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1.
Health Econ ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003147

RESUMO

Alternative strategies can reduce road vehicle emissions, with differential effects on exposure across population groups. We compare alternative strategies in West Yorkshire using a framework for economic evaluation that considers multiple perspectives and that takes account of the distribution of health outcomes. Exposure to pollutants by area is converted, via dose response relationships, into disease averted. Health benefits and National Health Service costs from diseases are estimated conditional on population demographics and index of multiple deprivation. The net health benefits from alternative strategies are expressed as distributions of quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE), which are compared using dominance criteria and societal aversion to health inequality. Net production is estimated from intervention costs and the effects of health improvement on production and consumption. Social care outcomes are estimated from health improvement among care recipients and changes in care expenditure. A switch to less polluting private vehicles is dominant in terms of the distribution of QALE and social care outcomes but not consumption. Inclusion of health inequality aversion alters the rank order compared with prioritisation on health maximisation. The results were sensitive to the magnitude of health opportunity costs, the level of inequality aversion, and the proportion of intervention cost that generates health opportunity cost.

2.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-13, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013785

RESUMO

ABSTRACTThis article outlines an agenda for political science engagement with global mental health. Other social sciences have tackled the topic, investigating such questions as the link between poverty and mental health disorders. Political science is noticeably absent from these explorations. This is striking because mental health disorders affect one billion people globally, governments spend only about 2% of their health budgets on these disorders, and most people lack access to treatment. With its focus on power, political science could deepen knowledge on vulnerabilities to mental illness and explain weak policy responses. By illustrating how various forms of power pertaining to governance, knowledge, and moral authority work through the concepts of issue framing, collective action, and institutions, the article shows that political science can deepen knowledge on this global health issue. Political science can analyse how incomplete knowledge leads to contentious framing, thus hobbling advocacy. It can explain why states shirk their obligations in mental health, and it can question how incentives drive mental health mobilisation. The discipline can uncover how power undergirds institutional responses to global mental health at the international, national, and community levels. Political science should collaborate with other social sciences in research networks to improve policy outcomes.

3.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(1): 3-14, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023592

RESUMO

Objective This report aimed to present policy recommendations on the regulation of heated tobacco products based on a review of the literature on the use of heated tobacco products, component analysis of harmful chemical substances, and product characteristics as nicotine delivery device, and on an examination of the influence of the product's increasing usage to the main measures of tobacco control.Methods The literature search was performed using Japan Centra Revuo Medicina and PubMED database. The search yielded 11 articles that examined the use of heated tobacco products, component analysis of harmful chemical substances, and product characteristics as nicotine delivery device. Eight articles were additionally collected from reports of public health research in Japan and public reports in foreign countries. The six main policies advocated by World Health Organization as MPOWER (Monitor, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforce, Raise) were adopted in considering the expected influence of this product's increasing usage this product epidemic on tobacco control. In addition to the abovementioned 19 articles, 26 documents and materials related to the status of tobacco control were collected and used to examine the influence of the product's increasing usage to the main measures of tobacco control.Results In Japan, heated tobacco products have been available since December 2013, and the spread of use has risen remarkably since 2016. As of October 2016, Japan consumed more than 90% of the heated tobacco products sold internationally. Compared with cigarettes, heated tobacco products can reduce exposure to harmful substances except nicotine. However, their use does not lead to reduced risk of illness. The reduction of exposure to harmful substances cannot be expected when used in combination with cigarettes. Heated tobacco products and cigarettes have similar nicotine exposure levels and pharmacokinetics; thus, use of the former results in nicotine dependence and exacerbates the difficulty in discontinuing tobacco consumption. The popularity of heated tobacco products could adversely affect any of the six main measures of tobacco control.Conclusion Although public health concerns have been identified for the popularity of heated tobacco products, evidence remains insubstantial for the formulation of regulatory implications. Additional research is needed on the health effects to users and bystanders, effects on cigarettes use, and influence on tobacco control policy. From the perspective of the precautionary principle of public health, the same regulation as for cigarettes should be implemented as regards heated tobacco products until their health effects are fully elucidated.

4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD011779, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of effective interventions and best-practice guideline recommendations for childcare services to implement evidence-based policies, practices and programmes to promote child healthy eating, physical activity and prevent unhealthy weight gain, many services fail to do so. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the review was to examine the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving the implementation of policies, practices or programmes by childcare services that promote child healthy eating, physical activity and/or obesity prevention. The secondary aims of the review were to: 1. Examine the cost or cost-effectiveness of such strategies; 2. Examine any adverse effects of such strategies on childcare services, service staff or children; 3. Examine the effect of such strategies on child diet, physical activity or weight status. 4. Describe the acceptability, adoption, penetration, sustainability and appropriateness of such implementation strategies. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases on February 22 2019: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL and SCOPUS for relevant studies. We searched reference lists of included studies, handsearched two international implementation science journals, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp/) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included any study (randomised or nonrandomised) with a parallel control group that compared any strategy to improve the implementation of a healthy eating, physical activity or obesity prevention policy, practice or programme by staff of centre-based childcare services to no intervention, 'usual' practice or an alternative strategy. Centre-based childcare services included preschools, nurseries, long daycare services and kindergartens catering for children prior to compulsory schooling (typically up to the age of five to six years). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened study titles and abstracts, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias; we resolved discrepancies via consensus. We performed meta-analysis using a random-effects model where studies with suitable data and homogeneity were identified; otherwise, findings were described narratively. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-one studies, including 16 randomised and five nonrandomised, were included in the review. The studies sought to improve the implementation of policies, practices or programmes targeting healthy eating (six studies), physical activity (three studies) or both healthy eating and physical activity (12 studies). Studies were conducted in the United States (n = 12), Australia (n = 8) and Ireland (n = 1). Collectively, the 21 studies included a total of 1945 childcare services examining a range of implementation strategies including educational materials, educational meetings, audit and feedback, opinion leaders, small incentives or grants, educational outreach visits or academic detailing, reminders and tailored interventions. Most studies (n = 19) examined implementation strategies versus usual practice or minimal support control, and two compared alternative implementation strategies. For implementation outcomes, six studies (one RCT) were judged to be at high risk of bias overall. The review findings suggest that implementation strategies probably improve the implementation of policies, practices or programmes that promote child healthy eating, physical activity and/or obesity prevention in childcare services. Of the 19 studies that compared a strategy to usual practice or minimal support control, 11 studies (nine RCTs) used score-based measures of implementation (e.g. childcare service nutrition environment score). Nine of these studies were included in pooled analysis, which found an improvement in implementation outcomes (SMD 0.49; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.79; participants = 495; moderate-certainty evidence). Ten studies (seven RCTs) used dichotomous measures of implementation (e.g. proportion of childcare services implementing a policy or specific practice), with seven of these included in pooled analysis (OR 1.83; 95% CI 0.81 to 4.11; participants = 391; low-certainty evidence). Findings suggest that such interventions probably lead to little or no difference in child physical activity (four RCTs; moderate-certainty evidence) or weight status (three RCTs; moderate-certainty evidence), and may lead to little or no difference in child diet (two RCTs; low-certainty evidence). None of the studies reported the cost or cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Three studies assessed the adverse effects of the intervention on childcare service staff, children and parents, with all studies suggesting they have little to no difference in adverse effects (e.g. child injury) between groups (three RCTs; low-certainty evidence). Inconsistent quality of the evidence was identified across review outcomes and study designs, ranging from very low to moderate. The primary limitation of the review was the lack of conventional terminology in implementation science, which may have resulted in potentially relevant studies failing to be identified based on the search terms used. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Current research suggests that implementation strategies probably improve the implementation of policies, practices or programmes by childcare services, and may have little or no effect on measures of adverse effects. However such strategies appear to have little to no impact on measures of child diet, physical activity or weight status.

5.
Econ Hum Biol ; 37: 100854, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet-related fiscal policies are effective interventions to address non-communicable disease. However, despite these being economic policy instruments, there is little public health attention given to the evidence of macroeconomic impacts. This review aims to assess the global evidence for the macroeconomic impact of diet-related fiscal policies for non-communicable disease prevention on industry revenue, government revenue and employment. METHODS: For this systematic review we comprehensively searched the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, OvidSP, EMBASE, Global Health, SCOPUS, CINAHL and ECONLIT, and Google Scholar for English peer-reviewed studies or grey literature, with no date cut-off. Global interventions with a focus on diet-related fiscal strategies were assessed for the outcomes of industry revenue, gross domestic product, government revenue and employment. We excluded non-English papers. FINDINGS: Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies were on sugar sweetened beverage taxation and one also included an energy-dense food tax. Nine were modelling studies and two used interrupted time series analysis based on empirical evidence. One study found potential employment increases because of taxation; two found no significant job losses and eight found reduced employment. Taxes reduced sales volume and revenue within the sugar/beverage industry. Government revenue generation was positive in all studies. One study considered redistribution of consumer and government spending to other goods and services; INTERPRETATION: We found no robust evidence for negative macroeconomic impacts of diet-related fiscal policies, likely a reflection of the limited methodology used in the analyses. This review suggests that there is a need for more high-quality research into the macroeconomic impacts of diet related fiscal measures and similar to tobacco taxation, government should consider directing revenue generated towards complementary measures to generate employment and/or provide livelihood training for those affected.

6.
Am J Infect Control ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although familial involvement during inpatient care is not uncommon in western countries, the types of caring activities that family members in Asian countries provide are significantly different. These activities may place the family member at risk from a health care-associated infection. This study aimed to examine whether the role of patients' families has been accounted for in the infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines and policy, using examples from Bangladesh (low-income country), Indonesia (middle-income country), and South Korea (high-income country). METHODS: The World Health Organization website and Institutional Repository for Information Sharing, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, Australian Government Web Archive, Open Grey, Grey Matters, World Bank, and advanced Google search, as well as the Health Department/Ministry of Health websites for each target country and 4 western countries (Australia, Canada, England, and the United States) were searched. Other databases, such as Embase, Medline, CINAHL, Global Health, ProQuest databases, Google scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus were also searched. This was to review the reflection of the cultural influence in IPC policies/guidelines by reviewing those from the global organizations, which are often used as a blueprint for policy development, as well as those from western countries, which hold different cultures in care arrangement. Search was conducted with attention to the key areas: definition and role of carer in the acute health care facility, involvement of patients/family members in IPC activities, patient and family member hand hygiene, and IPC education. RESULTS: Ninety-two articles were identified based on the criteria for the study. Only 6 acknowledged that care is provided to hospitalized patients by their family members, and only 1 recommended that family members receive the same level of training as health care workers on IPC precautions. Other guides recommended the provision of information on IPC measures as means of patient involvement in the IPC program. Recognition of family caregivers or inclusion of them in the IPC strategies was not included in the target countries' guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Although health care workers are the primary actors when it comes to providing care in acute health care settings, it is important to expand the IPC guides by considering the role of other caregivers. Policies and guidelines should reflect the cultural influence over healthcare. This is especially true when cultural values strongly influence over healthcare arrangements and the healthcare accommodates these cultural influences in the practice. Further work needs to be undertaken on the level of training/education provided to family members in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and South Korea.

8.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1712147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937206

RESUMO

Background: Progress in gender equity can improve health at the individual and country levels.Objectives: This study's objective was to analyze recent trends in gender equity and identify historical and contextual factors that contributed to changes in gender equity in three countries: China, Nepal, and Nicaragua.Methods: To assess gender equity trends, we used the Gender Gap Index (GGI) from the World Economic Forum's Global Gender Gap Report (2006-2017). The GGI incorporated data on economic participation, educational attainment, health, and political empowerment for almost 150 countries. We selected China, Nepal, and Nicaragua because of their major changes in GGI and diversity in geographical location and economic status. We reviewed major social, economic, and political events during 2006-2017, and identified key events in each country. We compared countries' GGI with matched controls average using interrupted time-series analysis.Results: Nepal and Nicaragua both had dramatic increases in GGI (improvement in equity), Nepal (ß = 0.029; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.056) and Nicaragua (ß = 0.035; 95% CI: 0.005, 0.065). This was strongly influenced by political empowerment, which likely impacted access to education and employment opportunities. Despite major economic growth and new policies to address gender inequities (e.g. the One-Child Policy), China saw a significant decline in GGI between 2010 and 2017 (ß = -0.014; 95% CI: -0.024, -0.004), largely resulting from decreased gender equity in educational attainment, economic participation, and health/survival sub-indices.Conclusions: Key social, economic, and political events helped explain trends in countries' gender equity. Our study suggested that supportive social and political environments would play important roles in empowering women, which would advance human rights and promote health and well-being of individuals, households, communities, and countries.

9.
Circulation ; : CIR0000000000000756, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992050

RESUMO

The release of the American Heart Association's 2030 Impact Goal and associated metrics for success underscores the importance of cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease surveillance systems for the acquisition of information sufficient to support implementation and evaluation. The aim of this policy statement is to review and comment on existing recommendations for and current approaches to cardiovascular surveillance, identify gaps, and formulate policy implications and pragmatic recommendations for transforming surveillance of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular health in the United States. The development of community platforms coupled with widespread use of digital technologies, electronic health records, and mobile health has created new opportunities that could greatly modernize surveillance if coordinated in a pragmatic matter. However, technology and public health and scientific mandates must be merged into action. We describe the action and components necessary to create the cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease surveillance system of the future, steps in development, and challenges that federal, state, and local governments will need to address. Development of robust policies and commitment to collaboration among professional organizations, community partners, and policy makers are critical to ultimately reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and improve cardiovascular health and to evaluate whether national health goals are achieved.

10.
Health Policy Plan ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904858

RESUMO

The uptake and implementation of universal health coverage (UHC) is primarily a political, rather than a technical, exercise, with contested ideas and diverse stakeholders capable of facilitation or resistance-even veto-of the policy uptake. This narrative systematic review, undertaken in 2018, sought to identify all peer-reviewed publications dealing with concepts relating to UHC through a political economy framing. Of the 627 papers originally identified, 55 papers were directly relevant, with an additional eight papers added manually on referral from colleagues. The thematic analysis adapted Fox and Reich's framework of ideas and ideologies, interests and institutions to organize the analysis. The results identified a literature strong in its exploration of the ideologies and ideas that underpin UHC, but with an apparent bias in authorship towards more rights-based, left-leaning perspectives. Despite this, political economy analyses of country case studies suggested a more diverse political framing for UHC, with the interests and institutions engaged in implementation drawing on pragmatic and market-based mechanisms to achieve outcomes. Case studies offered limited detail on the role played by specific interests, though the influence of global development trends was evident, as was the role of donor organizations. Most country case studies, however, framed the development of UHC within a narrative of national ownership, with steps in implementation often critical political milestones. The development of institutions for UHC implementation was predicated largely on available infrastructure, with elements of that infrastructure-federal systems, user fees, pre-existing insurance schemes-needing to be accommodated in the incremental progress towards UHC. The need for technical competence to deliver ideological promises was underlined. The review concludes that, despite the disparate sources for the analyses, there is an emerging shared narrative in the growing literature around the political economy of UHC that offers an increasing awareness of the political dimensions to UHC uptake and implementation.

11.
J Adolesc Health ; 66(2): 172-180, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564617

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several factors are known to influence the intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) among adolescents. However, few studies have examined the role that FV policies and associated factors (such as availability of food at home, parental support, and physical activity) play on consumption of FV, particularly among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHOD: Adolescent data (except for FV policy status) were obtained from the Global School-based Student Health Survey from 2004 to 2013. Information on FV policies was obtained from government ministries, World Health Organization databases, Scopus, and PubMed. Countries were designated as having the policy if the policy was issued at least a year before Global School-based Student Health Survey data collection (n = 13 LMICs). Countries without FV policies were based on the absence of a policy between 2004 and 2013 (n = 11 LMICs). The total analytic sample included 89,843 adolescents from 24 countries. RESULTS: Logistic regression models revealed a positive association between the presence of FV policy and the adequate consumption of FV (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.74-2.40; p-value < .001). Parental supervision was positively associated with sufficient intake of FV (AOR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.42-1.84; p-value < .001). Physical activity was also positively associated with adolescents consuming ≥5 servings of FV daily (AOR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.13-1.50; p-value < .001). CONCLUSION: Adolescents' physical environment (presence of FV policies, unavailability of food), social environment (parental connectedness, supervision, and bonding), and physical activity behavior are all significant predictors of adolescents' intake of FV.

12.
Soc Sci Med ; 246: 112737, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887627

RESUMO

In February 2017, India capped the retail price of coronary stents and restricted the channel margin to bring Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) procedure, which uses coronary stents, within reach of millions of patients who previously could not afford it. Prior research shows that care providers respond to such regulations in a way that compensates for their loss in profits because of price control. Therefore, price control policies often introduce unintended consequences, such as distortions in clinical decision making. We investigate such distortions through empirical analysis of claims data from a representative public insurance program in the Indian state of Karnataka. Our data comprises 25,769 insurance claims from 69 private and seven public hospitals from February 2016 to February 2018. The public insurance context is ideal for investigating distortions in clinical decisions as the price paid by patients, and thereby access to the treatment, does not change after price control. We find that the change in the average volume of PTCA procedures per hospital per month after price control disproportionately increased when compared to the change in the clinical alternative - Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) procedures. This increase corresponds to 6% of the average number of PTCA procedures and 28% of the average number of CABG procedures before the price control. In addition, disproportionate increase in PTCA procedures occurred only among private hospitals, indicating the possibility of profit-maximization intentions driving the clinical choices. Such clinical distortions can have negative implications for patient health outcomes in the long run. We discuss alternative policies to improve access and affordability to healthcare products and services which are likely to not suffer from similar distortions.

14.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; : 1010539519892394, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810376

RESUMO

The Indonesian government has been implementing the National Health Insurance (Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional [JKN]) policy since 2014. This study aimed to evaluate JKN based on equity indicators, especially in skilled birth attendants (SBAs) use. The data were obtained from National Socio-Economic Survey of Indonesia during 2012 to 2016. To analyze the data, χ2 and logistic regression tests were applied. The respondents were married mothers from 15 to 49 years who had delivered a baby. Deliveries by SBAs increased at the national level, but this achievement showed significant variation according to geographical location. The coverage of deliveries by SBAs in the eastern areas of Indonesia was still much lower than those in the western areas. All factors determining SBAs utilization (health insurance ownership, education, household economic status, and geography factor) indicated the positive correlation (P < .05). The inequity of SBA use in differences in geographical location and socioeconomic status continues to occur after the implementation of JKN.

15.
Global Health ; 15(1): 68, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sustainable management of the natural environment is essential. Continued environmental degradation will lead to worsened health outcomes in countries and across generations. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide a framework for viewing the preservation of natural environments and the promotion of health, well-being and health equity as interconnected pursuits. Within the SDG framework the goals of promoting environmental sustainability and human health are unified through attention to the social determinants of health and health equity (SDH/HE). This paper presents findings from a document analysis of all Australian environment sector policies and selected legislation to examine whether and how current approaches support progress toward achieving SDG goals on water, climate change, and marine ecosystems (Goals 6, 13 and 14), and to consider implications for health and health equity. RESULTS: Consideration of a broad range of SDH/HE was evident in the analysed documents. Related collaborations between environment and health sectors were identified, but the bulk of proposed actions on SDH/HE were initiated by the environment sector as part of its core business. Strengths of Australian policy in regard to SDGs 6, 13 and 14 are reflected in recognition of the effects of climate change, a strong cohesive approach to marine park protection, and recognition of the need to protect existing water and sanitation systems from future threats. However, climate change strategies focus predominately on resilience, adaptation and heat related health effects, rather than on more comprehensive mitigation policies. The findings emphasise the importance of strengthened cross-sectoral action to address both the drivers and effects of environmental degradation. A lack of policy coherence between jurisdictions was also evident in several areas, compounded by inadequate national guidance, where vague strategies and non-specific devolution of responsibilities are likely to compromise coordination and accountability. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on planetary health recognises the interconnectedness of environmental and human health and, as such, suggests that ineffective management of climate change and water pose serious risks to both the natural environment and human well-being. To address these risks more effectively, and to achieve the SDGs, our findings indicate that cross-jurisdiction policy coherence and national coordination must be improved. In addition, more action to address global inequities is required, along with more comprehensive approaches to climate change mitigation.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Política Ambiental , Abastecimento de Água , Austrália , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
16.
Global Health ; 15(1): 87, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cities are an important driving force to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the New Urban Agenda. The SDGs provide an operational framework to consider urbanization globally, while providing local mechanisms for action and careful attention to closing the gaps in the distribution of health gains. While health and well-being are explicitly addressed in SDG 3, health is also present as a pre condition of SDG 11, that aims at inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities. Health in All Policies (HiAP) is an approach to public policy across sectors that systematically takes into account the health implications of decisions, seeks synergies, and avoids harmful health impacts in order to improve population health and health equity. HiAP is key for local decision-making processes in the context of urban policies to promote public health interventions aimed at achieving SDG targets. HiAPs relies heavily on the use of scientific evidence and evaluation tools, such as health impact assessments (HIAs). HIAs may include city-level quantitative burden of disease, health economic assessments, and citizen and other stakeholders' involvement to inform the integration of health recommendations in urban policies. The Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal)'s Urban Planning, Environment and Health Initiative provides an example of a successful model of translating scientific evidence into policy and practice with regards to sustainable and healthy urban development. The experiences collected through ISGlobal's participation implementing HIAs in several cities worldwide as a way to promote HiAP are the basis for this analysis. AIM: The aim of this article is threefold: to understand the links between social determinants of health, environmental exposures, behaviour, health outcomes and urban policies within the SDGs, following a HiAP rationale; to review and analyze the key elements of a HiAP approach as an accelerator of the SDGs in the context of urban and transport planning; and to describe lessons learnt from practical implementation of HIAs in cities across Europe, Africa and Latin-America. METHODS: We create a comprehensive, urban health related SDGs conceptual framework, by linking already described urban health dimensions to existing SDGs, targets and indicators. We discuss, taking into account the necessary conditions and steps to conduct HiAP, the main barriers and opportunities within the SDGs framework. We conclude by reviewing HIAs in a number of cities worldwide (based on the experiences collected by co-authors of this publication), including city-level quantitative burden of disease and health economic assessments, as practical tools to inform the integration of health recommendations in urban policies. RESULTS: A conceptual framework linking SDGs and urban and transportplanning, environmental exposures, behaviour and health outcomes, following a HiAP rationale, is designed. We found at least 38 SDG targets relevant to urban health, corresponding to 15 SDGs, while 4 important aspects contained in our proposed framework were not present in the SDGs (physical activity, noise, quality of life or social capital). Thus, a more comprehensive HiAP vision within the SDGs could be beneficial. Our analysis confirmed that the SDGs framework provides an opportunity to formulate and implement policies with a HiAP approach. Three important aspects are highlighted: 1) the importance of the intersectoral work and health equity as a cross-cutting issue in sustainable development endeavors; 2) policy coherence, health governance, and stakeholders' participation as key issues; and 3) the need for high quality data. HIAs are a practical tool to implement HiAP. Opportunities and barriers related to the political, legal and health governance context, the capacity to inform policies in other sectors, the involvement of different stakeholders, and the availability of quality data are discussed based on our experience. Quantitative assessments can provide powerful data such as: estimates of annual preventable morbidity and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) under compliance with international exposure recommendations for physical activity, exposure to air pollution, noise, heat, and access to green spaces; the associated economic impacts in health care costs per year; and the number of preventable premature deaths when improvements in urban and transport planning are implemented. This information has been used to support the design of policies that promote cycling, walking, public, zero and low-emitting modes of transport, and the provision of urban greening or healthy public open spaces in Barcelona (e.g. Urban Mobility, Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity Plans, or the Superblocks's model), the Bus Rapid Transit and Open Streets initiatives in several Latin American cities or targeted SDGs assessments in Morocco. CONCLUSIONS: By applying tools such as HIA, HiAP can be implemented to inform and improve transport and urban planning to achieve the 2030 SDG Agenda. Such a framework could be potentially used in cities worldwide, including those of less developed regions or countries. Data availability, taking into account equity issues, strenghtening the communication between experts, decision makers and citizens, and the involvement of all major stakeholders are crucial elements for the HiAP approach to translate knowledge into SDG implementation.


Assuntos
Política Pública , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Saúde da População Urbana , Saúde Global , Equidade em Saúde , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 195, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equity seems inherent to the pursuance of universal health coverage (UHC), but it is not a natural consequence of it. We explore how the multidimensional concept of equity has been approached in key global UHC policy documents, as well as in country-level UHC policies. METHODS: We analysed a purposeful sample of UHC reports and policy documents both at global level and in two Western African countries (Benin and Senegal). We manually searched each document for its use and discussion of equity and related terms. The content was summarised and thematically analysed, in order to comprehend how these concepts were understood in the documents. We distinguished between the level at which inequity takes place and the origin or types of inequities. RESULTS: Most of the documents analysed do not define equity in the first place, and speak about "health inequities" in the broad sense, without mentioning the dimension or type of inequity considered. Some dimensions of equity are ambiguous - especially coverage and financing. Many documents assimilate equity to an overall objective or guiding principle closely associated to UHC. The concept of equity is also often linked to other concepts and values (social justice, inclusion, solidarity, human rights - but also to efficiency and sustainability). Regarding the levels of equity most often considered, access (availability, coverage, provision) is the most often quoted dimension, followed by financial protection. Regarding the types of equity considered, those most referred to are socio-economic, geographic, and gender-based disparities. In Benin and Senegal, geographic inequities are mostly pinpointed by UHC policy documents, but concrete interventions mostly target the poor. Overall, the UHC policy of both countries are quite similar in terms of their approach to equity. CONCLUSIONS: While equity is widely referred to in global and country-specific UHC policy documents, its multiple dimensions results in a rather rhetorical utilisation of the concept. Whereas equity covers various levels and types, many global UHC documents fail to define it properly and to comprehend the breadth of the concept. Consequently, perhaps, country-specific policy documents also use equity as a rhetoric principle, without sufficient consideration for concrete ways for implementation.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226601, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture needles have become an increasingly-popular treatment tool used by multiple health professions. However, the World Health Organization (WHO)'s 1999 training guidelines for acupuncture address only medical doctors and licensed acupuncturists, leaving a gap as to appropriate training standards for other professions. AIMS AND METHODS: With reference to an extensive document analysis, and interviews with seventeen acupuncture educators from across several professions in Ontario, Canada, this work uses a critical qualitative policy analytic approach to: a) present a comprehensive account of statutory training requirements for acupuncture-needling physiotherapists and chiropractors in the United States, Canada, and Australia; and b) evaluate competing stakeholder discourses pertaining to recent related controversies. RESULTS: A wide range of educational requirements are evident across the jurisdictions under study (most below the 200-hour WHO guideline for physicians); and there is considerable disagreement among stakeholders as to what constitutes sufficient training in various forms of acupuncture, including 'dry needling'. Organizations defending brief post-graduate training for needling physiotherapists and chiropractors are generally associated with these two professions, and contend that their 'dry needling' practices differ substantially from traditional acupuncture. Characterizing such brief training as insufficient, opportunistic and unsafe, and 'dry needling' as a subset of acupuncture practice, are the voices of all acupuncture educators interviewed, as well as professional organizations representing physicians, licensed acupuncturists, and some physiotherapists and chiropractors. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Critiquing claims on both sides of the debate, this work calls for the development of independent, international safety-geared training guidelines that explicitly address the recent, evidence-informed trend towards biomedicalized acupuncture needling. Findings also suggest a need for additional research regarding the current shift towards overlapping-rather than exclusive-health professional practice scopes in industrialized countries.

19.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(11): 668-671, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779293

RESUMO

Corruption in the health sector has been a "dirty secret" in the health policy and international development community, but recent global activities point to a day when it will no longer be neglected as a key determinant of health. To further explore next steps forward, this commentary applies the Kingdon's multiple-streams framework (MSF) to assess what opportunities are available to mobilize the global agenda to combat health corruption. Based on this analysis, it appears that Kingdon's problem, policy, and political streams are coalescing to create a policy window opportunity that can be leveraged based on recent developments in the global health and international development community around corruption. This includes the recent formation of the Global Network on Anti-Corruption, Transparency and Accountability (GNACTA) led by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Global Fund, and the United Nations Development Programme in 2019. It also includes bridging shared goals of addressing corruption in order to make progress towards health-specific goals in the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and for achieving universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Nações Unidas , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
20.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 18(4): 370-381, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779573

RESUMO

The role of trust funds in the practice of and the policy discourse on the sustainable financing for health and HIV is growing. However, there is a paucity of political analyses on implementing trust fund arrangements. Drawing on a novel meta-framework - connecting multiple streams and advocacy coalition frameworks to policy cycle models of analysis - to politically analyse HIV financing policy design, adoption and implementation as well as insights from public finance literature, this article critically analyses the politics of the AIDS Trust Fund (ATF) in Uganda. We find that politics was the most fundamental driver for the establishment of the ATF. Whereas HIV financing is inherently both technical and political, enacting the ATF was largely a geopolitical positioning policy instrument that entailed navigating political economy challenges in managing multiple stakeholder groups' politics. With the mandated tax revenues earmarked to capitalise the ATF covering only 0.5% of the annual resource needs, we find a very insignificant potential to contribute to financial sustainability of the national HIV response per se. As good ideas and evidence alone often do not necessarily produce desired results, we conclude that systematic and continuous political analysis can bring meaningful insights to our understanding of political economy dimensions of the ATF as an innovative financing policy instrument, thereby helping drive technically sound health financing policy proposals into practice more effectively. For Uganda, while proponents have invested a considerable amount of hope in the ATF as a source of sustainable domestic funding for the HIV response, substantial work remains to be done to address a number of questions that continue to beguile the current ATF architecture. Regarding global health financing policy, the findings suggest the need to pay attention to the position, power and interests of stakeholders as a powerful lever in health financing policy reforms.

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