorders or symptoms related to a disaster in adult or child disaster survivors and disaster responders. Studies of military conflicts and war, articles not in English, and those with samples of 30 or more participants were excluded. Search terms used were "disaster*" and dissociation ("dissociat*," "multiple personality," "fugue," "psychogenic amnesia," "derealization," and "depersonalization"). Reference lists of identified articles were scrutinized to identify studies for additional articles. RESULTS: The final number of articles in the review was 53, including 36 articles with samples of adults aged 18 and above, 5 of children/adolescents under age 18, and 12 of disaster workers. Included articles studied several types of disasters that occurred between 1989 and 2017, more than one-third (38%) from the United States. Only two studies had a primary aim to investigate dissociation in relation to disaster and none reported data on dissociative disorders. All of the studies used self-report symptom scales; none used structured interviews providing full diagnostic assessment of dissociative disorders or other psychopathology. Several studies mixed exposed and unexposed samples or did not differentiate outcomes between exposure groups. Studies examining associations between dissociation and disaster exposure have been inconclusive. The majority (75%) of the studies compared dissociation with posttraumatic stress, with inconsistent findings. Dissociation was found to be associated with a wide range of other psychiatric disorders, symptoms, and negative emotional, cognitive, and functional states. CONCLUSION: The studies reviewed had serious methodological limitations including problems with measurement of psychopathology, sampling, and generation of unwarranted conclusions, precluding conclusions that dissociation is an established outcome of disaster.

15.
Health Syst Reform ; 5(4): 307-321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661356

RESUMO

In the absence of good data on the costs and comparative benefits from investing in health emergency and disaster risk management (EDRM), governments have been reluctant to invest adequately in systems to reduce the risks and consequences of emergencies and disasters. Yet they spend heavily on their response. We describe a set of key functional areas for investment and action in health EDRM, and calculate the costs needed to establish and operate basic health EDRM services in low- and middle-income countries, focusing on management of epidemics and disasters from natural hazards.We find that health EDRM costs are affordable for most governments. They range from an additional 4.33 USD capital and 4.16 USD annual recurrent costs per capita in low-income countries to 1.35 USD capital to 1.41 USD recurrent costs in upper middle-income countries. These costs pale in comparison to the costs of not acting-the direct and indirect costs of epidemics and other emergencies from natural hazards are more than 20-fold higher.We also examine options for the institutional arrangements needed to design and implement health EDRM. We discuss the need for creating adaptive institutions, strengthening capacities of countries, communities and health systems for managing risks of emergencies, using "all-of-society" and "all-of-state institutions" approaches, and applying lessons about rules and regulations, behavioral norms, and organizational structures to better implement health EDRM. The economic and social value, and the feasibility of institutional options for implementing health EDRM systems should compel governments to invest in these common goods for health that strengthen national health security.

16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 656, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630270

RESUMO

The negative consequences of urbanisation have been recently recognised despite the social and economic benefits it provides to the community. Effects of urbanisation include increases in surface runoff, frequency and magnitude of floods and urban water harvesting capacity. Accordingly, this study utilised multi-spectral and multi-resolution satellite images combined with field data to conduct a quantitative assessment of the impact of urbanisation on urban flooding for the period of 1975-2015 in Ajman City, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Results showed that urban areas in the city have increased by approximately 12-fold over the period 1975-2015, whilst the population increased by approximately 16-fold. Owing to a substantial increase in urbanisation (as impervious areas expanded), minimum precipitation to generate runoff in built areas dropped from approximately 16.37 mm in 1975 to approximately 13.3 mm in 2015, which caused a substantial increase in the surface runoff. To visualise the flooding potential, urban flooding maps were generated using a well-established decision analysis technique called Analytical Hierarchy Process. The latter adopted three thematic factors, namely excess rain, elevation and slope. Flooding potential was then found to have increased substantially, specifically in the downtown area. Finally, this study is expected to contribute highly to flood protection and sustainable urban storm water management in Ajman City.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Inundações , Chuva , Urbanização , Movimentos da Água , Cidades , Modelos Teóricos , Imagens de Satélites , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Emirados Árabes Unidos
17.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(4): 305-320, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603521

RESUMO

The critical role of evacuation, particularly for the communities in developing countries exposed to cyclones, has only been realized after some disastrous evacuation experiences in recent cyclones. A profound understanding of the factors influencing the evacuation behavior is necessary to reduce the loss of lives, especially in the cyclone prone communities. The purpose of this research is to identify the key factors influencing households' evacuation decision during a cyclone in developing economies. To this end, the research employs state of the art discrete choice modeling techniques referred to as mixed logit models. The study builds on the data collected in 1991 from the coastal areas of Bangladesh following the cyclone Sidr. The analysis result reveals that the evacuees of developing countries like Bangladesh resort to nearby tall buildings during cyclone due to the insufficient facilities provided by the cyclone centers. In case of mandatory evacuation and for temporary house owner, the households' decision to evacuate is found to be uniform. However, significant heterogeneity is found in the households' decision to evacuate whenever they receive a voluntary notice and also if they live sufficiently far from the sea shore. The factors that are identified to be influencing households' evacuation decision during a cyclone will enable potential evacuees to better evaluate their decision and consequently make more informed decision about the timing as well as the necessity of evacuation. The analysis result will also help emergency managers to decide on the timing and the type of evacuation orders they need to provide for reducing causalities due to landfall caused by cyclones.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres , Bangladesh , Tomada de Decisões , Emergências , Humanos
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1278, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia experiences a high incidence of natural emergencies and Australian governments have committed significant investment into emergency preparedness and response. Amongst the population groups most vulnerable to emergencies are infants and young children with their vulnerability centering around their specific food and fluid needs. For this reason, the World Health Assembly has urged all member states to develop and implement infant and young child feeding in emergency (IYCF-E) plans in line with international guidance. This study aimed to determine the degree to which Australia has complied with this direction by conducting an audit of Australian emergency plans and guidance. METHODS: Australian Federal, State/Territory and a sample of Local government emergency plans and guidance were located via web searches. Documents were searched for key words to identify content dealing with the needs of infants and young children. Plans and guidance were also searched for content dealing with the needs of animals as a comparison. RESULTS: While plans and guidance contained numerous pointers to the desirability of having plans that address IYCF-E, there was a dearth of planning at all levels of government for the needs of infants and young children. Guidance related to heat waves contained information that could prove dangerous to infants. No agency at Federal or State/Territory had designated responsibility for IYCF-E or children in general. This was in stark contrast to the situation of animals for which there was widespread and comprehensive planning at all levels of government with clear designation of organisational responsibility. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of planning for IYCF-E in Australia places infants and young children at serious risk of adverse health consequences in emergencies. Australian Federal, State/Territory and Local governments need to take action to ensure that IYCF-E plans and guidance are developed and deployed in line with international standards. The pathway to successful integration of animal welfare plans provides a method for a similar integration of IYCF-E plans. Government health authorities are best placed to lead and be responsible for IYCF-E in Australia. National governments internationally should similarly take action to ensure that their youngest, most vulnerable citizens are protected in emergencies.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Emergências , Austrália , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis
19.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(6): 632-643, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625487

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medical responders are at-risk of experiencing a wide range of negative psychological health conditions following a disaster. AIM: Published literature was reviewed on the adverse psychological health outcomes in medical responders to various disasters and mass casualties in order to: (1) assess the psychological impact of disasters on medical responders; and (2) identify the possible risk factors associated with psychological impacts on medical responders. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, Discovery Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases for studies on the prevalence/risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental disorders in medical responders of disasters and mass casualties was carried out using pre-determined keywords. Two reviewers screened the 3,545 abstracts and 28 full-length articles which were included for final review. RESULTS: Depression and PTSD were the most studied outcomes in medical responders. Nurses reported higher levels of adverse outcomes than physicians. Lack of social support and communication, maladaptive coping, and lack of training were important risk factors for developing negative psychological outcomes across all types of disasters. CONCLUSIONS: Disasters have significant adverse effects on the mental well-being of medical responders. The prevalence rates and presumptive risk factors varied among three different types of disasters. There are certain high-risk, vulnerable groups among medical responders, as well as certain risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes. Adapting preventive measures and mitigation strategies aimed at high-risk groups would be beneficial in decreasing negative outcomes.

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