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1.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113884, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845391

RESUMO

In this article, we report on the results of an experimental study to estimate the effects of delivering information about racial disparities in COVID-19-related death rates. On the one hand, we find that such information led to increased perception of risk among those Black respondents who lacked prior knowledge; and to increased support for a more concerted public health response among those White respondents who expressed favorable views towards Blacks at baseline. On the other hand, for Whites with colder views towards Blacks, the informational treatment had the opposite effect: it led to decreased risk perception and to lower levels of support for an aggressive response. Our findings highlight that well-intentioned public health campaigns spotlighting disparities might have adverse side effects and those ought to be considered as part of a broader strategy. The study contributes to a larger scholarly literature on the challenges of making and implementing social policy in racially-divided societies.

3.
Br J Sociol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825182

RESUMO

This article examines how Armenian citizens of Turkey employ names and naming strategies in their everyday life in order to navigate a nationalist social landscape. Studies of nationalist politics in everyday life have been particularly successful in demonstrating how nationalism is experienced and reproduced through the consumption of national symbols and rituals. What remains relatively glossed over in these accounts are the individuals' constant and dynamic engagements with nationalist politics not only through national symbols and rituals but also through everyday social practices with fellow citizens. The present study seeks to capture and analyze this latter, relatively understudied, aspect. In doing so, the discussion reveals how individuals use different name strategies in order to fend off shame and humiliation as well as inhibit threats to status advancement. Overall, the following narrative moves beyond a demonstration of the functionality of nationalism as a source of unity and solidarity. Instead, it reveals the ways in which nationalist politics and minorities' responses align, diverge and/or conflict on the ground.

4.
Yale J Biol Med ; 94(1): 153-157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795992

RESUMO

This perspective describes three new policies passed at the November 2020 Special Meeting of the American Medical Association House of Delegates. These policies (1) denounce racism as a public health threat; (2) call for the elimination of race as a proxy for ancestry, genetics, and biology in medical education, research, and clinical practice; and (3) decry racial essentialism in medicine. We also explore the social and institutional context leading to the passage of these policies, which speak directly to the harmful legacy of racism in America, and its insidious impact on the healthcare system.

5.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; : 146167221994025, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648408

RESUMO

Meritocracy is a prominent narrative embedded in America's educational system: work hard and anyone can achieve success. Yet, racial disparities in education suggest this narrative does not tell the full story. Four studies (N = 1,439) examined how applicants for a teaching position are evaluated when they invoke different narratives regarding who or what is to blame for racial disparities (i.e., individuals vs. systems). We hypothesized these evaluations would differ depending on teacher race (Black/White) and evaluator political orientation. Results revealed conservatives evaluated Black and White applicants advocating for personal responsibility more favorably than applicants advocating for social responsibility. Liberals preferred social responsibility applicants, but only when they were White. They were more ambivalent in their evaluations and hiring decisions if the applicants were Black. Our findings suggest that Black applicants advocating for social change are penalized by both liberal and conservative evaluators.

6.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-15, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784231

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed health systems around the globe, and intensified the lethality of social and political inequality. In the United States, where public health departments have been severely defunded, Black, Native, Latinx communities and those experiencing poverty in the country's largest cities are disproportionately infected and disproportionately dying. Based on our collective ethnographic work in three global cities in the U.S. cities (San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Detroit), we identify how the political geography of racialisation potentiated the COVID-19 crisis, exacerbating the social and economic toll of the pandemic for non-white communities, and undercut the public health response. Our analysis is specific to the current COVID19 crisis in the U.S, however the lessons from these cases are important for understanding and responding to the corrosive political processes that have entrenched inequality in pandemics around the world.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671581

RESUMO

Many have referred to the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis and intertwined issues of structural racism as "twin pandemics". As healthcare workers in Newark, New Jersey, a city heavily affected by the twin pandemics, we recognize that health workforce changes must be grounded in our community's recent history. The objective of this essay is to briefly describe the relationship between organized medicine, state and local leaders, and the people of Newark. We begin with a discussion of Newark in the 1950s and 1960s: its people experienced poor socioeconomic conditions, terrible medical care, and the many sequelae of abhorrent racism. Plans to establish a New Jersey Medical School in Newark's Central Ward also threatened to displace many residents from their homes. We then describe the Newark Agreements of 1968, which formalized a social contract between the state, business leaders, and people of Newark. In part, the Medical School committed to indefinitely promoting public health in Newark. We share progress towards this goal. Finally, we document key healthcare administrative decisions facing our community today. Stakeholder opinions are shared. We conclude that the Newark Agreements set an important standard for communities across the country. Creative solutions to healthcare policy may be realized through extensive community collaboration.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/história , Saúde Pública/história , Faculdades de Medicina , Cidades , Assistência à Saúde/história , Política de Saúde/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , New Jersey , Racismo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 25, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616771

RESUMO

As witnessed over the last year, immunity emerged as one of most highly debated topics in the current Covid-19 pandemic. Countries around the globe have been debating whether herd immunity or lockdown is the best response, as the race continues for the development and rollout of effective vaccines against coronavirus and as the economic costs of implementing strict containment measures are weighed against public health costs. What became evident all the more is that immunity is precisely what bridges between biological life and political life in the current climate, be it in terms of the contentious notion of herd immunity, the geopolitical struggle for vaccines, or the possible emergence of "Covid-elite", i.e. holders of so-called "immunity passports". Immunity, as such, is certainly not only a matter of science and biology alone, but is inherently political in the way that pandemics themselves are often highly politicised. Drawing on the work of Roberto Esposito and other literature from the field of biopolitics and immunology, this paper provides a critical examination of the concept of immunity in light of the recent events, highlighting the intersections between the politics of defence and the politics of sacrifice which animate governments' immunitary responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper ends with a discussion on the forms of solidarity and local initiatives that have been mobilised during the current pandemic and their potential for an affirmative form of biopolitics. Overall, the main aim of this paper is to provide a critical cultural and philosophical analysis of Covid-19 debates and responses and a nuanced account on the biopolitical effects of the current pandemic, highlighting the paradoxical nature of immunity which straddles at once negative practices of defence and sacrifice as well as affirmative forms of community and solidarity beyond state apparatuses.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Participação da Comunidade , Saúde Global , Governo , Imunidade Coletiva , Imunidade , Política , Conflitos Armados , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Metáfora , Classe Social , Cobertura Vacinal
10.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips202000725, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622042

RESUMO

The complex interactions between the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, structural racism, and mental health inequities have led to devastating health, economic, and social consequences. The intersection of these three conditions, which meets criteria for a syndemic (synergistic epidemics), presents numerous policy challenges-and opportunities. Addressing these issues in a unified manner, using a syndemic theory approach, can lead to significant progress and effective solutions for otherwise intransigent problems in society. This article proposes steps that can be taken to protect "essential workers" and other "vulnerable" populations; engage and empower communities; optimize community-led crisis response interventions; improve data collection about the intersection of COVID-19, structural racism, and mental health inequities; support school-based interventions; expand financial supports for mental health service delivery; expand health care insurance coverage to increase access and lower out-of-pocket costs; and promote workforce diversity. Emphasis on local, state, and federal policy interventions that prioritize equity and justice and focus on collective health and well-being will ultimately lead us on a more sustainable and equitable path.

14.
Prev Med ; 145: 106450, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549683

RESUMO

In the United States, some racial/ethnic minorities suffer from higher rates of chronic alcohol problems, and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality than Whites. Furthermore, state-level alcohol policies may affect racial/ethnic subgroups differentially. We investigate effects of beverage-specific taxes and government control of spirits retail on alcohol-related mortality among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, non-Hispanic American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) and Hispanics using death certificate and state-level alcohol policy data for 1999-2016. Outcomes were analyzed as mortality rates (per 10,000) from 100% alcohol-attributable chronic conditions ("100% chronic AAD"). Statistical models regressed racial/ethnic-specific logged mortality rates on state-level, one-year lagged and logged beer tax, one-year lagged and logged spirits tax, and one-year lagged government-controlled spirits sales, adjusted for mortality trends, fixed effects for state, and clustering of standard errors. Government control was significantly (P < 0.05) related to 3% reductions in Overall and non-Hispanic White mortality rates, and 4% reductions in Hispanic mortality rates from 100% chronic AAD. Tax associations were not robust. Results support that government control of spirits retail is associated with significantly lower 100% AAD from chronic causes Overall and among non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics. Government control of spirits retail may reduce both population-level 100% chronic AAD as well as racial/ethnic disparities in 100% chronic AAD.

15.
ANS Adv Nurs Sci ; 44(1): 66-88, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497103

RESUMO

Women's experiences of sexual assault are rooted in and informed by a history that nurses need to understand in order to provide meaningful and effective care. In this article, we present a comprehensive literature review guided by intersectionality theory to deepen our understanding of the historical role that hegemonic masculinity plays in shaping ethnic minority women's experiences of sexual assault. Final sources included were analyzed using thematic analysis. On the basis of our analyses, we identified 4 themes: social order hierarchies, "othering" dynamics, economic labor divisions, and negative media/mass communication depiction. Our findings contribute to our understanding of these important histories that speak to the trauma of sexual violence inflicted upon the bodies of ethnic minority women, which we can incorporate into nursing education curricula. Incorporating this knowledge would equip nurses and allied health professionals with the necessary knowledge and skills that would enable them to help patients navigate multiple systems of oppression as they engage in help seeking following a sexual assault experience. This knowledge also acknowledges rather than dismisses the historically acceptable use of sexual violence against ethnic minority women. In addition, acknowledging these histories enables us to move forward as a society in engaging in an urgently needed cultural shift to address the hegemonic masculinities that perpetuate violence against women in the United States.

20.
Am J Public Health ; 111(4): 643-646, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507819
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