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1.
Nutr Res Rev ; : 1-27, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791437

RESUMO

Despite the much improved therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment that have been developed over the past 50 years, cancer remains a major cause of mortality globally. Considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence has demonstrated an association between ingestion of food and nutrients with either an increased risk for cancer or its prevention. There is rising interest in exploring agents derived from natural products for chemoprevention or for therapeutic purposes. Honey is rich in nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds, as well as in natural antioxidants, and its potential beneficial function in human health is becoming more evident. A large number of studies have addressed the anti-cancer effects of different types of honey and their phenolic compounds using in vitro and in vivo cancer models. The reported findings affirm that honey is an agent able to modulate oxidative stress and has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory and anti-metastatic properties. However, despite its reported anti-cancer activities, very few clinical studies have been undertaken. In the present review, we summarise the findings from different experimental approaches, including in vitro cell cultures, preclinical animal models and clinical studies, and provide an overview of the bioactive profile and bioavailability of the most commonly studied honey types, with special emphasis on the chemopreventive and therapeutic properties of honey and its major phenolic compounds in cancer. The implications of these findings as well as the future prospects of utilising honey to fight cancer will be discussed.

2.
Support Care Cancer ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoledronic acid (ZA) and strontium-89 have been widely used to treat lung cancer with bone metastases. The authors perform this meta-analysis to better evaluate the clinical outcome of ZA and strontium-89 for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: We carried out standard meta-analysis and network meta-analysis based on a comprehensive data retrieval of EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases (up to March 2019). Random and fixed effects models were used where indicated and between-study heterogeneity was assessed. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and skeletal-related events (SREs). The second endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall response rate (ORR). RESULTS: Seven randomized clinical trials, including 1426 NSCLC patients with seven studies of zoledronic acid and two studies of strontium-89, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with the control group, ZA is associated with a OS benefit (1-year survival rate: RR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.36-2.27; and 24-month survival rate: RR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.35-4.19) and a reduction of SREs (RR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.40-0.84) for the patients with bone metastases. No statistical differences were found in PFS and ORR. Network meta-analysis for the patients with bone metastases showed that ZA + strontium-89 and ZA harbored significantly clinical benefits than strontium-89 and placebo in terms of 1-year survival rate and SREs. Both head-to-head study and network meta-analysis showed that strontium-89 had no statistical impact on OS and SREs compared with placebo. CONCLUSION: Our analysis demonstrates that ZA +strontium-89 can be considered a priority for NSCLC patients with bone metastases, followed by ZA.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683759

RESUMO

Prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a great challenge worldwide. The aim of this evidence synthesis was to summarize the available evidence in order to update the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy. We conducted a systematic review and, where appropriate, meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) carried out in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (six studies) or dysmetabolism (one study) to answer the following questions: What is the evidence that T2D is preventable by lifestyle changes? What is the optimal diet (with a particular focus on diet quality) for prevention, and does the prevention of T2D result in a lower risk of late complications of T2D? The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was applied to assess the certainty of the trial evidence. Altogether seven RCTs (N = 4090) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The diagnosis of incident diabetes was based on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The overall risk reduction of T2D by the lifestyle interventions was 0.53 (95% CI 0.41; 0.67). Most of the trials aimed to reduce weight, increase physical activity, and apply a diet relatively low in saturated fat and high in fiber. The PREDIMED trial that did not meet eligibility criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis was used in the final assessment of diet quality. We conclude that T2D is preventable by changing lifestyle and the risk reduction is sustained for many years after the active intervention (high certainty of evidence). Healthy dietary changes based on the current recommendations and the Mediterranean dietary pattern can be recommended for the long-term prevention of diabetes. There is limited or insufficient data to show that prevention of T2D by lifestyle changes results in a lower risk of cardiovascular and microvascular complications.

4.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; : 101069, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Auriculotherapy is based on the stimulation of reflex points in the ear. However, little is known about its weight-reducing effects. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of auriculotherapy on weight and/or (BMI) reduction in overweight or patients with obesity. METHODS: Twelve articles were selected for systematic review. Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating weight reduction and five investigating BMI reduction were selected for the meta-analyzes. RESULTS: The results revealed an association between auriculotherapy and weight reduction (WMD, 1.507; 95% CI, 0.606-2.407; p < 0.000). Auriculotherapy was also significantly associated with BMI reduction (WMD, 0.865; 95% CI, 0.533-1.196; p < 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: We found that auriculotherapy was effective in reducing weight and/or BMI in overweight or patients with obesity. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution due to heterogeneity.

5.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe the characteristics (development, intensity, deliverers, setting, strategies) and assess the effect of salutogenic-oriented lifestyle interventions on physical and psychosocial health outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHOD: PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO were systematically searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published up to August 2019 that complied with predefined salutogenic criteria: the participant as a whole, the participant's active involvement and the participant's individual learning process. Characteristics of the salutogenic-oriented interventions with and without significant results were compared and qualitatively summarised. RESULTS: Twenty-eight RCTs were identified. Salutogenic oriented interventions that significantly improved both physical and psychosocial health were characterized by being based on formative research, culturally targeted, and delivered in 10-20 sessions in group settings, whereas salutogenic oriented interventions that neither improved physical or psychosocial health significantly were characterized by being individually tailored and delivered in less than 10 group sessions in individual settings. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review suggests that salutogenic-oriented lifestyle interventions are effective for physical and psychosocial health in the short term. More research is needed to determine how intervention characteristics moderate (long-term) effectiveness. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The results provide a basis for purposefully developing effective salutogenic interventions for adults with T2DM.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17748, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous evidence directly evaluating the efficacy and safety of abiraterone and enzalutamide treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is limited. We aim to include more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to comprehensively assess the efficacy and safety of abiraterone and enzalutamide treatment. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and ClinicalTrial.gov were systematically searched. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Stata 12.0 software. The comparison of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate and adverse events (AEs) between the treatment and control groups were performed using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: Eight eligible RCTs with 6,490 patients were selected. Pooled HRs were 0.72 for overall survival, 0.45 for radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS), and 0.36 for PSA PFS. abiraterone and enzalutamide could significantly increase the PSA response rate OR = 8.67, 95%CI 4.42-17.04) and any AE occurrence (OR = 1.98, 95%CI 1.46-2.68). The treatment group had more occurrence of fatigue (OR = 1.34, 95%CI 1.20-1.49), back pain (OR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.01-1.15), hot flush (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.50-2.06), diarrhea (OR=1.22, 95%CI 1.07-2.40) and arthralgia (OR = 1.34, 95%CI 1.16-1.54). Particularly, AEs of special interest including any grade hypertension (OR = 2.06, 95%CI 1.71-2.47), hypokalemia (OR = 1.80, 95%CI 1.42-2.30) and fluid retention or edema (OR = 1.38, 95%CI 1.17-1.63) also occurred less in the control group. Moreover, a higher incidence of high-grade hypertension (OR = 2.60, 95%CI 1.79-3.79) and extremity pain (OR = 4.46, 95%CI 2.81-7.07) was observed in the treatment group. CONCLUSION: The survival benefits of abiraterone and enzalutamide for CRPC were evident and promising, while the risk of AE occurrence was also acceptably higher in the treatment group than in the placebo group.


Assuntos
Androstenos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Indian J Dent Res ; 30(4): 600-611, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745060

RESUMO

Introduction: Dental implant may serve as a choice of treatment for replacement of missing tooth in diabetic patients with their well-controlled glycemic index. To minimize postoperative complications, dental surgical procedures comprises mainly two types, namely conventional and flapless surgery. Objective: The aim of this review is to find the survival rate of the dental implant when placed with either of the technique, that is, conventional or flapless in patients with controlled Type 2 diabetes mellitus from published studies. Materials and Methods: A total of 14 studies were included from PubMed database related to the survival rate of dental implant placement by conventional or flapless surgery among patients with controlled diabetes mellitus. The cumulative mean of dental implant survival rate by conventional and flapless techniques calculated from included studies is 94.2% and 92.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The survival rate of dental implant placement by conventional and flapless techniques is similar. As few studies on flapless technique are available, therefore researchers in future should explore its advantages and disadvantages.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Humanos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos
10.
Herz ; 44(8): 684-687, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686123

RESUMO

At the last meeting of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in 2019 the new version of the ESC guidelines on "Diabetes, prediabetes and cardiovascular diseases", which were written in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), were presented. The recommendations of these guidelines included the novel evidence generated over the last 6 years in large cardiovascular outcome trials with novel antidiabetic drugs. This led to a completely novel positioning of medications for lowering blood glucose levels in the reduction of cardiovascular events for patients with diabetes mellitus. This overview article summarizes the most important recommendations of these new guidelines.

11.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e032122, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694851

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental defect of the diaphragm that impairs normal lung development, causing pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH in CDH newborns is the main determinant for morbidity and mortality. Different therapies are still mainly based on 'trial and error'. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is often the drug of first choice. However, iNO does not seem to improve mortality. Intravenous sildenafil has reduced mortality in newborns with PH without CDH, but prospective data in CDH patients are lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In an open label, multicentre, international randomised controlled trial in Europe, Canada and Australia, 330 newborns with CDH and PH are recruited over a 4-year period (2018-2022). Patients are randomised for intravenous sildenafil or iNO. Sildenafil is given in a loading dose of 0.4 mg/kg in 3 hours; followed by continuous infusion of 1.6 mg/kg/day, iNO is dosed at 20 ppm. Primary outcome is absence of PH on day 14 without pulmonary vasodilator therapy and/or absence of death within the first 28 days of life. Secondary outcome measures include clinical and echocardiographic markers of PH in the first year of life. We hypothesise that sildenafil gives a 25% reduction in the primary outcome from 68% to 48% on day 14, for which a sample size of 330 patients is needed. An intention-to-treat analysis will be performed. A p-value (two-sided) <0.05 is considered significant in all analyses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been granted by the ethics committee in Rotterdam (MEC-2017-324) and the central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (NL60229.078.17) in the Netherlands. The principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act and the national rules and regulations on personal data protection will be used. Parental informed consent will be obtained. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NTR6982; Pre-results.

12.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 9(4): 451-463, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inclusion of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in cancer randomised controlled trials (RCTs) may be particularly important for older patients. The objectives of this systematic review were to quantify the frequency with which older patients are included in RCTs with PROs and to evaluate the quality of PRO reporting in those trials. METHODS: All RCTs with PRO endpoints, published between January 2004 and February 2019, which included a patient sample with a mean/median age ≥70 years, were considered for this systematic review. The following cancer malignancies were considered: breast, colorectal, lung, prostate, gynaecological and bladder cancer.Quality of PRO reporting was evaluated using the International Society for Quality of Life Research-PRO standards. Studies meeting at least two-thirds of these criteria were considered to have high-quality PRO reporting. RESULTS: Of 649 RCTs identified with a PRO endpoint, only 72 (11.1%) included older patients. Of these, 35 trials (48.6%) were conducted in patients with metastatic/advanced disease. PROs were primary endpoints in 20 RCTs (27.8%). Overall survival was the most frequently reported clinical outcome in studies of patients with metastatic/advanced cancer (n=28, 80%). One-third of the RCTs (n=24, 33.3%) were considered to have high-quality PRO reporting. Overall, the largest prevalence of RCTs with high-quality PRO reporting was observed in prostate and colorectal cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Our review indicates not only that PRO-RCT-based studies in oncology rarely include older patients but also that completeness of PRO reporting of many of them is often suboptimal.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 64: 101629, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756676

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preventable risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adherence to nutrition-based guidelines for cancer prevention and CLL, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. METHODS: A total of 318 CLL cases and 1293 population-based controls were included in the present study. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) score based on the 2018 recommendations for cancer prevention (on body fatness, physical activity, and diet) was constructed. We used logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Individuals in the highest tertile of the WCRF/AICR score had an odds ratio for CLL of 1.25 (95 % CI 0.91; 1.73) compared with individuals with low adherence (p-trend = 0.172). Each point increment in the score was associated with an OR for CLL of 1.06 (95 % CI 0.91; 1.23). Analyses by severity of disease did not show significant heterogeneity of effects. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results do not support an association between the WCRF/AICR score and CLL, yet we might have been limited by statistical power and study design to detect modest associations. Further research, ideally with a prospective design, long follow-up, and including additional lymphoma subtypes, is warranted to confirm the impact of composite healthy lifestyle behaviors on lymphoma risk.

14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 372, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a minority of dialysis patients with depressive symptoms are diagnosed and receive treatment. Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent in this population and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Underlying factors for this undertreatment may be the lack of evidence for the safety and effectivity of antidepressant medication, the reluctance of patients to adhere to antidepressant medication, the lack of mental healthcare provision in somatic healthcare environments and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) related physical limitations that complicate face-to-face psychotherapy. Guided Internet-based self-help treatment has demonstrated to be effective for depressive symptoms in other chronic patient populations and may overcome these barriers. The aim of this study is to investigate the (cost) effectiveness of a guided Internet-based self-help intervention for symptoms of depression in dialysis patients. METHODS: This study is a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) that investigates the effectiveness of a 5-week Internet-based self-help Problem Solving Therapy (PST) for depressive symptoms in dialysis patients. Depressive symptoms will be measured using the Beck Depression Inventory - second edition (BDI-II), with a cut-off score of ≥10. We aim to include 206 dialysis patients with depressive symptoms who will be cluster randomized to the intervention or the Care as Usual (CAU) control group. Secondary outcomes will include anxiety symptoms, quality of life, economic costs and clinical outcomes, such as inflammatory factors and hair cortisol levels. Assessments will take place at baseline (T0), 2 weeks after intervention (T1) and 6 months (T2), 12 months (T3) and 18 months (T4) after intervention. The control group will be measured at the same time points. Analysis will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. Mixed models will be used to assess the changes within each condition between pre-treatment and post-treatment. DISCUSSION: If demonstrated to be (cost) effective, Internet-based PST will offer new possibilities to treat dialysis patients with depressive symptoms and to improve their quality of care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register: Trial NL6648 (NTR6834) (prospectively registered 13th November 2017).

15.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 117(6): S205-S242, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758893

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease secondary to atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbimortality in the adult population worldwide. Although clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis (coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease) are extremely rare in the pediatric population, the presence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the development of health-behavior patterns that promote them are observed since early childhood. In this document, recommendations were developed addressing two main goals: prevention of the risk factors development for cardiovascular disease (primordial prevention) and early detection and treatment of the risk factors to prevent clinical atherosclerosis (primary prevention). Even though the recommendations are addressed to the pediatric population, the aim of the collaborative work between the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría and the Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología is to ensure a comprehensive and consensual approach of lifetime cardiovascular prevention beginning even before conception.

16.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(11): 3197-3209, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical exercise may be beneficial to breast cancer (BC) survivors. Here, we systematically summarized the effects of aerobic exercise in BC survivors. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane Central, Virtual Health Library and PEDRO databases for relevant RCTs, comparing aerobic exercise with usual care among BC survivors. Data were extracted and evidence was synthesized narratively. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in this systematic review. Studies reported that aerobic exercise can significantly improve the quality of life in BC survivors. Moreover, aerobic exercise alleviated the symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, current evidence from the included studies showed that there was no significant benefit for aerobic exercise in terms of weight loss. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that aerobic exercise is beneficial to BC survivors. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Aerobic exercise should be recommended in the therapeutic and rehabilitative regimens of BC survivors.
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17.
Trials ; 20(1): 644, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has become a major public health hazard with epidemic proportions, affecting adults, adolescents, and children of both genders. Previous studies have suggested that acupoint catgut embedding (ACE) might be a potential therapeutic approach for obesity. The purpose of this study is to conduct a rigorous and normative trial to determine the efficacy of ACE for obesity. METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 99 eligible patients diagnosed with obesity will be recruited in this study. They will be randomly allocated to either the verum ACE group, sham ACE group, or waiting list (WL) group, with 33 patients in each group. Each patient in the two ACE-based groups will receive eight sessions of treatment, lasting over 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the reduction of body mass index (BMI) after treatment. Secondary outcomes will include waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist:hip ratio, body fat percentage, blood lipid level, subcutaneous fat area, visceral fat area, and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL). All the outcomes will be evaluated at baseline, at the end of the 8 weeks of treatments, and at 3 months of follow-up. The evaluators and data analyzers will be blinded to group allocation. DISCUSSION: The findings of this randomized, sham-, and WL-controlled trial will help to investigate the influence of ACE on clinical variables as well as visceral fat area of obesity, which will provide high-quality evidence on the efficacy of ACE for obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1800020248. Registered on December 21, 2018.

18.
Trials ; 20(1): 647, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the large number of patients, high mortality rate as well as high social costs and economic burden, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has become one of the most important health problems around the world, which has attracted people's attention. Currently, Chinese herbs have been widely used as alternative medicine (CAM) for COPD patients. The Chinese herbal formula San-Huang Gu-Ben Zhi-Ke (SHGBZK) has shown good clinical efficacy in COPD in preclinical studies. Animal experiments have shown that it has mucosal immune barrier function and can maintain airway wall integrity, reduce inflammatory cell infiltration, promote inflammatory damage repair, and relieve narrow airway conditions. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 100 patients with stable COPD diagnosed with deficiency of lung qi and spleen qi will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: SHGBZK treatment, N = 50; placebo treatment, N = 50. The two groups will receive basic treatment for COPD according to the 2017 GOLD Guidelines for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Patients will stick to the treatment they used to take as much as possible, and will be given present general treatment when acute exacerbation of COPD occurs during the study. Both groups will receive a 24-week intervention and patient status will be assessed at 24 weeks and then 28 weeks after treatment. After the 24-week treatment, patients will be followed up for another 28 weeks. Outcome measures, including the frequency and duration of acute exacerbation, lung function, traditional Chinese medicine symptom score, exercise capacity, and quality of life will be assessed. DISCUSSION: It is hypothesized that SHGBZK will have beneficial effects in reducing the frequency and duration of acute exacerbations, improving the exercise capacity function of patients with stable COPD diagnosed with a deficiencies in lung qi and spleen qi. This study may establish a new treatment method for COPD patients, differentiating it from other drugs in clinical use used for similar clinical indications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1800016349. Registered on 26 May 2018.

19.
Lancet ; 394(10211): 1816-1826, 2019 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains about the optimal monotherapy for hypertension, with current guidelines recommending any primary agent among the first-line drug classes thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, in the absence of comorbid indications. Randomised trials have not further refined this choice. METHODS: We developed a comprehensive framework for real-world evidence that enables comparative effectiveness and safety evaluation across many drugs and outcomes from observational data encompassing millions of patients, while minimising inherent bias. Using this framework, we did a systematic, large-scale study under a new-user cohort design to estimate the relative risks of three primary (acute myocardial infarction, hospitalisation for heart failure, and stroke) and six secondary effectiveness and 46 safety outcomes comparing all first-line classes across a global network of six administrative claims and three electronic health record databases. The framework addressed residual confounding, publication bias, and p-hacking using large-scale propensity adjustment, a large set of control outcomes, and full disclosure of hypotheses tested. FINDINGS: Using 4·9 million patients, we generated 22 000 calibrated, propensity-score-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) comparing all classes and outcomes across databases. Most estimates revealed no effectiveness differences between classes; however, thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics showed better primary effectiveness than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: acute myocardial infarction (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·95), hospitalisation for heart failure (0·83, 0·74-0·95), and stroke (0·83, 0·74-0·95) risk while on initial treatment. Safety profiles also favoured thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics over angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers were significantly inferior to the other four classes. INTERPRETATION: This comprehensive framework introduces a new way of doing observational health-care science at scale. The approach supports equivalence between drug classes for initiating monotherapy for hypertension-in keeping with current guidelines, with the exception of thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics superiority to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and the inferiority of non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. FUNDING: US National Science Foundation, US National Institutes of Health, Janssen Research & Development, IQVIA, South Korean Ministry of Health & Welfare, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
20.
Comput Biol Chem ; 83: 107160, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743831

RESUMO

A growing number of people suffer from colorectal cancer, which is one of the most common cancers. It is essential to diagnose and treat the cancer as early as possible. The disease may change the microorganism communities in the gut, and it could be an efficient method to employ gut microorganisms to predict colorectal cancer. In this study, we selected operational taxonomic units that include several kinds of microorganisms to predict colorectal cancer. To find the most important microorganisms and obtain the best prediction performance, we explore effective feature selection methods. We employ three main steps. First, we use a single method to reduce features. Next, to reduce the number of features, we integrate the dimension reduction methods correlation-based feature selection and maximum relevance-maximum distance (MRMD 1.0 and MRMD 2.0). Then, we selected the important features according to the taxonomy files. In this study, we created training and test sets to obtain a more objective evaluation. Random forest, naïve Bayes, and decision tree classifiers were evaluated. The results show that the methods proposed in this study are better than hierarchical feature engineering. The proposed method, which combines correlation-based feature selection with MRMD 2.0, performed the best on the CRC2 dataset. The dataset and methods can be found in http://lab.malab.cn/data/microdata/data.html.

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