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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 93, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005106

RESUMO

The authors have retracted this article [1] because of methodological inaccuracies and incorrect use of the PRISMA/PROSPERO guidelines of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the article.

2.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 24(1): 100-109, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Losses can occur throughout the latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) cascade of care. This can result in suboptimal rates of effective treatment for LTBI. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the effect of different interventions to reduce losses in the LTBI cascade before treatment completion.METHODS: We searched several databases for articles reporting outcomes for interventions designed to strengthen the LTBI cascade. We included papers published in English from January 1990 until February 2018. Where possible, estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS: We identified 30 studies that evaluated 32 different interventions aimed at reducing losses in the LTBI cascade. In pooled analysis, interventions that improved completion of cascade steps included patient incentives (respectively 42 [95% CI 34-51] and 48 [95% CI 15-81] additional patients completing initial assessment and medical evaluation per 100 starting); health care worker education (28 [95% CI 4-52] additional patients initiating initial assessment per 100 identified; home visits (additional 13 [95% CI 4-21] patients completing initial assessment per 100 starting); digital solutions (additional 11 [95% CI 4-21] patients initiating initial assessment per 100 identified); and patient reminders (additional 7 [95% CI 0.3-13] patients completing initial assessment per 100 starting). Several other interventions reduced losses at specific cascade steps, but evidence for these interventions came from single studies and could not be pooled.CONCLUSIONS: Although there is limited evidence that any single intervention significantly improves the LTBI cascade, many studies provide information about effective ways to strengthen it.

3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 23, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infection have provided inconsistent results, partly due to the choice of the control group. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the risk factors for CRKP infection by comparing CRKP-infected patients with two types of controls: patients infected with carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (comparison 1) or patients not infected with CRKP (comparison 2). METHODS: Data on potentially relevant risk factors for CRKP infection were extracted from studies indexed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science or EBSCO databases from January 1996 to April 2019, and meta-analyzed based on the outcomes for each type of comparison. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 18 studies for comparison 1 and 14 studies for comparison 2. The following eight risk factors were common to both comparisons: admission to intensive care unit (ICU; odds ratio, ORcomparison 1 = 3.20, ORcomparison 2 = 4.44), central venous catheter use (2.62, 3.85), mechanical ventilation (2.70, 4.78), tracheostomy (2.11, 8.48), urinary catheter use (1.99, 0.27), prior use of antibiotic (6.07, 1.61), exposure to carbapenems (4.16, 3.84) and exposure to aminoglycosides (1.85, 1.80). Another 10 risk factors were unique to comparison 1: longer length of hospital stay (OR = 15.28); prior hospitalization (within the previous 6 months) (OR = 1.91); renal dysfunction (OR = 2.17); neurological disorders (OR = 1.52); nasogastric tube use (OR = 2.62); dialysis (OR = 3.56); and exposure to quinolones (OR = 2.11), fluoroquinolones (OR = 2.03), glycopeptides (OR = 3.70) and vancomycin (OR = 2.82). CONCLUSIONS: Eighteen factors may increase the risk of carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae infection; eight factors may be associated with both K. pneumoniae infections in general and CRKP in particular. The eight shared factors are likely to be 'true' risk factors for CRKP infection. Evaluation of risk factors in different situations may be helpful for empirical treatment and prevention of CRKP infections.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5): 136-139, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027629

RESUMO

On December 21, 2018 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed a hexavalent combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) adsorbed, inactivated poliovirus (IPV), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate (meningococcal protein conjugate) and hepatitis B (HepB) (recombinant) vaccine, DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB (Vaxelis; MCM Vaccine Company),* for use as a 3-dose series in infants at ages 2, 4, and 6 months (1). On June 26, 2019, after reviewing data on safety and immunogenicity, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)† voted to include DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB in the federal Vaccines for Children (VFC) program.§ This report summarizes the indications for DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB and provides guidance for its use.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Licenciamento , Estados Unidos , Vacinas Combinadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem
8.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 28(1): 24-26, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023694

RESUMO

Recently, the Society of Infectious Diseases of Chinese Medical Association and Chinese GRADE Center jointly released the "2019 Chinese practice guideline for the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B virus mother-to-child transmission" . We concerned several issues in the Guideline, including the improper citation of some references, no recommendations for some key strategies for the prevention of hepatitis B virus mother-to-child transmission, insufficient or even lack of evidence for some recommendations and others. Based on the principle of academic contention, we present in this article our comments on the Guideline to discuss these issues with the Guideline's authors and readers.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 169, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The problem of AIDS response has not only involved public health, but also had a great impact on the family burden.The objective of this study was to estimate the preventive and curative care expenditure(PCE)for AIDS of Hunan Province in 2017 based on System of Health Accounts 2011(SHA2011)by quantity,financing scheme,health provider,health function,and to analyses the factors affecting patients' medical burden. METHODS: Through stratified multi-stage sampling method, 1336 institutions were surveyed to obtain AIDS prevention and control data, and the official data collected from Health Statistical Yearbook, Health Financial Annual Reports and Government Input Monitoring System were used to estimate the AIDS PCE based on SHA2011. Univariate analyses and ordered logistic regression were used to evaluate the factors affecting the medical burden of AIDS patients. RESULTS: The AIDS PCE of Hunan Province in 2017 was 266.67 million, mainly flowed to hospitals and disease prevention and control institutions. The proportions of curative care expenditure(CCE) and prevention expenditure were 51.39 and 48.61% respectively. Prevention expenditure were mainly used for traditional prevention methods. All prevention expenditure and 88.52% of CCE were borne by public financing scheme. Family health expenditure accounted for 11.12% of CCE, but there were still some people with heavy burden of treatment. Non insurance, co-infection and length of stay are risk factors to the total hospitalization expenses(Totalexp)and the out-of-pocket payments(OOPs)(all p < 0.05,OR > 1). Taking the age group under 30 as the reference, the partial regression coefficient of the age group over 60 was statistically significant (OR (Totalexp) = 1.809, OR (OOPs) = 0.30). CONCLUSION: The financing structure of the PCE for AIDS in Hunan Province was relatively stable and the flow of institutions was reasonable. The functional flow of expenditure embodied the principle of "prevention first". China should incorporate oral PrEP into the national guidelines as soon as possible to improve the allocation efficiency of AIDS prevention resources. Meantime, several measures should be taken to reduce the medical burden of AIDS patients, including expanding the scope of government assistance, adjusting insurance compensation measures, increasing the rate of patients participating in insurance,encouraging commercial insurance to join the AIDS insurance system,and controlling length of stay in hospital.

11.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 42, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the lifetime cost-effectiveness of first-line dialysis modalities for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients under the "Peritoneal Dialysis First" policy. METHODS: Lifetime cost-effectiveness analyses from both healthcare provider and societal perspectives were performed using Markov modelling by simulating at age 60. Empirical data on costs and health utility scores collected from our studies were combined with published data on health state transitions and survival data to estimate the lifetime cost, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and cost-effectiveness of three competing dialysis modalities: peritoneal dialysis (PD), hospital-based haemodialysis (HD) and nocturnal home HD. RESULTS: For cost-effectiveness analysis over a lifetime horizon from the perspective of healthcare provider, hospital-based HD group (lifetime cost USD$142,389; 6.58 QALYs) was dominated by the PD group (USD$76,915; 7.13 QALYs). Home-based HD had the highest effectiveness (8.37 QALYs) but with higher cost (USD$97,917) than the PD group. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was USD$16,934 per QALY gained for home-based HD over PD. From the societal perspective, the results were similar and the ICER was USD$1195 per QALY gained for home-based HD over PD. Both ICERs fell within the acceptable thresholds. Changes in model parameters via sensitivity analyses had a minimal impact on ICER values. CONCLUSIONS: This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of dialysis modalities and service delivery models for ESRD patients under "Peritoneal Dialysis First" policy. For both healthcare provider and societal perspectives, PD as first-line dialysis modality was cost-saving relative to hospital-based HD, supporting the existing PD First or favoured policy. When compared with PD, Nocturnal home Home-based HD was considered a cost-effective first-line dialysis modality for ESRD patients.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033038

RESUMO

In the frame of joint action in chronic diseases (JA CHRODIS), an extensive process at the European Union level was carried out to identify a core set of quality criteria and to formulate recommendations that improved prevention, early detection, and quality of care for people with chronic diseases. Diabetes was used as a model disease. The core set of quality criteria may be applied to develop and improve practices, programs, strategies, and policies in various domains (e.g., prevention, care, health promotion, education, and training). The quality criteria are general enough to be applied in countries with different political, administrative, social, and health care organizations. Moreover, they can be applied to a number of other chronic diseases. JA CHRODIS recommendations and quality criteria are being tested in a series of pilot actions within the JA CHRODIS PLUS. A total of 15 partners representing nine European countries worked together to implement pilot actions and generate practical lessons that could contribute to the further uptake and use of JA CHRODIS recommendations. Special emphasis is given to meaningful patient involvement in co-designing the pilot actions and to the sustainability and scalability of the pilot actions. These insights were found to be at the core of the learning from pilot actions to foster high quality care for people with chronic diseases.

13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040379

RESUMO

Influenza is a viral respiratory disease that causes significant clinical and economic burden globally. Quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) is frequently used to protect people who have a high-risk of developing influenza complications due to comorbidities. QIV offers protection against influenza A (A/H1N1 and H3N2) and B (B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata) strains. The European Medicines Agency has recently approved a cell-based QIV (QIVc) in people aged over 9 years old. QIVc has been shown to be more effective at preventing influenza than traditional egg-based QIV (QIVe). In this study, we use a health economic model adapted to Spain to assess the costs and outcomes associated with using QIVc instead of QIVe in people aged 9-64 at high-risk of complications. Observed vaccine coverage of 32% in the 9-17 age group, 17% in those aged 18-59, and 22% for ages 60-64 was used in the analysis. In total, 2.5 million people were vaccinated in the simulations. Using QIVc instead of QIVe was associated with 16,221fewer symptomatic cases, 4,522 fewer primary care visits, 1,015 fewer emergency room visits and 88 fewer hospitalizations. From a societal perspective, QIVc was more effective and less expensive compared to QIVe, leading to a cost-saving of €3.4 million. From a public payer perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for QIVc vs QIVe was €12,852 per QALY gained. In conclusion, QIVc offers a cost-effective alternative to QIVe and should be considered as an alternative vaccine to QIVe for people aged 9-64 at high-risk of influenza complications in Spain.

14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 348-365, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041484

RESUMO

The release of modified mosquitoes to suppress/replace vectors constitutes a promising tool for vector control and disease prevention. Evidence regarding these innovative modification techniques is scarce and disperse. This work conducted a systematic review, gathering and analysing research articles from PubMed and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde databases whose results report efficacy and non-target effects of using modified insects for disease prevention, until 2016. More than 1500 publications were screened and 349 were analysed. Only 12/3.4% articles reported field-based evidence and 41/11.7% covered modification strategies' post-release efficacy. Variability in the effective results (90/25.7%) questioned its reproducibility in different settings. We also found publications reporting reversal outcomes 38/10.9%, (e.g. post-release increase of vector population). Ecological effects were also reported, such as horizontal transfer events (54/15.5%), and worsening pathogenesis induced by natural wolbachia (10/2.9%). Present work revealed promising outcomes of modifying strategies. However, it also revealed a need for field-based evidence mainly regarding epidemiologic and long-term impact. It pointed out some eventual irreversible and important effects that must not be ignored when considering open-field releases, and that may constitute constraints to generate the missing field evidence. Present work constitutes a baseline of knowledge, offering also a methodological approach that may facilitate future updates.

15.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 10, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) represent a considerable burden for healthcare systems. They are largely preventable and multiple interventions have been proposed over past years in an attempt to prevent SSI. We aim to provide a position paper on Operative Room (OR) prevention of SSI in patients presenting with intra-abdominal infection to be considered a future addendum to the well-known World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Guidelines on the management of intra-abdominal infections. METHODS: The literature was searched for focused publications on SSI until March 2019. Critical analysis and grading of the literature has been performed by a working group of experts; the literature review and the statements were evaluated by a Steering Committee of the WSES. RESULTS: Wound protectors and antibacterial sutures seem to have effective roles to prevent SSI in intra-abdominal infections. The application of negative-pressure wound therapy in preventing SSI can be useful in reducing postoperative wound complications. It is important to pursue normothermia with the available resources in the intraoperative period to decrease SSI rate. The optimal knowledge of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics of antibiotics helps to decide when additional intraoperative antibiotic doses should be administered in patients with intra-abdominal infections undergoing emergency surgery to prevent SSI. CONCLUSIONS: The current position paper offers an extensive overview of the available evidence regarding surgical site infection control and prevention in patients having intra-abdominal infections.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated bacterial vaccine derived from Mycobacterium bovis, which is mostly administered to neonates in regions where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. Adverse reactions following BCG vaccination are rare, however immunocompromised individuals and in particular patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are prone to develop vaccine-derived complications. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review demographic, clinical, immunologic and genetic data of PIDs that present with BCG vaccine complications. Moreover, we performed a meta-analysis aiming to determine the BCG-vaccine complications rate for PID patients. METHODS: We conducted electronic searches on Embase, Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus (1966 to September 2018) introducing terms related to PIDs, BCG vaccination, and BCG vaccine complications. Studies with human subjects with confirmed PID, BCG vaccination history and vaccine-associated complications (VAC) were included. RESULTS: A total of 46 PIDs associated with BCG-VAC were identified. Severe combined immunodeficiency was the most common (466 cases) and also showed the highest BCG-related mortality. Most BCG infection cases in PID patients were reported from Iran (n=219, 18.8%). The overall frequency of BCG-VAC in the included 1691 PID cases was 41.5% (95% CI: 29.9, 53.2; I2=98.3%), based on the results of the random effect method used in this meta-analysis. Patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases had the highest frequency of BCG-VAC with a pooled frequency of 90.6% (95% CI: 79.7, 1.0; I2=81.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Several PID entities are susceptible to BCG-VAC. Systemic neonatal PID screening programs may help to prevent a substantial amount of BCG vaccination complications.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Significant delays in translating health care-related research into public health programs and medical practice mean that people may not get the best care when they need it. Regarding cardiovascular disease, translation delays can mean lives may be unnecessarily lost each year. To facilitate the translation of knowledge to action, we created a Best Practices Guide for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Programs. DESIGN: Using the Rapid Synthesis Translation Process and the Best Practices Framework as guiding frameworks, we collected and rated research evidence for hypertension control and cholesterol management strategies. After identifying best practices, we gathered information about programs that were implementing the practices and about resources useful for implementation. Research evidence and supplementary information were consolidated in an informational resource and published online. Web metrics were collected and analyzed to measure use and reach of the guide. RESULTS: The Best Practices Guide was released in January 2018 and included background information and resources on 8 best practice strategies. It was published as an online resource, publicly accessible from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site in 2 different formats. Web metrics show that in the first year after publication, there were 25 589 Web page views and 2467 downloads. A query of partner use of the guide indicated that it was often shared in partners' own resources, newsletters, and online material. CONCLUSION: In following a systematic approach to creating the Best Practices Guide and documenting the steps taken in its development, we offer a replicable approach for translating research on health care practices into a resource to facilitate implementation. The success of this approach is attributed to 3 key factors: using a prescribed and documented approach to evidence translation, working closely with stakeholders throughout the process, and prioritizing the content design and accessibility of the final product.

20.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 157-165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021100

RESUMO

Background: For patients with inadequate control of cholesterol using moderate-dose statins in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), either doubling the dose of statins or adding ezetimibe should be considered. The cost-effectiveness of them is unknown in the Chinese context. The aim of this study is to compare the cost and effectiveness of the two regimens, and estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Methods: A Markov model of five health statuses were used to estimate long-term costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of the two treatment regimens from the healthcare perspective. The effectiveness data used to calculate the transition probability was based on a previously published randomized trial. The utility data was gathered from literature and the costs were gathered from the electronic medical record system of West China Hospital in Chinese Yuan (CNY) in 2017 price. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted. Results: The ICER for ezetimibe plus moderate-dose rosuvastatin was 47,102.99 CNY per QALY for 20 years simulation, which did not reach the threshold of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of 59,660 CNY per QALY in 2017 in China. Non-CVD-related mortality and CVD-related mortality contributed most to the ICER. Conclusion: Adding ezetimibe to the moderate-dose statin in secondary prevention for CVD is cost-effective, compared with the high-dose statin in the Chinese context whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) was not inadequately controlled by moderate-dose statin alone.

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