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1.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-11-05. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/20-138).
Não convencional em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52983

RESUMO

Como parte de seu escopo no cenário de grupos de modelagem e iniciativas relacionadas a vacinas contra a COVID-19, convidamos modeladores e economistas a fornecer informações sobre o trabalho na vacinação contra a COVID-19 que abordem perguntas de modelagem priorizadas de modo a contribuir para orientar as deliberações sobre as recomendações para normas do SAGE OMS para imunizações. Os grupos são encorajados a compartilhar o estágio inicial e os resultados provisórios de qualquer uma das perguntas como parte do processo contínuo de análise de evidências, identificação de lacunas e refinamento de perguntas e contextos prioritários.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacinas , Doenças Transmissíveis , Imunização
2.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(12): e1512-e1523, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of malaria infection during pregnancy in HIV-negative women currently relies on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets together with intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). Increasing sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Africa threatens current prevention of malaria during pregnancy. Thus, a replacement for IPTp-SP is urgently needed, especially for locations with high sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is a promising candidate. We aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (IPTp-DP) versus IPTp-SP to prevent clinical malaria infection (and its sequelae) during pregnancy. METHODS: We did a cost-effectiveness analysis using meta-analysis and individual trial results from three clinical trials done in Kenya and Uganda. We calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) arising from stillbirths, neonatal death, low birthweight, mild and moderate maternal anaemia, and clinical malaria infection, associated with malaria during pregnancy. Cost estimates were obtained from data collected in observational studies, health-facility costings, and from international drug procurement databases. The cost-effectiveness analyses were done from a health-care provider perspective using a decision tree model with a lifetime horizon. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses using appropriate parameter ranges and distributions were also done. Results are presented as the incremental cost per DALY averted and the likelihood that an intervention is cost-effective for different cost-effectiveness thresholds. FINDINGS: Compared with three doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, three doses of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, delivered to a hypothetical cohort of 1000 pregnant women, averted 892 DALYs (95% credibility interval 274 to 1517) at an incremental cost of US$7051 (2653 to 13 038) generating an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $8 (2 to 29) per DALY averted. Compared with monthly doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, monthly doses of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine averted 534 DALYS (-141 to 1233) at a cost of $13 427 (4994 to 22 895), resulting in an ICER of $25 (-151 to 224) per DALY averted. Both results were highly robust to most or all variations in the deterministic sensitivity analysis. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that among HIV-negative pregnant women with high uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets, IPTp-DP is cost-effective in areas with high malaria transmission and high sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. These data provide a comprehensive overview of the current evidence on the cost-effectiveness of IPTp-DP. Nevertheless, before a policy change is advocated, we recommend further research into the effectiveness and costs of different regimens of IPTp-DP in settings with different underlying sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. FUNDING: Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium, which is funded through a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to the Liverpool School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(10): 1035-1059, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131228

RESUMO

Influenza virus infection is a respiratory infectious disease that can seriously affect human health. Influenza viruses can have frequent antigenic variation and changes, which can result in rapid and widespread transmission resulting in annual epidemics and outbreaks in places of public gathering such as schools, kindergartens and nursing homes. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that seasonal influenza epidemics have caused an annual 3 to 5 million severe cases, and 290000 to 650000 deaths globally. Pregnant women, young children, the elderly, and persons with chronic illnesses are at high risk for severe illness and death associated with influenza virus infection. Especially, COVID-19 pandemic might co-circulate with other respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza in the coming winter-spring season. Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and complications from infection. Currently, China has licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) which includes split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine, quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) which is split, and trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV3) which was newly licensed. Except for a few major cities, influenza vaccine is a category Ⅱ vaccine, which means influenza vaccination is voluntary, and recipients must pay for it. In 2018 and 2019, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention issued the"Technical Guidelines for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in China". In the past year, new research evidences home and abroad have been published, and new seasonal influenza vaccine has been licensed in China. To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and operational research on influenza vaccination in China, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) Influenza Vaccination Technical Working Group (TWG), updated the 2019-2020 technical guidelines and compiled the "Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China (2020-2021)". The main updates in this version include the following: First, new research evidences especially studies of China, including disease burden, effectiveness, Vaccine-avoidable disease burden, vaccine safety monitoring, and cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. Second, policies and measures for influenza prevention and control issued by National Health Commission(PRC)in the past year. Thirdly, new type seasonal influenza vaccine licensed and issued in 2020-2021 in China. Fourth, northern hemisphere influenza vaccination composition for the 2020-2021 season which included trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccine. Fifth, Influenza vaccination recommendations for 2020-2021 influenza season. The recommendations described in this report include the following: Points of Vaccination clinics (PoVs) should provide influenza vaccination to all persons aged 6 months and above who are willing to be vaccinated and do not have contraindications. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended, and appropriate product is available. Considering the situation of globally pandemic of COVID-19, to decrease the risk of influenza virus infection and minimize the impact on COVID-19 prevention and control, we recommend the following priority for seasonal influenza vaccination: (1) healthcare workers, including clinical doctors and nurses, public health professionals, quarantine professionals; (2) Vulnerable groups living in nursing homes or welfare homes and staffs who take care those vulnerable groups; (3) People in some key places, such as teachers and students in kindergartens, primary and secondary school, prisoners and staffs of prisons; (4) Other high risk group of influenza, including adults ≥60 years of age, children aged 6-59 months, persons with specific chronic diseases, the family members and caregivers of infants <6 months of age, and pregnant women or women who plan to become pregnant during the influenza season. Children aged 6 months through 8 years require 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered a minimum of 4 weeks apart during their first season of vaccination for optimal protection. People whoever get IIV or LAIV all apply to the principle. If they were vaccinated in 2019-2020 influenza season or a prior season, 1 dose is recommended. People more than 8 years old require 1 dose of influenza vaccine. It is recommended that people receive their influenza vaccination by the end of October. Influenza vaccination should be offered as soon as the vaccination is available. For the people unable to be vaccinated before the end of October, influenza vaccination will continue to be offered for the whole season. Influenza vaccine is also recommended for use in pregnant women during any trimester. These guidelines are intended for use by staff members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels who work on influenza control and prevention, PoVs staff members, healthcare workers from the departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, and infectious diseases, and staff members of maternity and child care institutions at all levels. These guidelines will be updated periodically as new evidence becomes available.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos , Vacinação
4.
Hemodial Int ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Sudan, the number of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) is growing. Patients and their families incur a high out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE), given that HD treatment is expensive. There are limited data about OOP spending on HD in the country. This study aims to explore patients' OOP expense on direct medical and nonmedical goods and services and to which extent they can be predicted from sociodemographic characteristics, health insurance status, comorbidity, and accommodation change. METHODS: This is descriptive a cross-sectional study conducted in Ibn Sina Hospital. One hundred and thirty patients undergo regular HD were randomly selected. FINDINGS: Among the study participants (130), the median of the overall total OOP (direct medical and direct nonmedical) spending per patients per year was found to be US$ 3859.1 (interquartile range [IQR]: 2298.1-6261.1). As for the medians OOP expenditure on direct medical and nonmedical costs, they were found to be US$ 2327.6 (IQR: 1421.5-3804.8) and US$ 1096 (IQR: 715.2-2345.2), respectively. The direct medical expenditure (355,586 US$) accounted for 60% of the overall total expenses. DISCUSSION: Medications and investigations were the primary drivers of direct medical spending. Higher OOPE rates were found among those with one or more of these factors; uninsured patients, patient with comorbidity, female gender, and over 40 years aged. The multivariate analysis showed that the significant predictors of direct medical expenditure were health insurance and comorbid conditions, where as the predictors for direct nonmedical expenditure were accommodation change and gender. This study results in a better understanding of OOP spending on direct medical and nonmedical services and its associated predictors among HD patients within the context of Sudan. Further research is needed in this area.

5.
Brain Behav ; : e01929, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postural sway may be useful as an objective measure of Parkinson's disease (PD). Existing studies have analyzed many different features of sway using different experimental paradigms. We aimed to determine what features have been used to measure sway and then to assess which feature(s) best differentiate PD patients from controls. We also aimed to determine whether any refinements might improve discriminative power and so assist in standardizing experimental conditions and analysis of data. METHODS: In this systematic review of the literature, effect size (ES) was calculated for every feature reported by each article and then collapsed across articles where appropriate. The influence of clinical medication status, visual state, and sampling rate on ES was also assessed. RESULTS: Four hundred and forty-three papers were retrieved. 25 contained enough information for further analysis. The most commonly used features were not the most effective (e.g., PathLength, used 14 times, had ES of 0.47, while TotalEnergy, used only once, had ES of 1.78). Increased sampling rate was associated with increased ES (PathLength ES increased to 1.12 at 100 Hz from 0.40 at 10 Hz). Measurement during "OFF" clinical status was associated with increased ES (PathLength ES was 0.83 OFF compared to 0.21 ON). CONCLUSIONS: This review identified promising features for analysis of postural sway in PD, recommending a sampling rate of 100 Hz and studying patients when OFF to maximize ES. ES complements statistical significance as it is clinically relevant and is easily compared across experiments. We suggest that machine learning is a promising tool for the future analysis of postural sway in PD.

6.
Head Neck ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151611

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To systematically analyze the regional disease control after sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SNMM) primary treatment. METHODS: The study was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines searching on Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies with 936 patients (median age: 68.0 years, IQR 65-71) were included. Overall, the cumulative regional recurrence rate (RRR) was 18.4% (n = 917, 99% CI: 14.0%-23.4%), with a median follow-up of 30.0 months (n = 765, IQR 22.0-37.0). The RRR in clinical node negative patients was 17.0% (99% CI: 12.2%-22.5%), with a median follow-up of 22.0 months (n = 327, IQR 21.5-31.5). CONCLUSIONS: The RRR of SNMM after primary treatment is not to be neglected. Further prospective studies should be encouraged to clarify if elective treatment of the neck could be recommended at least in a subgroup of patients.

7.
Glob Heart ; 15(1): 62, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150127

RESUMO

Background: National and international political commitments have been made recently on rheumatic heart disease (RHD), a preventable heart condition that is endemic in low-resource countries. To inform best practice and identify evidence gaps, we assessed the effectiveness of RHD prevention and control programmes and the extent and nature of their integration into local health systems. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using a previously published protocol that included electronic and manual searches for studies published between January 1990 and July 2019 reporting on prevention and control programmes for populations at risk for streptococcal pharyngitis, rheumatic fever, and/or RHD. We analysed programme integration according to a previously published framework and programme effectiveness using a results-chain framework. We meta-analysed secondary prophylaxis adherence using random-effects models. Study quality was assessed using peer-reviewed checklists (CASP and PRISM). PROSPERO registration: CRD42017076307. Findings: Five observational studies met with the inclusion criteria. Studies were similar in extent and nature of integration into health systems; no programme was completely integrated or non-integrated. A single study reported on programme impact. Secondary prophylaxis adherence improved among partially integrated RHD programmes (RR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.36], 3 studies, n = 618). Risk of bias was low in two studies, and indeterminable in the remaining three studies. Interpretation: There is evidence that partially integrated RHD programmes are beneficial for a range of intermediate health outcomes. This review provides a starting point for the design and implementation of future RHD programmes by outlining current best practice for integration and identifying key gaps in knowledge. Funding: National Research Foundation of South Africa.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on patients and healthcare providers and impact health care institutions financially. Reducing nosocomial infections requires an integrated program of prevention and control using key clinical best care practices. No instrument currently exists that measures these practices in terms of personnel time and material costs. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an instrument that would measure nosocomial infection control and prevention best care practice costs, including estimates of human and material resources. METHODS: An evaluation of the literature identified four practices essential for the control of pathogens: hand hygiene, hygiene and sanitation, screening and additional precaution. To reflect time, materials and products used in these practices, our team developed a time and motion guide. Iterations of the guide were assessed in a Delphi technique; content validity was established using the content validity index and reliability was assessed using Kruskall Wallis one-way ANOVA of rank test. RESULTS: Two rounds of Delphi review were required; 88% of invited experts completed the assessment. The final version of the guide contains eight dimensions: Identification [83 items]; Personnel [5 items]; Additional Precautions [1 item]; Hand Hygiene [2 items]; Personal Protective Equipment [14 items]; Screening [4 items]; Cleaning and Disinfection of Patient Care Equipment [33 items]; and Hygiene and Sanitation [24 items]. The content validity index obtained for all dimensions was acceptable (> 80%). Experts statistically agreed on six of the eight dimensions. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: This study developed and validated a new instrument based on expert opinion, the time and motion guide, for the systematic assessment of costs relating to the human and material resources used in nosocomial infection prevention and control. This guide will prove useful to measure the intensity of the application of prevention and control measures taken before, during and after outbreak periods or during pandemics such as COVID-19.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182256

RESUMO

Adolescents (10-24 years old) account for 23% of the global population. Physical inactivity, suboptimal dietary intake, overweight, and obesity during adolescence are risk factors associated with chronic disease development into adulthood. Research, policies, and guidelines that seek to prevent chronic disease risk factor development rarely engage adolescents in planning and decision-making processes. The aims of this review are to investigate (i) how adolescents currently participate in research, policy, and guidelines for reduction of chronic disease risk factors, and (ii) provide recommendations to optimize adolescent participation in future research, policy, and guideline decision making for chronic disease prevention. A systematic scoping review of the health peer-review research, policy, and guidelines, using Arksey and O'Malley's six-stage framework, will be conducted. Participatory outcomes will be assessed based on the Lansdown-UNICEF conceptual framework for measuring adolescent participation. Classified as consultative, collaborative, or adolescent-led according to the degree of influence and power adolescents possess in the decision- making processes. Consultation with adolescents via digital surveys and focus groups will provide further information, perspective, and insight. Qualitative data will be analyzed by descriptive numerical summary and qualitative content analytical techniques. The title of this protocol is registered with Joanna Briggs Institute and Open Science Framework, doi:10.17605/OSF.IO/E3S64.

10.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 478, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advance Care Planning is recommended for people with end-stage kidney disease but evidence is limited. Robust clinical trials are needed to investigate the impact of advance care planning in this population. There is little available data on cost-effectiveness to guide decision makers in allocating resources for advance care planning. Therefore we sought to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial and to test methods for assessing cost-effectiveness. METHODS: A deferred entry, randomised controlled feasibility trial, incorporating economic and process evaluations, with people with end-stage kidney disease, aged 65 years or older, receiving haemodialysis, in two renal haemodialysis units in Northern Ireland, UK. A nurse facilitator helped the patient make an advance care plan identifying: a surrogate decision-maker; what the participant would like to happen in the future; any advance decision to refuse treatment; preferred place of care at end-of-life. RESULTS: Recruitment lasted 189 days; intervention and data collection 443 days. Of the 67 patients invited to participate 30 (45%) declined and 36 were randomised to immediate or deferred advance care plan groups. Twenty-two (61%) made an advance care plan and completed data collection at 12 weeks; 17 (47.2%) were able to identify a surrogate willing to be named in the advance care plan document. The intervention was well-received and encouraged end-of-life conversations, but did not succeed in helping patients to fully clarify their values or consider specific treatment choices. There was no significant difference in health system costs between the immediate and deferred groups. CONCLUSIONS: A trial of advance care planning with participants receiving haemodialysis is feasible and acceptable to patients, but challenging. A full trial would require a pool of potential participants five times larger than the number required to complete data collection at 3 months. Widening eligibility criteria to include younger (under 65 years of age) and less frail patients, together with special efforts to engage and retain surrogates may improve recruitment and retention. Traditional advance care planning outcomes may need to be supplemented with those that are defined by patients, helping them to participate with clinicians in making medical decisions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered December 16, 2015. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02631200 .

11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1042, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achievement of the elimination target for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in selected countries has increased hope to end the HIV epidemic in children across the world. However, MTCT rates remain well above the 5% elimination target in most sub-Saharan Africa countries. These countries require innovative strategies to scale-up their interventions to end paediatric HIV. We describe how the Elizabeth Glaser Paediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) consortium and the Children's Investment Fund Foundation (CIFF) used the critical path method to facilitate rapid expansion and optimization of 2010 and 2013 WHO PMTCT guidelines to reduce Zimbabwe's MTCT rate from 22% in 2010 to 6.4% in 2015. METHODS: We analysed activities implemented and PMTCT programme data for the period before and during the EGPAF-CIFF project. The critical path method involved a cycle of collecting and analysing quarterly PMTCT indicator data and planning and implementing targeted activities to improve the PMTCT indicators. We performed a graphical trend analysis of data that measured availability of PMTCT services. Using Pearson's Chi2 test, we compared results of PMTCT uptake indicators at the start and end of the EGPAF-CIFF project and used regression discontinuity analysis to assess effectiveness of activities implemented to improve the PMTCT service uptake indicators. RESULTS: Zimbabwe rolled out WHO 2010 and 2013 PMTCT guidelines in less than 1 year during the EGPAF-CIFF project, yet it took more than 4 years to roll-out previous guidelines. All PMTCT indicators increased significantly (p < 0.001) comparing the five-year periods before and during the EGPAF-CIFF project. Critical path activities implemented increased five of the seven PMTCT uptake indicators. CONCLUSION: Zimbabwe rapidly rolled-out and optimised new WHO PMTCT guidelines and drastically reduced its MTCT rate using the critical path method. We recommend wider use of the critical path method in public health programmes.

12.
Vaccine ; 38(50): 7998-8009, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139137

RESUMO

Cholera remains an important global health problem with up to 4 million cases and 140,000 deaths annually. Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) are now a cornerstone of the WHOs "Ending Cholera - A Global Roadmap to 2030" global program for the eventual elimination of cholera. There are currently three WHO prequalified OCVs available, Dukoral®, Shanchol® and Euvichol-Plus®. These vaccines are effective but due to a multiple strain composition and two different methods of inactivation, are complex and costly to manufacture. We describe here the characterization and industrial scale development of Hillchol®; a novel, likely affordable single-component OCV for low and middle-income countries. Hillchol® consists of formalin-inactivated bacteria of a stable recombinant Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Hikojima serotype strain expressing approximately 50% each of Ogawa and Inaba O1 LPS antigens. The novel OCV can be manufactured on an industrial scale at a low cost. Hillchol® was well tolerated in animal toxicology studies and shown to have non-inferior oral immunogenicity in mice for both intestinal-mucosal and serological immune responses when compared with a WHO-prequalified OCV. The optimized production of this single component OCV will reduce cost of OCV production and thus substantially increase vaccine availability. Based on these results, Hillchol® has been produced at a GMP facility and used successfully for clinical phase I/II studies.

13.
Med J Aust ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) cause significant morbidity and premature mortality among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. RHD Australia has produced a fully updated clinical guideline in response to new knowledge gained since the 2012 edition. The guideline aligns with major international ARF and RHD practice guidelines from the American Heart Association and World Heart Federation to ensure best practice. The GRADE system was used to assess the quality and strength of evidence where appropriate. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: The 2020 Australian guideline details best practice care for people with or at risk of ARF and RHD. It provides up-to-date guidance on primordial, primary and secondary prevention, diagnosis and management, preconception and perinatal management of women with RHD, culturally safe practice, provision of a trained and supported Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander workforce, disease burden, RHD screening, control programs and new technologies. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS A RESULT OF THE GUIDELINE: Key changes include updating of ARF and RHD diagnostic criteria; change in secondary prophylaxis duration; improved pain management for intramuscular injections; and changes to antibiotic regimens for primary prevention. Other changes include an emphasis on provision of culturally appropriate care; updated burden of disease data using linked register and hospitalisations data; primordial prevention strategies to reduce streptococcal infection addressing household overcrowding and personal hygiene; recommendations for population-based echocardiographic screening for RHD in select populations; expanded management guidance for women with RHD or ARF to cover contraception, antenatal, delivery and postnatal care, and to stratify pregnancy risks according to RHD severity; and a priority classification system for presence and severity of RHD to align with appropriate timing of follow-up.

14.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of decentralized diagnostic program for hepatitis B virus (HBV) implemented in Tamil Nadu, South India with specific focus on a selected key population at increased risk of HBV. METHODS: A combination of decision tree and Markov model was developed to compare cost-effectiveness of the new and standard strategy. Cost and health outcomes were calculated based on the proportion of cohort in each respective health state. Total costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the intervention and comparator strategies were calculated. The model parameter uncertainties were evaluated by sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: Considering decentralised HBV diagnosis followed by early treatment and vaccination for negatives for a cohort of 1000 population resulted in 505 QALYs gained and incremental cost saving of ₹180749 ($2620). The decentralised diagnostic strategy could avert 294 deaths, gain 293 life years and reduce out of pocket expenditure of ₹3274 ($47) per person for HBV management. CONCLUSION: Decentralised HBV diagnosis followed by early treatment and vaccination for negatives in Tamil Nadu can save lives and reduce out-of-pocket expenditures compared to standard strategy.

15.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(5): 574-583, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165135

RESUMO

Newer generation drug eluting stents (DES) and pharmacotherapy have decreased thrombotic events post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). There is lack of wide-ranging safety and efficacy evaluation in both stable ischemic heart disease and acute coronary syndrome in short-term (3-6 months) versus Standard-term (12 months) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). We searched electronic databases using specific terms to identify randomized control trials comparing different durations of DAPT after PCI with DES. The outcomes of interest included all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, major bleeding, target lesion and vessel revascularization, and stroke at follow-up duration ≥12 months post index PCI. Studies that compared DAPT <3 months or DAPT ≥12 months were excluded. Thirteen randomized control trials (n = 31,831) were included; 8401 patients received DAPT for 3 months and 7482 patients received DAPT in the 6 months group. Major bleeding rate was lower in the short-term (3-6 months) versus Standard-term (12 months) group (risk ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.84, P < 0.05). Repeat revascularization rate was higher in the short-term (3-6 months) versus Standard-term (12 months) (risk ratio 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.36, P < 0.05) of DAPT duration after PCI with DES. No difference in other outcomes were observed when comparing short versus standard duration of DAPT in both stable ischemic heart disease and acute coronary syndrome.

17.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) remain a major challenge. Various strategies have been tried to prevent or control HAIs. Positive deviance, a strategy that has been used in the last decade, is based on the observation that a few at-risk individuals follow uncommon, useful practices and that, consequently, they experience better outcomes than their peers who share similar risks. We performed a systematic literature review to measure the impact of positive deviance in controlling HAIs. METHODS: A systematic search strategy was used to search PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Embase through May 2020 for studies evaluating positive deviance as a single intervention or as part of an initiative to prevent or control healthcare-associated infections. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Downs and Black score. RESULTS: Of 542 articles potentially eligible for review, 14 articles were included for further analysis. All studies were observational, quasi-experimental (before-and-after intervention) studies. Hand hygiene was the outcome in 8 studies (57%), and an improvement was observed in association with implementation of positive deviance as a single intervention in all of them. Overall HAI rates were measured in 5 studies (36%), and positive deviance was associated with an observed reduction in 4 (80%) of them. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections were evaluated in 5 studies (36%), and positive deviance containing bundles were successful in all of them. CONCLUSIONS: Positive deviance may be an effective strategy to improve hand hygiene and control HAIs. Further studies are needed to confirm this effect.

18.
Malar J ; 19(1): 411, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198747

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the maintenance of various disease control programmes, including malaria. In some malaria-endemic countries, funding and personnel reallocations were executed from malaria control programmes to support COVID-19 response efforts, resulting mainly in interruptions of disease control activities and reduced capabilities of health system. While it is principal to drive national budget rearrangements during the pandemic, the long-standing malaria control programmes should not be left behind in order to sustain the achievements from the previous years. With different levels of intensity, many countries have been struggling to improve the health system resilience and to mitigate the unavoidable stagnation of malaria control programmes. Current opinion emphasized the impacts of budget reprioritization on malaria-related resources during COVID-19 pandemic in malaria endemic countries in Africa and Southeast Asia, and feasible attempts that can be taken to lessen these impacts.


Assuntos
Orçamentos/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Doenças Endêmicas/economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Malária/economia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , África , Ásia Sudeste , Orçamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Controle de Mosquitos/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040100, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199422

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disorder often neuropathologically associated with the accumulation of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau, for which there is currently no disease-modifying treatment. Previous work by our group has shown sodium selenate upregulates the activity of protein phosphatase 2 in the brain, increasing the rate of tau dephosphorylation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium selenate as a disease-modifying treatment for bvFTD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a multisite, phase IIb, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sodium selenate. One hundred and twenty participants will be enrolled across 4 Australian academic hospitals. Following screening eligible participants will be randomised (1:1) to sodium selenate (15 mg three times a day) or placebo for 52 weeks. Participants will have regular safety and efficacy visits throughout the study period. The primary study outcome will be percentage brain volume change (PBVC) as measured on MRI over 52 weeks of treatment. This will be analysed with a general linear model (analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)) with the PBVC as an output, the treatment as an input and the baseline brain volume as covariate for adjustment purposes. Secondary outcomes include safety and tolerability measures, and efficacy measures; change in cerebrospinal fluid total-tau, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III and Cambridge Behavioural Inventory-Revised scores over the 52 weeks of treatment. These will also be analysed with ANCOVA where the corresponding baseline measure will be incorporated in the model. Additional exploratory outcomes will include other imaging, cognitive and biospecimen analyses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Human Research and Ethics Committee of the lead site as part of the Australian Multisite Ethics approval system. The results of the study will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000236998 .

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